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Full text of "The Carolina cultivator [serial] : devoted to agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts"

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



C630.5 
C29c 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00040637427 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION 



1-368 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://www.archive.org/details/carolinacultivat1857cook 



p'^a^^c^^^ 







THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



$p0tti ta f grinilttirc, Inritrulhtre, anb tije jfllrrljaiitr Srti 


WILLIAM D, COOK 3, Editor, and Publisher 


VOL. 3. RALEIGH, f. C, MARCH, 1857. NO. 1. 



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From the Country Gentleman. 

The Cream-Pot Breed of Cattle- 

A few weeks since some one inquired through 
the columns of the Country Gentleman concern- 
ing the Cream-pot stock, about which much was 
said twenty years ago. In the Country Gen- 
tleman of the 29th ult, your correspondent 'N' 
of Farmington, Ct, says " eighteen month* 
since I saw the original Cream-pot cow of Col. 
Jaques, in possession of the Messis. T. S. Gold 
& Son, of West Cornwall, Ct." Whether this 
be so or not, the reader may judge, after read- 
ing what has been carefully prepared from ori- 
ginal and authentic documents. 
Vol. 3— No. 1.— B. 



It may be proper before proceeding to th© 
history of the Cream-pot breed of cattle, t* 
speak of Col. Samuel Jaques, himself, the ori- 
ginator of this Native American stock, the on- 
ly breed, according to my present information,, 
that has been produced on this continent. 

Col. Samuel Jaques is now an octogenarian, 
healthy, hale, and well, with a step as elastio 
as a man of forty. He not only retains his vi- 
gor of body, but quickness and strength of 
mind. Hence, as will readily be inferred it is 
a great treat to sit and hear the venerable Col. 
converse concerning the past, as well as of the 
present. Though, as he says, "there was ne- 
ver a cent paid for my education," yet, like the 
uncles of the late Hugh Miller, who, notwith- 
standing one of them was a stone-cutter and 
the other a harness-maker, laboring for dailj 
food and raiment, became distinguished for 
their knowledge of nature's laws and processes, 
so has Col. Jaques from careful experimenting, 
become deeply read in the laws of animal pro- 
pagation. 

Like the majority of the native sons of the 
Bay State, seventy years ago, the Col. when a 
boy enjoyed few advantages. He served his 
father as a faithful son until he was twenty -one, 
when h^ hired out for seven dollars a month, 
at a stable, working eighteen hours a day,— 
long days, young men of the present age would 
say, and rightly so, too. 

The industry, integrity, perseverance and 
economy of a long life have been crowned with 



3 N \ V 



e 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



an ample competency of this world's goods, as 
well as a generous share of its fame and glor}'. 
Col. Samuel Jaques still resides at Ten Hills 
Farm, in Charlestown, where he has lived for 
many years. His farm consists of about 100 
acres, and is only about two and a half miles 
from the Merchants' Exchange in Boston. — 
The location is one of the pleasentest in this 
land of delightful and happy homestends. It 
Is near Winton Hill, and looks over Bunker 
Hill, Charlestown, Boston, and an innumera- 
ble number of fine and beautiful suburban re- 
sidences. Mystic river forms part of the north- 
ern boundary, up which Gov. Winthrop sailed 
and anchored, and where he caused to be built 
the first ship in New England, called " The 
Blessing of the Bay." This was in 1631, 11 
years after Plymouth was settled. 

Contiguous to this farm is Mt. Benedict, 
where stood the Ursuline Convent, burned by 
An infuriated mob Aug. 11, 1834. The ruins 
are all that now mark that memorable spot, 
serving to remind the reflecting sojourner or 
pilgrim, of the bitterness oi sectarian zeal and 
bate. 

Here the Col. in his quiet and unostentatious 
tray, has wrought out many important results 
Concerning the breeding of the various species 
«f domestic animals. Others beside that now 
under consideration, will be referred to in a 
aubsequcnt communication on stock breeding. 
But it is time to proceed to the topic already 
announced. 

The bull Ccelebs, is thus described in the 
Colonel's Herd Book : 

"Red and white, variagated dropped March 
£0, 1818. He was selected and purchased in 
Kent, England, and imported by Cornelius 
Coolidge, of Boston, in July, 1818." 

The following account was received from Mr. 
Coolidge, via. Mr. Anderson, concerning the 
-pedigree of Ccelebs : 

"Mr. Hodgeson — Sir: I received your note 
this morning respecting the calf which was sent 
to you by my friend ; at the same time you 
wish to have a note specifying the breeding on 
both sides. 1 suppose by this you have sold 
the same, for which I am very sorry to hear, 
but will nevertheless, on the other side, give 
you the full account of the breeding on both 
fides, the age, &c. 

I am, sir, your most ob't serv't, 

W. ANDERSON. 
Lewisham, 17th July, 1818. 



Here follows the pedigree thus given : 

" Grand-dam purchased at Sir. H Vain's sale. 
Price 60 guineas. Dame got by Wellington, 
at that time the property of Charles Colling, 
Esq. Grand-sire the famous bull Comet, which 
was sold for 1,000 guineas. Sire, which is cal- 
led Hercules, out of a cow of Mr. Mason of 1 ! ar- 
lington, which was purchased by my friend Mr. 
Ballmer." 

The following extract from a Catalogue of a 
public sale in October, 1810, will show how 
this stock is appreciated in England : 

" Comet, the grandsire of Ccelebs, was sold 
at public auction at Collings' sale at Kelton in 
1810, (6 years old,) for 1,000 guineas— after- 
wards in 1013, he was sold again for 1,540 gui- 
neas. At the aforesaid sale were sold cows got 
by Comet, from 80 to 200 guineas each ; and 
one, the cow Lily, three years old. for 410 gui- 
neas ; bull calves from 50 to 170 guineas each; 
heifers from 105 to 206 guineas, and heifer 
calves from 25 to 106 guineas each." 

Mr. Coolidge in a letter to Colonel Jaques, 
says: 

"Upon the examination of the memorandum 
of the pedigree of Ccelebs, sold to you, I am 
of the belief that his sire was Jupiter instead 
of Hercules, named at the time to you. From 
consultation at the time of purchase, in Kent, 
of Mr. Hodgson, I recollect he so stated to me; 
but that when he brought him up to London 
with the letter from Mr. Anderson, I noticed 
Hercules was named instead of Jupiter, which 
I am satisfied, was a mistake, though at the 
time it was not deemed of any importance, as 
there could have been no possible motive for 
any wilful misrepresentation." 

The letter referred to is Mr. Anderson's, co- 
pied above. 

Thus much for the pedigree of Ccelebs, a 
pure blooded Durham bull, and the first sire of 
the Cream-pot breed. At the time the Col. 
bought the bull, he also purchased of Mr. Cool- 
idge, Flora, a heifer of the same blood, drop- 
ped Aug. 31, 1817. 

" Her dame," says Coolidge, "was a Durham 
short horn cow, which gave 33 quarts of milk 
a day, during grass feed, and was got by Comet. 
Lafon's bull weighed 1,950 lbs., when two years 
old." 

Besides these two animals, the Colonel pur- 
chased, soon after, a cow of Mr. Hall of Gro- 
ton. The owner knew nothing of her origin 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



She had no leading points of any particular for- 
eign breed. Her color was a deep red. She 
was of a medium size, of good form for a na- 
tive, (?) and silky and elastic, or excellent in 
the touch ; and distinguished for the quantity 
and extraordinary richness of her milk. Cce- 
lebs went to this cow and the calf was a heifer. 
Her next calf was a bull. The heifer when 
mature proved a very superior cow, both as to 
the quantity and quality of her milk, produc. 
ing 21 quarts per day ; and tho cream making 
21 lbs. of butter per week, on grass feed alone. 
This induced Col. Jaques to adopt the name of 
Cream-pot as the family name of this breed of 
cattle. 

From these three animals, Ccelebs, Flora and 
Groton, thus described, sprang the Cream-pot 
breed of cattle, thorough-bred animals, as will 
appear from further statements. 

Ccelebs died April 12, 1828. 

Flora died in 1834- 

Grot-.n died Sept. 1828. 

So it is hardly possible that your correspon- 
dent of a neighboring State saw " the original 
Cream-pot cow of Col. Jaques within the last 
eighteen months ;" for these animals all died 
many years ago on Ten Hills Farm, as record- 
ed in the Colonel's Herd Book from which I 
have copied these statements concerning the 
origin, pedigree and history of the Cream-pot 
breed of cattle, and there had an honorable bu- 
rial. This article having already extended to 
too great a length, I feel compelled, therefore, 
to reserve the further history of the Colonel's 
manner of breeding, &c, for another occa- 
sion. 

Having visited the homestead of the veteran 
stock-breeder, and conversed with him face to 
face on this subject, and having had put into 
my hands his Herd Book, you will readily per- 
ceive that I am furnished with the means of 
answering the inquiries of your correspondent, 
published some weeks since in your paper about 
this thorough-bred stock. 

COLUMELLA. 



Wire Netting to Prevent Burning against 
Stove. — Last Fall we obtained a strip of wire 
netting about eighteen inches wide, and long 
enough to go around an air-tight stove except 
the door. It is put around the stove as close 
as is convenient, and secured by a wire. Now 
for the result. If the stove is very hot, the 



netting will not scorch clothing that may touch 
against it, or burn the hand by lightly brush- 
ing it It does not confine the heat in the stove, 
but presents a larger radiating surface, to throw 
it out. In the absence of something more or- 
namental for this purpose, in the nursery or 
even in the parlor where there are young child- 
ren, it is very useful, and saves the necessity of 
that so oft repeated call, "don't get too near the 
stove." 



From the Plough, Loom and AnyiL. 

Bones as Manure. 

A writer in the New Jersey Farmer, copied 
into the Richmond Whig, says : 

" Last fall a lot of bones were thrown in a 
heap of horse manure in the barn-yard, and for 
no other purpose than to get them out of sight. 
To this heap the manure of the horse stable was 
daily added. In the Spring, upon carting out 
the manure, the bones were found apparently 
the same as when thrown in — whole and sound} 
but upon being handled, were found to be soft; 
when lifted, would fall to pieces of their own 
weight; when exposed to the air, would crum- 
ble and become as ashes, emitting a strong and 
offensive odor. This incident led to a trial of 
the same experiment last Spring, in the same 
manner and with the same result. 

44 We do not pretend to fix the chemical pro- 
cess by which this result is attained ; we merely 
know thaf such is the result. And if a result so 
happy in its effects is produced at so little trou- 
h°., and with such little cost, our farmers may 
well spare an odd day in gathering together the 
old bones lying about their farms, and for the 
mere trouble of gatheiing them, add to their 
lands one of the most fertilizing materials that 
can be obtained." 

The fact is, as the writer states, and that 
whether the bones be thrown into a heap of 
horse manure, or put into any other situation 
where heat will be communicated and fermenta- 
tion ensue ; as, for instance, if they be covered 
with coal-ashes, wood-ashes, loam, or even 
sand* and left exposed some time in Spring or 
Summer to the influence i.f the sun. The bones 
will retain their shape, and will retain their 
size, or be a little enlarged, but will fall into 
pieces if handled or removed with an imple 
ment. 

Now let us see what has taken place — : the 






THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



bone being about thirty-three per cent, of ani- 
mal matter, mostly gelatine, (glue.) and sixty- 
six <>r sixty-seven per cent, of mineral matter, 
mostly phosphate of lime, with very little of the 
carbonate of lime, has undergone a fermentation 
by which thp animal matter is nearly all s par- 
ated from the mineral. But where has the ani- 
mal matter gone? In the ease above, not all of 
it ha.l gone anywhere, for the writer says the 
odor was offensive. There would have been 
no odor whatever if the animal matter haa all 
been separated. But most of it had left the 
mineral part, or the latter would not have crum- 
bled to pieces. The principal value of the ani- 
mal portion, which had left the bones, was am- 
monia, and where this had gone, depends upon 
the condition in whic!; the manure was. If the 
surface was moist during the whole time that 
the bones were in it, then the ammonia had dif- 
fused itself about among the manure, where it 
would be retained by the moisture, to be used by 
plants, if the manure were plowed in soon after 
removal, or even if spread as a top dressing, 
provided it were spread in a rainy time, and 
spread so evenly as to bring it into close contact 
with the soil. But. if the manure was in a dry 
state, from its surface downward to the bones, 
which would imply a high fermentation, ap- 
proaching to fire-fanging, then the ammonia 
went into the air, and the greater portion of the 
valne of the animal part of the bones was lost 
to the owner. 

If we are understood, it will be sure to fol- 
low as an inference, that animal manures should 
be preserved in a moist state, as thus the am- 
monia will be preserved. We do not mean 
drenched in water, for that would wash away 
the soluble salts, but moderately moist ; and 
this rule, as .far as it conveniently can be, 
should be observed in the preservation of barn 
manures, that neither the salts may be washed 
away nor the ammonia steamed away. But 
for the mineral part of the bones: — almost its 
whole value lies in the phosphate of lime. This, 
in such a case of fermentation, remains, in the 
mass, as insoluble phosphate — a very different 
thing from the soluble super-phosphate of com- 
merce, but still valuable, because w.e believe it 
becomes soluble in the soil, and constantly 
gives as great an increase of crops as the super- 
phosphate, but does not give it all the first 
year, nor the second — not, as soon as the enter- 
prising farmer desires his returns. Bones in 



large quantities should certainly be treated to 
sulphuric acid, and thus changed inio super- 
phosphate of lime and sulphate lime, (plaster,) 
both of which act quickty, and give an early 
return. How to dispose of the few bones that 
may be called on a farm is another question. 
They would not be worth the establishment of 
a super-phosphate factory, and there is some 
trouble in procuring sulphuric acid, and be- 
sides there are no bone-mills for grinding them. 
The farmer very justly says, they are not worth 
the time and trouble of manufacturing into 
super-phosphate. To deal with them as the 
writer above describes, is certainly better than 
to leave them as a nuisance about the farrp.. 
We think, however, there is a better way, and 
we will point it out in a future number. In 
the mean time, the bones should be preserved. 

N. 

Cabbage, Turnips, and other 
Crops. 

The quantity per -acre of cabbages, turnips 
and roots, that under favorable circumstances 
can be grown upon an acre of land, is truly 
astonishing. The amount and value of green 
food for farm stock that can be raised on an 
acre of ground, we think is not well under- 
stood by a large majority of our farmers. It is 
generally thought that our climate, from its 
liability to drought (in summer and autumn,) 
is not so favorable to the production of turnips, 
root crops, &c, as the more humid climate of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. This, to seme 
extent, may be true ; but still we have hun- 
dreds of well authenticated statements, show- 
ing most clearly that the several kinds of vege- 
tables usually grown for autumn and winter 
feeding of cows and other farm stock, can gen- 
erally, by good culture, be profitably grown in 
most sections of our country. But in order 
to do this, the due preparation of the ground, 
the proper season of sowing the seed, and the 
after-culture, should all be well understood and 
attended to in due season. 

Farmers, it is said, have strong prejudices, 
and are slow to adopt new systems of culture, 
and perhaps this ma}' partly account for the 
Utile attention that is usually paid by them to 
the growing of cabbage, turnips, and other 
root crops for their stock. But all readily ad- 
mit that the health, thrift, and well being, of 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



our horses, sheep, and cattle, would be greatly 
promoted by a regular daily allowance of green 
succulent food, in connection with the dry for- 
age they are usually kept upon through our 
long cold winters. And no less true is it, that 
the quantity and quality of milk, cream, and 
butter, of an herd of cows, would be greatly 
augmented by a good supply of succulent food, 
such as cabbage, rape, green corn fodder, (or 
perhaps better, Chinese sugar cane) during the 
usually dry autumnal months. 

In England, Scotland, and Ireland, the cul- 
tivation of green crops — that is cabbage, rape, 
turnips, roots, &c. enters very largely into 
their system:* of farming, and the quantity 
raised is enormous. At the annual winter 
show of the Royal Dublin Society, holden in 
Dublin 2d week of Dec., premiums were awarded 
for the best crops of turnips, wurzels, beets 
carrots, p.irsnips. kohl rabi, cabbages, and va. 
rious other crops. But here we only give the 
weight per acre of the above. It is proper 
here to say that the English or statute acre 
contains 4,840 square 3 r ards — the Irish acre 
contains 7,840 square yards. 

Sweedish turnips, first prize to Dr. Radclift" 
— 40 tons farm yard manure per acre — produce 
65 tons — seed sown last week in May. The 
second prize awarded for 47 tons per acre — 6 
tons farm-yard manure per acre — seed sown 
3d of June. Premiums for wurzels — three 
several crops, two of 80 tons earn per Irish 
acre, and for one of fifty -five tons — farm-yard 
manure only used. Prize for 8i tons suga 1 " 
beet — 48 tons farm-yard manure per acre - 
Three prizes for carrots, viz : for 36, 35, and 
26 tons per acre. White carrots 45 tons 7 cwt. 
45 and 33 tons per acre. Parsnips 30 tons - 
Kohl-rabi— drills 28 inches apart — 4fl tons ma- 
nure — sown in May last, 40 tons and 34 tons 
per acre. Cabbage, two prizes for 80 and 60 
tons per acre. It is worthy of note that in all 
these trials none other than farm-yard manure 
was used. 

It might not be good policy for American 
farmers to go so largely into the culture of 
green crops as is done in the countries above 
named. One reason is, our winters requiring 
they should, like pot itoes, be stowed beyond 
the reach of frost. This would make it incon- 
venient storing very large quantities, but 
almost every farmer could so arrange as to se- 
cure a few hundred bushels for winter feeding 



to his stock. Cabbage and rape may be raised 
so as be fed to milch cows from early in July 
till November; and large quantities can readily 
be saved for spring use by' opening trenches 
with a plow, and burying them in the trench, 
"head downward." We could cite from th© 
reports and transactions of agricultural socie- 
ties, hundreds of statements, proving beyond 
all cavil, the advantage and profiit of growing 
cabbages, turnips, b ets, carrots, parsnips and 
wurzels, for stock feeding. 

We have alluded to this subject at this time, 
fir the purpose of calling the attention of far- 
mers to it at this comparative leisure season of 
the year. It is a good time to lay their plans, 
procure seeds, &c, for the coming spring. — 
Country Gentleman. 

<» ♦ »»■ 

Manuring. — It has heen taught by Professors 
of Agricultural Chemistry, and apparency cm 
reasonable grounds, that the verv worst way to 
apply manure was to spread it out on the field 
and leave it exposed, It was argued that this 
exposure caused a loss of ammonia by evapora- 
tion, hence farmers were taught to plough their 
manures under as soon as they were spread on 
the soil, under ihe penalty of losing a great deal 
of their fertilizing properties. An essay on this 
subject by Dr. Voelcker, Professor of Chemistry 
in the Royal Agricultur ,il College, at Cirences- 
te*, England, contains statements that will sur- 
pr se our farmers He asserts, that, if spread 
upon the field and allowed to lie until it is 
washed with rains, it is more beneficial than to 
plough it in at once. When spread out on a 
field, fermentation is stopped, and volatile mat- 
ter ceases to escape. In the case of clay soil3, 
he remarks : ■' I have no hesitation to say, that 
the manuie may be spread even six months be- 
fore it is ploughed in, without losing any appro- 
cia 1 le quantity of manuring matter." 

flggT* Never waste animal or vegetable refuse- 

The very soap suds from the laundry are rich 

manure. 

-»» ♦ *■+• ' 

The rold moderates immediately preceding* 
fll of snow, because the vapor in the atmos- 
phere, in the act of congealing into snoiv, parts 
with many degrees of heat which before were 
iatent. 

-».^v.*~ . 

A German chemist is said to have discov- 
ered a means of obtaining crystallized sugar 
from birch wood. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

Angora Goats- 

Editors Southern Cui/tiva or. — As this 
class of domestic .animals are occupying some 
epace in the public consideration, and several 
gentlemen are aiding in giving information 
on this very interesting subject, with your 
permission I will offer the following extract 
from Dr. Abraham Reses's Cyclopodia or Uni- 
versal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Lit- 
erature,'''' upon the authority of Hasselg, Buf- 
ton and Pennant. 

"The Angora Goat is, in general, of a beau, 
tiful milkcwhite color, with short legs, and 
black, spreading, spirally twisted horns. The 
hair on the whole body is disposed in long 
pendant spiral ringlets; its ears are pendulous, 
and the horns of the female instead of divarca- 
ting, as in the male, turn backwards, and are 
much shorter in proportion. 

"In its native country this animal is highly 
valued, and with sufficient reason too, for it is 
a source of riches to its cultivators; the finest 
and most costly robes of the highest classes in 
Turkey, being fabricated of its silky fleece ; 
the price it bears is very great. Most of the 
European nations have agents for purchasing 
the valuable wool of this animal , which, the 
Turks, it is reported, will not allow to be sent 
out of their Empire in a raw state, but in the 
form of thread, a multitude of the poorer orders 
obtaining a livelihood by spinning it. The 
most considerable manufactory of camblets, 
fabricated with this wool in Europe, appears to 
be those of Lisle and Ameina, in France. In 
order to preserve this beautiful hair in good 
condition, the goatherds of Angora are pecu- 
liarly careful of these flocks, washing and comb- 
ing them with the greatest diligence ; and it is 
Baid that change of pasture frequently makes 
them lose their beauty ; this variety being na- 
turally confined to narrow bounds, and produc- 
ed only in the tracts surrounding the towns of 
Angora and Bubazar, two places situated in a 
Bmall District of Asia Minor, not far from Smyr- 
na, and remarkable for producing a peculiar 
race of sheep, cats and rabils, as well as goats, 
with hair of uncommon length and fineness." 

In the plates of natural history in the same 
work may be found the likeness of an Angora 
male goat that will be found sufficiently resem- 
bling those of Mr. Peters in the Southern Cul- 



tivator to identify the family appearance. I 
am, myself, perfectly satisfied that Mr. Peters' 
Goats are what the world knows as Angora. I 
can find no such goat as "Cashmere" in any 
work I have examined. Why not, then, drop 
innovation, "Cashmere Goat," and use the pro- 
per phrase, "Angora Goat ?" and then the bal- 
ance of the intelligent world will know what 
we are talking about. 

These goats are, no doubt, very valuable in 
and about Angora. Whether their Angora 
gloss will be retained in our climate and paslure 
must be determined by experiment. Whether 
the price of labor with us can justify washing 
and combing goats as the Angora goatherds do 
is another interesting problem. And also time 
and futher experence, must seitle the question 
whether the mixture of the Angora with our 
common goats, will be as valuable as some of 
our ardent people now think. And lastly, the 
proper mode of manufacturing the Angora 
Goat hair to profit, is the crowning result ne- 
cessary in order to establish the true value of 
this family of goats in this country. 

AGRICOLA. 



-«»« ♦ »»• 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

Letter From Texas. 

Editoks Southern Cultivator. — This sec- 
tion of country is yet new in cultivation ; but 
the rich soil and delightful climate are inviting 
rapid improvements. i 

As to soil, it is not inferior to the Mississippi 
bottom, and you have no idea or conception 
of the beauty of our prairies in flowering time. 

I send you a few seed of a beautiful shrub 
tree, called " The Free-ho-lee-ah," which I 
have never seen growing anywhere but in Tex- 
as. It is an evergreen : grows from 3 to 8 ft. 
high ; leaf green and resembling the Kalmia 
of Virginia; the flower is purple and in bun- 
ches, similar to the Locust flower; the petals 
simular to and forming a flower like the pea. 

It blooms about the 21st of March, and the 
seed are enclosed in a pod of the ground pea 
appearance, and generally two in a pod. 

I feel confident, if this can be raised in your 
section, it would be the delight and admiration 
of the ladies, as also other lovers of floral beau- 
ty. 

I send you a sample of Mexican Onion seed, 
which I procured fresh from Mexico. This 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



onion is highly prized by the lovers of that 
succulent vegetable. It is without the strength 
of the common onion, being so mild you may 
eat it as you do an apple. I have seen it as 
large as a common saucer, and when sliced it 
looks as though it had been iced. 

I am told they do not grow to that perfection 
North, as here. It may be so, but " they say" 
has injured more crops than ever did deep plow- 
ing. 

I want to raise the ground pea, but know 
nothing of the mode of culture. Will you please, 
by letter or though the Cultivator, give me, 
minutely, the mode of preparing ground, plant- 
ing, and after-culture? My soil is "black san- 
dy loam," 4 to 5 feet deep, based on a stratum 
of clay, lime and sand. 

Did you evpr hear of the Salt Lakes of Tex- 
as? Do you want to? Last month I could 
have taken you to fifty places within 30 miles 
of me and have shown you millions of bushels 
formed by solar evaporation, and all you had 
to do was, back your cart and pitch in. You 
may judge of the quality, when I tell you I 
think there is enough (if salt would do it) to 
save all the Blank Republicans in this Union ; 
that would require a large quantity and great 
curative powers. 

On the 23rd of February I set out 9 orange 
trees, and after the spring rains I mulched with 
chip.-; an 1 trash from wood yard, as directed in 
the Cultivator, and until the 21st of September 
they had no rain for 4 months (and a scorch- 
ing hot summer). They are all safe and doing 
well — credit to the Cultivator. 

I think this section is going to produce fine 
Sea Ishnd Cotton. A small sample was tried 
last year at Corpus Christi, and received the 
highest encomium from judges in New Orleans. 
It will be fairly tested next year. 

Witli respect, F. B. 

Rancho, near Corpus Christi, Texas, Oct., 18-36. 

Substitute for Leather. — A writer in the 
Scientific American suggests that some prepa- 
ration of hemp, made up like papier mache 
might be made effectual as a substitute lor sole 
leather ; a cement of India rubber, mixed with 
other adhesive substances, may be employed 
to unite the fibres together. Sole leather is 
fibrous, as can be witnessed by tearing a piece 
of it lengthwise. Its appearance, when thus 
riven, is like that of oakum felted. 



Wealth North and South- 



The clamorous horn of intermeddling Abo- 
litionists are continually imposing upon them- 
selves by fallacies and false deductions. When 
what they say on this subject is examined, it 
will always be found to have no basis in facta 
The bigotry of faction so blinds their percep- 
tions, that, though the truth stares them in thft 
face, they assert and often believe the most 
absurd of fictions. 

Not satisfied with saying that slavery exer» 
cises a detrimental influence upon religion, 
manners and morals, their fanaticism has also 
made them believe or assert, in spite of a con- 
trary belief, that our system impairs ouf 
wealth, and checks our material progress. — 
Yet ascertained and definite facts would show 
them their error if they were capable of rea- 
soning upon a subject which constitutes thei» 
monomania. 

Accompanying the late report of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, is an official table show- 
ing the population and total value of real and 
personal property in each State. A few com- 
parisons of Southern with Northern State9 
will show distinctly that the average wealth of 
the latter is far greater in every instance than 
that of the former. 

The population of Wisconsin (552,109) and 
Vermont (325,206) amounts to 887,315. Th« 
total real and personal wealth of both States 
is $177,665,680. With these two States com- 
pare Alabama, whose population is 835,192, 
and the value of whose property is $280,233,- 
027. Its population is less by 50,000 — it$ 
wealth is greater by one hundred millions of 
dulhirs. 

Maine has a population of 623,862 ; the val- 
ue of its property is $131,128,186. But Ma- 
ryland, whose population is 639,560, (or about 
16,000 only more than Maine,) has property to 
the value of $561.243,660 — greater again than 
the corresponding free State by more than one 
hundred and thirty millions of dollars. 

Indiana numbers 1,149,606 inhabitants, and 
its wealth is $301 ,$58,474. Tennessee num- 
bers 1,01)2,470, (67,900 less,) but its wealth is 
$321,771,310, or nearly twenty-one millions of 
dollars more than the free State. 

Texas numbers 500,000, and has wealth to 
the amount of $240,000,000. While New 
Jersev, with 509,499 inhabitants, has only 
$179,750,000 in property. 



8 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



The total population of New York is 3,470,- 
059, while Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana and 
Kentucky, together, have only 3,283,ti30. — 
But while the wealth of New York is $1,364,- 
154,625, that of the other four States is $1,432,- 
950,000. Their population is 177,000 less— 
their wealth is $78,000,000 greater. 

So whh the rest. Take the whole of the 
Southern States, and compare with them as 
tn&ny Northern States as are required lo make 
op an equal population, and the difference in 
wealth will belargely in favor of the former. 

But to make the comparison a fair one, the 
number of whites of the Southern States, 
should alone form the basis of the calculation 
instead of the slaves being numbered as a part 
of that population. The average wealth of 
every individual in the South capable of hold- 
ing property, would then be seen to be more 
than double the average in tho Northern 
States. 

It is thus that the facts proved by statistics 
eilence the wild assertions of fanatics and dis- 
prove the broad assumptions of bigotry. The 
comparative superiority of the South in wealth 
is a practical commentary on slavery, which 
ought to put an end to Northern falsifications 
and fallacies. The actual truth is so plain 
that the "wayfaring man, though a fool, need 
not err therein." 

The only Northern State that bears com- 
parison with the South in point of proportional 
we lth is Mas achusetts. Her population is 
1,133,123, and her aggregate wealth is $597,- 
936,995. But how has this wealth been accu- 
mulated ? Two thirds of it are the profits on 
Southern trade or the gains of manufacturing 
articles mainly for the South — Cotton Plant. 



— ♦» ■» • »' 



New Sugar Cane Cuttings. — The bnfk 
Release, di- patched to South America under the 
directions of the Patent Office, lo p'ocure suo-ar 
cane cuttings for the relief of the planters of 
Louisiana is expected to return next month. 
The suo-ar crop of Louisiana, for several years 
past, has fallen off from 460.0 hotheads of 
product to not more than 120,000. One cause 
which gives ris" to very great ap rehension on 
the part of the planters of Louisiana is the sup- 
posed deterioration of the cane. The enne can- 
not be planted from seed, but the cane itself 
must be planted, and the plant germinates from 
the eyes of the cane. — Scientific American. 



The Follies o the Age Cause 
Poverty- 

Not very long ago, Messrs. Editors, I fur- 
nished an article for your paper, in which I 
instituted some comparisons between the man* 
ners, habits, and customs of the present gene- 
ration with those of our ancestors, or of the 
cotemporaries of our youth, with a view to ex- 
plain why it is that so few estates are now ac- 
cumulated by farmers and planters. In that 
article I promised to renew the subject at some 
future period. 

When I was a boy, the habits of the farmers 
of my native county were simple and unosten- 
tatious, while every nece.-sary, and many of 
the luxuries of life w T ere enjoyed in profusion. 
There was no perpetual struggle of one man, 
or family to excel every other in costliness of 
dress, equipage and living. The good matrons 
of the land were content to have their little 
ones in clean, plain, home made apparel. The 
young men and maidens did not make a 
god of fine clothes. They were content to 
dress plainly and cheaply during the week, and 
save their fur hats, broad cloths, and calicoes 
for Sunday. Bonnets were made not to stick 
upon the back of the head, solely for ornament 
but as a covering for the head and face. They 
were not made to expose the face to the ] ublic 
gaze, but to hide it from the sun, the winds and 
th- 1 gaze of the idle fools who stand at the cor- 
ners of streets and way sides, to criticise the 
brazen countenances now exposed like full oi< or.s 
to the view of one and all. D:esses\\ere then 
made to suit the form, and though not shaped to 
captivate by their balloon expansion by hoop and 
whplebone, did set off these forms in the most 
captivating light of modesty and. shamefaced 
ness. In those days it was the pride of the mo- 
dest damsel to make as cheap and ^-mall a pat- 
tern as possible answer her purp< se But now, 
the skirts tnnM. sw ?11 out to inordinate dimen- 
sions, especially, a! out the middle of the person, 
while the material must be of the most costly. 
The young men did not spend their mon*>y in 
northern trotters and fine buggies. They were 
content to ride on horseback Th y could sit 
and manage a horse gracefully, ard he was a 
clown indeed who could not leap a fei ce or 
ditch in a fox chase, and be in at the death. — 
But they can only sit a buggy in these degene- 
rate days. We had a beautiful illustration of 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



these brtggy boys horsemanship in some of the 
recent attempts to bear off the ring- in the mis- 
called tournaments, in which bold dragoons 
were unhorsed, not by completing knights, but 
by their own awkwardness and bad riding,— 
But to return to bonnets. I well remember 
when two to three dollars would pur< hase a bon- 
net with which the wearer was perfectly con- 
tented. Now, to offer some of our fast ones a 
bonnet for less than 10 to 25 dollars, would be 
regarded as an indignity. It was the simplicity 
and economy of our husbandmen, as well as 
their wives, sons and daughters, and their mod- 
eration in all things, that enabled them to lay 
up money and gather estates. The son aided 
the father in the work of the farm, the daughter 
plied the needle beside the mother: the roses of 
health bloomed in their checks. Cheerfulness 
and contentment were the fruit of a conspicu- 
ously, well spent life, and the laboring faVn.er 
was evi r greeted with warm affection and ap- 
proving smiles when he came in to take his seat 
in the family circle. But now he comes but to 
find his sons gone to the haunts of dissipation, 
his wife and daughters full of fashion and shop- 
ping and spending money, and himself rated 
like aslave heeause physical ability or wits are 
not equal to the task of supplying interminable 
demands for money. Is not this sufficient to fcx- 
haust the fruits of honest iahor ? Is not this 
just the difference between poverty and wealth ? 
Who that has a spark of patriotism in his heart 
can fail todeplore these changes? This is not 
an i verstrained representatii n. It is the truth. 
Extravagance is the order of the day, It is 
giowing in all clas-es, from the street sweeper 
to the bloated capitalists ofthe country. "A wild 
and reckless waste of time, talents, money, aye, 
of human life itself. It is truly a degenerate 
age. Manhood is enfeebled ; the fair part of 
creation no longer present pictures of health. — 
The step ceases to be light and elastic. For 
the rose of health, thepalor of death, seems to 
besubstituted. Industry is no longer esteemed a 
virtue among 'he sex. hut a term of reproach. 

I know my fair readers will not thank me for 
dealing thus plainly with them, but it is the 
love I bear them that prompts me to tell them 
to live for something useful. Not like the but- 
terfly, to spend a few sunny days, flutteiing in 
gaudy colors, and then wither away to nothing. 
Would you be truly lovely? Then dress for 
decency and comfort, not for show. Walk out 



for exe;cise, not to exhibit a brazen face or a 
pretty foot, a fine bonnet or an expensive d ess. 
Work that you may not live in vain ; read, not 
that you may have t! e reputation of being a 
reader, but that you may gain knowledge and 
be what only can make you a desirable compan- 
ion, a truly intelligent lady. You have no ((in- 
ception of the time spent in dressing- and think- 
ing and talking about it. To most insta' ccs, the 
same amoun: of time, spent in useful labor and 
in cultivating your minds, would qualify \ou to 
shine in any circ e, or in any position. Don't 
study how much of your father's hard earnings 
you can sp nd in gew gaws and fripi ery, but 
how much you can save. Don't lament that 
you cannot keep up with the foremost in the 
race, of fashion, but try and dispense wi>h every 
really useless ai peridage of dress and ornament, 
Let your outward adornment be modesty. Let 
your conscience and your judgment have fair 
play, and there will then be no desire to out- 
shine your associates in those u -el ess adornments 
which bring poverty, and not unfrequently mor- 
tification and isgrace. I say I love the gentler 
sex : I love to see them hap y ; and as wives, 
mothers, daughters, sisters and fri< nds, lovely 
and beloved. To be all these, fashion and f lly 
contribute nothing, But the regulation of I eart, 
thp habits, the wants and wishes should have 
r feience to something higher, holier, more en- 
during ; and cannot fail to secure, her or here- 
after, your happiness — the boon for w.iich all 
strive, ri^ht or wrong. 

RETRENCHMENT. 



"Liberality or Physicians. — It has always 
been said that physicians would djspar ge any 
remedy, however valuable, which they did not 
originate themselves. This has been disproven 
by their liberal course towards Dr. J. C. Ayer's 
preparations. They have adopted them into 
general use in their practice, «hi(h shows a 
willingness to countenance articles that have 
intrinsic merits which deserve their attention. 
This ('oes the learned profession great nedit, 
and effectually contradicts the prevalent evio- 
neous notion that their opt osition to proprie- 
tary remedies is l>;>sed in their interest to dis- 
card them. We have always had confidence 
in the honorable motives of our medical nun, 
and are glad to find it sustained by the liberal 
welcome they accord to such lemedies as 
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral and Calhaitie Pills, 
even though they are not ordered in the books, 
but arc made known to the people thiough the 
newspapers." — New Orleans Delia. 



10 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Poland Oats. 

B. F. Russel writes : "Last Spring I noticed 
your remarks about Poland Oats. One of my 
neighbors exhibited a sample of his own rais- 
ing at our county fair. They were certainly a 
fine specimen of the grain. He says, from 
your strictures or remarks on them, he thought 
he would try them. The result was very sat- 
isfactory, so much so that all who saw them 
growing, and the grain after cleaned, have 
supplied themselves with seed. They grow a 
long, stiff straw — as he expresses it, "as stiff 
as a ramrod," are not liable to fall, of course, 
which I think a very strong argument in their 
favor, notwithstanding your opinion to the con- 
trary — [he straw, in your opinion, being worth- 
less for foddar from too rank growth. In my 
estimation, they are a great addition to our va- 
rieties of grain, and as long as they sustain 
their present good qualities, I shall sow no 
other." 

Thirty-four pounds were sown to the acre — 
about three pecks by measure, the seed weigh- 
ing 43 pounds the striked bushel. The yield 
was 27 1-2 bushels per acre. In the same field 
three bushels yielded 30 bushels per acre. — 
This has been the poorest season for oats I 
have any knowledge of. I think one and a half 
bushels per acre of the Poland Oats would be 
a pro er quantity. 

Sugah Beet. — The same writer says : — 
There is another 'item' in farming, of which I 
will give you my experience. Last Spring I 
planted fifty rods of ground with sugar beet 
seed. The ground was plowed as deep as the 
plow would go — say ten inches. Back fur- 
rows were turned together three feet apart ; 
the top of the ridge thus formed was levelled 
down and the seed dropped by hand. Owing 
to the dry season or carelessness in planting, 
(it being done by lads too young to exercise 
much judgment,) about one-third of the seed 
failed. From the continued dry weather and 
the scattered appearance they made for a 
long time, Hooked upon them as a failure. — 
Finally, however, they started and grew finely. 
I dressed them out three times, once each 
with the hoe cultivator and plow. The yield 
was about 225 bushels, equal to 740 bushels 
to the acre. I knew nothing that all kinds of 
stock relish so well, with the exception of corn 
perhaps. I feed them to horses, cattle and 



hogs, without cutting up, except what were fed 
to horses. Store hogs do extremely well on 
them. For calves I prefer them to any other 
feed, keeping them in fine order and looking as 
"sleek as otters." For milch cows they can- 
not be too highly valued, maturing at a time 
when fall feed begins to fail, and filling up a 
gap between that and the cornfield, keeping the 
cows in good order and causing an abundant 
flow of good rich milk. There is no more 
trouble attending the growing of the beets than 
there is growing corn, except the putting in the 
seed. They are easily dug, as they grow most 
of their length out of the ground. My opin- 
ion is that every farmer, particularly those 
who have no tame meadow for fall pasturage, 
would find the cultivation profitable. I have 
saved thirty or forty bushels for spring feeding 
to sheep, and cows that are coming in early.' 

The Life of Seeds- 

"We suppose that almost every person has 
heard or read the story of some grains of wheat 
having been found in an Egyptian mummy, 
which were sown, vegetated and yielded grain 
after its kind. This case and some others of a 
rather dubious character have been adduced in 
evidence of the great vitality an J longevity of 
seeds ; but we have now very reliable and 
practical evidence throwing some discredit on 
snch stories. 

Thj British Scientific Association have, for 
the past fifteen years, been instituting inquiries 
and making experiments, through a committee 
of its members — with various kinds of seeds, 
of various ages. Their labors tenil to show 
that none of the seeds which were tested al- 
though placed in the most favorable circumstan- 
ces that could be devised, vegetated after the 
age of 40 years; and only 20 out of 288 species 
did so, after 20 years, while by far the largest 
number lost their germinating power in ten 
years. 

It has long been known to agriculturists and 
florists, that fresh seeds — those of the precea 
ing season — possess the greatest amount of vi- 
tality ; and very many seeds lose their germi- 
nating power altogether, even when kept in dry 
situations — in the course of two years. In the 
selection of any kind of seed, care should be 
exercised in selecting it according to its age, as 
well as its appearance ; the plumpness of a 
seed, is not always the best sign of its quality 
for seeding purposes. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



It 



"Wheat Crop of the United States. 

We have carefully examined the facts in re- 
gard to the present wheat crop from the dif- 
ferent States, and give the following figures as 

the quantity of wheat gathered in each State 
this year : — 

States. Bushels. 

Maine, - - - 460,000 

New Hampshire, - - 230,000 

Vermont, - . - 640,000 

Massachusetts, - - 46,000 

Connecticut ... 60,000 

New York, - - 16,20., 000 

New Jersey, - - 1,800,000 

Pennsylvania, - - 18,250,000 

Delaware, ... 700,000 

Maryland, - - - 5,100,000 

Virginia, - - - 12,500,000 

North Carolina, - - 4,200,000 

South Carolina, - - 2,100,000 

Georgia, - - - 1,750,000 

Alabama, - - - 1,200,000 

Mississippi, - - - 500,000 

Texas, - - - 150,000 

Arkansas, - - - - 300,000 

Tennessee, - - - 3,200,000 

Kentucky, .... 5.750,000 

Missouri, - 5,600,000 

Illinois, - ... 14,600,000 

Indiana, .... 11,250,000 

Ohio, . - - - - 16,800,000 

Michigan, - - - - 5,200,000 

Wisconsin, - - - 8,250,000 

Iowa, - 4,100,000 

California, - - - 1,600,000 



Total, ... _ - 142,536,000 
We have omitted three States in which wheat 
is not grown to any extent. — Cincinnati Price 
Gu/r.,n\ 



Improvement in Blasting Rocks. — A mole 
now adopted in blasting rocics consists in pla- 
cing the powder or charge within a tube or a 
case, between two heads provided with a suita- 
ble packing, and attached to a rod, by which 
arrangement the charge is pre rented from 
blowing out, or obtaining vent in the direc- 
tion of the line of the hole in which the tube 
and charge are placed, and the. whole effect of 
the charge is exerted against the sides of the 
tube or case. By this method it is represented 



that rocks may be blasted with much greater 
facility than by the ordinary mode, no tamp- 
ing or packing of clay being necessary to con- 
fine the powder within the hole. 

■ -».».»■ . 

Cows Dying from Eiting Hair. 

The Valley Farmer, published at Louisville, 
Ky., states that a singular mortality among the 
city cows running upon the Common has pre- 
vailed in that city in the early part of this win- 
tor, the cause of which has been pretty satis- 
factorily traced to their eating hair that re- 
mained in the grass where the hogs' hair from 
the slaughter-houses had been spread to be 
washed by rains and dried in the sun. The ef- 
fect upon the earth, after the hair was removed 
was to fertilize it and cause the grass to grow 
luxuriantly, which attracted cattle, and, while 
cropping the grass, they took in considerable 
quantities of fine hair, the natural tendency of 
which is to become felted together and massed 
into one or more hard balls, which were, in the 
days of New England witchcraft, called "witch 
balls," and not a few people at this day believe 
that such is their origin. These balls some- 
times accumulate material until they are big- 
ger than ordinary sized goose-eggs. It is not 
surprising that death ensues from the irritation 
of such an indigestible mass in the stomach of 
an ox or cow, and it is also not surprising that 
many deaths of cattle cannot be accounted for 
by their owners ; but the ceriaint}" that such 
causes do produce death should act as a caution 
to cattle owners. Some years ago, the same 
as that at Louisville killed a number of cows 
at Terre Haute, Indiana, and, upon opening the 
stomachs of them, it was found that not only 
one or two balls had formed, but a mass of 
them, that nearly filled the whole cavity of the 
stomach. 

■♦« ♦ >*» 

Agricultural Libraries for Schools — A 
Noble Beginning. — A movement is > ade in 
the N. Y. Assembly, to secure the purchase of 
good Agricultural works for the public School 
Libraries of the State. The design is to sup- 
ply a standard class of .such, works tn all the 
public libraries, so that the (hildren of the 
State may lie educated in one of the most use- 
ful branches of knowledge. The books are to 
be supplied at a very low rate, so as to make 
the cost to each School District not exceed 25 
dollars. Good Agricultural works would be of 
more actual service in our school libraries, than 
are nine-tenths of the books now found upon 
their shelves. — Wisconsin Paper 



12 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



A New Chinese Potato- 

The introduction of new rac; s of plants or 
vegetables, and the improvement, of old ones, is 
a very impoitant part of our interest as cultiva- 
tors ; and too much praise can scarcely be be- 
stowed on those who make this branch their 
study. In the pursuit of this object there will 
always be two parties — those who approve too 
hastily, and those who condemn on partial evi- 
dence. Both are useful to the cause — the one 
by their enthusiasm directing attention to unno- 
ticed advantages, the other by their hostility 
repressing that dangerous ardor, which other- 
wise might again involve us in multicaulis 
s hemps or entanglements. 

In pfienng my experience in the matter of the 
Chinese yam or potato, I profess 10 belong to 
neither of these parties, but to give the facts 
6im; ly as I observed them. 

Last spring [ ook six tubers each no longer 
than a small pea, and put them each in a three 
inch pot with common soil. They were set in 
a frame with verben >s, and other common 
things, and rreated quite carelessly. Early in 
June I noticed them as being out two inches 
high, and turned them out of the pots into a 
spent hotbed, that had been used early in the 
spring for raising early cabbage plants. They 
were left here entirely to themselves sometimes 
being so dry that the very weeds that were suf- 
fered to grow up amongst them withered up and 
dwindled away. 1 scarcely ever thought it 
worth while to look at them ; having suffered 
myself to look upon its introduction as a hum- 
bug soon to die out. The vines, as may be 
guessed, gr w but very little — not, I believe, 
exceeding 'eighteen inches on the arrival of frost 
— when they were dug up. 

I was certainly surprised to find, instead of 
the little peas, which had rotted away, roots six 
inches long, apd as thick as my thumb, which, f 
must tell the reader, is by no means beneath the 
average size of thumbs generally. 

I could not help feeling tjb>t a root that in five 
months had increased one hundred fold, and at 
least some claim to attention an I I determined 
to sacrifice one root, to satisfy myself of its val- 
ue as an esculent, f rmy here obseive that I 
am fortunate in being able to enjoy well cooked 
potatoes : hut whether this fact has anything to 
do with making my ex: erience differ from those 
who find the quality of the Chinese potato "be- 



low par,'" I cannot say but certain it is, tl at in 
my own opinion, and that of my whole family, I 
never ate a potato, either '•sweet" or "Hiber- 
nian" with greater enjoyment. 

By this careless trial, I have arrived at two 
facts— first, that it is tin agreeable esculent— 
secondly, that it is capable of reproducing itself 
a hundred fold. This is no more than a carrot, 
turnip, or any other root is capable of doing ; 
but it serves 10 place it on the same footing as 
these useful vegetables. 

The only question left to my mind is, whether 
it will pay to grow them. That will depend 
greatly on their market value. They grow so 
peculiarly that it will probably cost more to 
grow and dig an acre of them, thm it would 
any other kii d of root, as they penetrate the 
soil deeply, and grow thicker as they get down. 
But little, comparatively nothing, is yet known 
of the best modes of cultivating the plant ; and 
it is quite probable that as this is discovered, it 
will be found far less laborious to raise than it 
now does However, be that as it may, your 
correspondent does not fuel that he can say any 
thing positive of its value funher. It is his in- 
tention still to experiment, ami he would re- 
commend his readers to do so likewise, as they 
get opportunity.— Farm Journal. 
.#■» < «» 

An Interesting Fact— The recent investi- 
gations of Prof, Wray, chemist to the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, have brought 
out a curious fact, which may throw light upon 
tie rationale of some importantftpiactices in 
agriculture, Rain water contains ammonia and 
nitric ac d, and it is from these two substances 
that the nitrogen of plants is obtained. A se- 
ries of examinations of the water discharged 
from nnderdraii s, show that it contains less am- 
monia and more nitric acid than rain w ter. — 
Rain water filtering thr ugh the soil, then, parts 
with its 'ammonia, but dissolves out nitric acid 
from the soil or manures. How is nitric acid 
formed in the soil? Probably, says. Prof. W;ay, 
from the oxyidation of nitrogenous manures ; 
and he recommends a more perfect admixture 
of manures with the soil as the most likely 
means to prevent the formation of nitric .-cid, 
and the loss of nitrogen from leaching. It ap- 
pears to us, to>>, that if the manure whs ihor 
ongh'y decomposed before applying it to the 
la °d, it would not only be easier to mix it ulti- 
mately with the soil, but there would be less 
nitric acid formed, and conseqi ently less loss. — 
Genessee farmer. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



13 



Rotation with Peas for a Tobacco 
Farm- 

A subscriber at Nashville, N. C, inquires as 
follows : " I am at this time very much inter- 
ested on the subject of a proper division o* 
the farm, and rotation of crops, and wish your 
opinion on the following, viz; first year all the 
manure to be applied to land, to be planted in 
tobacco, and after the tobacco is off, sowed to 
wheat with guano or its equivalent. 2d year, 
after the wheat is off, sow it with peas at the 
rate of two bushels per acre, to be plowed un- 
der after the first frost. 3d year, sowed in peas 
broadcast to be fed first to hogs and then plow- 
ed under ; and the 4th year, planted in corn 
and at the last working, sowed broadcast with 
peas, to commence again with manure for to- 
bacco." , 

We say in reply to our friend, that such a 
rotation with the manuring he proposes, is suf- 
ficiently liberal as regards his land, and will 
no doubt pay him in crops, and improve the 
condition of his land. Bnt we think it may be 
made less costly, without losing any of its ben- 
efits. First as to seed, the quantity per acre 
for the rotation would be six bushels. It might 
not be an object on a North Carolina farm, to 
economise in this respect, but few compara- 
tively within the range of our circulation could 
use this quantity of seed at less cost than six 
dollars. There are some advantages in using 
as much as two bushels of seed per acre when 
intended for a wheat fallow. We get more 
growth of stem in a limited time, and more 
downward growth of root, and there is compar- 
tively little running vine to impede the plough- 
ing. On the other hand one bushel of seed 
makes a good covering, nans more to vine and 
makes more seed, and with time enough for 
the crop to mature well, and for grazing in 
part, we should use little more than this quan- 
tity. 

Then our correspondent proposes six plough- 
ings, makings, making a great deal of extra 
work, and much more than farmers or plan- 
ters can devote to such a purpose. We think 
the ploughing under of the vine should be dis- 
pensed with. Let it be well matured, and then 
let the stock trample it close to the surface 
and the land will have the full benefit of it. — 
We have suggested several times methods of 
economising labor in putting in the pea crop, 



which we hope our friends will bear in mind. 

We would say to our N. Carolina friend, that 
if his soil is not very light, and is in pretty 
good condition, as it must be to produce tobac- 
co, we think he would find a crop of clo- 
ver sown in February or March on his wheat, 
a more economical improver than the pea cov- 
er. The labor would be hut a single harrow, 
ing and rolling, and the cost of seed not more 
than a single sowing of peas-. He may still sow 
peas when his corn is laid by. His rotation is 
not objectionable. The tobacco comes wellafter 
corn, with the intervening crop of peas, »nd 
finds the ground in such a state of preparation, 
that it takes an pary a.,d quick growth. The 
tobacco crop makes a beautiful preparation for 
wheat; leaving the ground perfectly clean and 
well worked, and get ing out of the way in time 
for seeding, -^'Ameriean Farmer. 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

Chinese Sugar Cane in Texas- 

A subscriber, (E. B.) writes us from Gonzales, 
Texas, as follows : 

I have tried the Chinese Sugar Cane here 
and find it an importat t acquisition to our 
agricultural resources. It stands drouth bet- 
ter than any other plant that I am acquainted 
with. It seems admirably adapted to our cli- 
mate heie. Its introduction into this country 
must produce an ent're revolution in our rural 
operations. Its culture will superced that of 
Indian corn and other forage crops to a consi- 
derable extent, and the monopoly of sugar will 
no longer be restricted to the State of Louisi- 
ana ; it will afford ample opportunity of rais- 
ing p ml try, making butter, cheese, pork, lard 
and bacon, and be the means of producing a 
quantity of manure where that is needed. I 
doubt whether it will answer as well on poor 
land as has been represented by some writers ; 
except, probably when sown broadcast for for- 
age. I find it easily affected by frost' In ev- 
ery other respect the accounts which I have 
seen are entirely within the bounds of truth. 

I planted the Sorgho on the 14th of April, 
plowed it once and subsoiled and hoed once. 
We had no rain after the 13th of May. The 
grain matured about the middle of July and 
produded at the rate of 50 bushels to the acre 
as to the land planted, but from depredations 
of bu'rs and poultry there was not half a stand. 
After the grain was gathered the stock was 
burned in the field and I had no opportunity 
of ascertaining what a second ciop would have 
prod, iced. The stubble is now green, the 
sprouts have been destroyed from time to time 
as they have appeared by stock, and recently 
by the frosts. E. B. 



14 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 




oricitlttiral 



Which are the Best Roses- 

BY ROBERT BUIST, PHIL. 

The above question is very frequently pro- 
poser!, and is much more concise than any re- 
ply that can be given. We would say that 
there are none supremelv beautiful, if they are 
not abundantly supplied with free soil, well in- 
corporated with very rich material, such as 
decayed leaves, old, decayed manure from the 
piggery or barm-ard ; or where there is a de- 
ficiency of these, rich water, twice a week, 
must be applied. " What is rich water?" — 
There arises another question. If you will 
not consider me too tedious, I will give you 
in detail how it is manufactured. I have a half 
cask, containing about 30 gallons of water, in- 
to which I put 6 lbs. of guano, half a bushel 
of horse droppings, or a peck of chicken ma- 
nure; either of these, just as convenient sug- 
gests, I allow the portion selected to remain 
in the tub 24 hours, when it is stirred up, and 
from which I give my select plants a copious 
watering twice a week from May till the mid- 
dle of June. The soil round the plants must 
be frequently stirred, and kept clean, and prop- 
erly cared for, neatly tied up, and, when in 
bloom, shaded from sunshine. Such is the 
treatment bestowed upon the finer and rarer 
eorts. 

We are confident that there are 700, varieties 
cultivated in the United States, and we are 
also confident that 1 00 would embrace every 
color among them, placing entirely in the 
shade many of the s6-called new sorts. Per- 
mit me to hand you for publication a few from 
each section of the perpetual or semi-per etual 
blooming varieties. 



Remontant, or Hybrid Perpetua Roses. 

Auguste Mie ; a fine, glossy pink; a new 
and equisite rose, of perfect form. 

Baron Prevost ; bright rose, large size ; 
strong growth. 

Baron Halley ; redish purple, very perfect ; 
globe shape. 

Geant des Batailles ; brilliant scarlet crim- 
son, an abundant bloomer; all qualities good. 

Jules Margottin ; bright crimson, a compan. 
ion to the former; a new and magnificent 
rose. 

Lion of combats ; crimson purple, large, com- 
pact form ; very fragrant. 

Louise Peyronny ; bright pink ; finer than 
La Reine. 

Marquis Bocuella ; the most abundant bloom- 
er ; of a light blush color. 

Madam Fremoin ; bright carmine ; fine form^ 

Madam Rivers ; pale silver blush ; very per- 
fect cup shape. 

Queen Victoria; very large, blush white, 
tinted with pink ; a magnificent flower. 

Pius the 9th ; deep purple crimson ; a strong 
grower, and profuse bloomer. 

Wm. Griffiths ; rosy lilac, very large, cup 
form, quite distinct ; a noble flower. 
Tea Scented Hoses 

Adam ; flesh color, very large, cup form. 

Devoniensis; lemon white, tinted with pink, 
very fragrant, and often called the Magnolia 
Rose. 

Gloire de Dijon ; very large, buff color, quite 
new, was sent out as a fine 3 r ellow, because ev» 
ery person wants a yellow monthly rose 

Goubault; bright rose, tinted with blush, 
very fine. 

Julie Mansais; lemon white, with yellow 
centre. 

Laurette ; salmon, tinted with rose, large 
and fine, quite new. 

Madame Bravery ; pure white, a good grow- 
er and fine bloomer. 

Safrano ; buds, before being fully opened, 
are of the most beautiful apiicot color, very de- 
sirable. 

Souvenir d'n Amue ; rosy pink, very large, 
handsome form, and one of the grandest of ros- 
es. 

Vicomtesse de Cazes ; yellow, with salmon 
centre, a very delicate grower. 

Willermoz ; creamy with salmon centre, a 
new and beautiful rose. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



15 



Noisette Hoses. 

Amie Vibert; pure white, a very de»icate 
grower. 

Cloth of Gold ; pale straw color, with yellow 
centre, a noble rose, of exquisite odor, and 
Strong growth. 

Fellenberg ; red, changing, in the autumn, 
to bright crimson, very profuse. 

Isabella Gray, bright yellow, very highly 
ecented, a new rose, from the "Sunny South." 

Jaune des prez ; yellow and buff, tinted with 
rose, of spicy fragrance and free growth. 

Lamarque; lemon white, very large and 
•plendid. 

Ophirie ; salmon and orange, a vigorous grow- 
er, with fine, dark green, glossy foilage. 

Octavie ; bright red, a rare variety. 

Phillipart ; peach blossom color, small flow- 
er in large clusters, a strong and hardy rose. 

Triumph de la duchere ; pale rose, blooming 
in large clusters, very profuse, 

Bengal, or Daily B'ses. 

Arch Due Charles; large; rose changing to 
crimson. 

Agrippina ; perfect globular shape ; brilliant 

crimson. 

Cels; blush, pink centre; a very profuse 

bloomer. 

Jacques Plantier ; shaded rosy crimson. 

Lady Warrender ; pure white. 

Louis Phillippe ; globular ; crimson with pa- 
ler centre. 

Lucullus ; vivid dark crimson. 

Madame Breon ; bright, waxy rose, large and 
fine ; a very strong grower. 

President d'Olbecque ; cherry-red ; fine 
form; very profuse. 

Bourbon Boses. 

Acadalie ; the only rose that is nearly white 
•mongst the Bourbons. 

Apolline; pink; surpasses the Hermosa in 
form and clearness of color. 

Bouquet de Flore ; bright rosy carmine ; a 
Terv strong grower. 

Henry Clay ; bright carmine ; very large 
flower, though not a perfect form. 

Louise Odier ; bright rose ; beautiful cup 

shape. 

Queen ; fawn color ; a profuse bloomer, but 
not a very free grower. 

Sir Jos. Paxton ; very bright rose ; strong 
growth ; as yet, very rare. 

Souvenir d'Anseleme ; bright red ; a strong 
grower. 

Souvenir de Malmaison ; pale blush, the lar- 
gest and finest of this group. 

Vorace ; deep purple crimson. — Horticultu- 
rist* 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

The Grape Crop of 1856. 

We have received, says the Journal of Com- 
merce, the following statement from one of the 
most eminent vine growers of the Ohio valley. 
His remarks with reference to the vintage of 
this 3 r ear, and especially the adaptation of our 
Southern States to grape growing, will be read 
with interest : 

The grape crop in the Ohio valley this year 
was a verjr small one — probably not more than 
an average of 80 to 100 gallons to the acre. — 
The severe winter injured many of the vine- 
yards seriously. Some of the vines were kil- 
led down to the ground, and about half the 
buds in others were destroy ed. The "rot" or 
mildew also injured some of the vineyards 
much. But a bad season w r ith the grape, like 
other fruits must be expected to occur occasion- 
ally. Our experience thus far has proved that 
the grape is about as reliable a crop as the ap- 
ple, and perhaps more so. 

A fair average crop for a series of years is 
found to be 2G0 to 300 gallons to the acre, in 
well cultivated vineyards in the Ohio valley. 
The cost of producing this crop will not exceed 
$50 to $60 per acre, and less with proper econ- 
omy. We plant the vines usually 3 by 6 feet 
apart in the rows, and an acre will contain 
2,52 vi es. Warm hill sides, or the tops of 
hills, are generally selected for vineyards. — 
Any undulating land is perferable to level, as 
it aflords better drainage. The grape wants 
porous soil, with good under-drainage. A ten- 
acious, wet subsoil, or blue clay, or hard pan, 
will cause mildew and ret after the fourth or 
fifth year, and should be avoided. 

This cultivation is largely on the increase 
all over the west and southwest, wherever the 
conditions are supposed to be favorable, and 
the consumption of the wine is fully equal to 
the production. 

Thirteen years ago, when the writer com- 
menced planting, the price of wine was lower 
than it is now. It was also inferior in quality 
to that made since, and but little known. Now 
the character of our native wines is well es- 
tablished, and those who have acquired a taste 
for them will use no others. Their cheapness 
and their purity have helped to introduce them 
into general use in some sections of the coun- 
try, and the failure of the grape crops in Eu- 



16 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



ed in every aspect — moral and economical*— 
our native wines may be considered a most 
valuable addition to the agricultural products 
of our country. 

It is now estimated that there is in vineyard 
culture over 4000 acres in the Ohio valley. — 
About half this quantity is in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, and probably three-fourths are now 
bearing. In the Missouri Valley th< re are 700 
to 800 acres: and in the Upper Mississippi 
Valley 500 to GOO acres. 

In Tennesssee, Alabama, South Carolina and 
Georgia, several vineyards of the Catawba grape 
have lately been planted, with flattering pros- 
pects producing far better crops than those of the 
Ohio Valley. How they will hold out, has yet 
to be tested. The mildew and rot, our great en- 
emies in vineyard culture, seldom trouble the 
first two or three crops, but I have little doubt 
that the uplands of North Carolina and Geor- 
gia will be found more favorable to the culti- 
vation of the Catawba grape than any section 
of the United States. 

The Hyacinth- 
There is hardly a fljwer in cultivation so 
treneally a favorite as the hyacinth, and cer- 
tainly not one which so graefully repays the 
attention bestowed upon it. There is not a me- 
dium capable of retaining moisture but it will 
grow in, and give us HSgooda bloom when plant- 
ed in wet sand as it will in the richest compost- 
Many people ought to be thankful for this spring 
visiter, from those whose delicate hands put the 
finish to the beautiful stands which grace the 
drawing room, to the salamander-like men who, 
in a heat that would broil a steak, blow the thou- 
sands of gla-ses employed to grow them in wa- 
ter. There is not a smoky hole in the most 
confined manufacturing town in which the hya- 
cinth will not bloom, if allowed moisture of some 
kind in which to lengthen its silvery roots. If 
we calculated by the means required for its 
growth, instead of the price of the root, it might 
truly be called the poor man's flower. - There is 
scarcely an individual who is permitted to live 
in daylight, but m y indulge hims If with two 
or three, if he be fond of flowers and they will 
afford gratification till the bloom is over. Let 
everybody who can raise three flower-pots, or 
three hyacinth glasses buy a bulb of each color, 
and they will have flowers— ay, if thoy grow 
them in a smoky attic, or a still more smoky 
kitchen. — Horticulturist. 



The Culture of the Osage Orange- 

Messrs. Editors of the Post : — Some time 
since I noticed an inquiry in the Post, regard- 
ing the culture of the Osage Orange for Hedges. 
I will give my plan and experience in regard to 
the culture of the Orange for hedging purpo- 
ses. After my plants are taken from the nur- 
sery, I bunch them as evenly as possible, take 
them to a block, and cutoff the tops, leaving 
only two or three buds. I then reverse the 
branch and cut off the lower end of the roots, 
leaving the remaining roots four inches long ; 
I then puddle them, by digging a hole in the 
ground, pouring in one or two buckets of wa- 
ter, and make a very thin mortar, into which I 
dip the butts. This keeps the roots moist 
while planting. A week or so before planting, 
I lay out my land the length I want, and ten 
feet wide, throwing the furrow out. When I 
get ready to plant, I plough it again, throwing 
the furrow in, and harrowing effectually, (I 
believe rolling the ground is an advantage, 
though I sometimes omit it). I am now ready 
for planting. To stake out my hedgeline, I 
take a line, the longer the better, with red 
yarn tied every four, five or eight inches — I 
would recommend five inches. I drop a plant 
at every red strip ; take a dibble (made in the 
shape of a dagger,) and make a prod with my 
right hand, holding the plant in my left. As 
I draw the dibble out, I drop in the plant, make 
another prod, and press together; thus l plant 
my hedges. 1 consider it all important to have 
the first setting stand, as replanting seldom 
does any good. The second year I commence 
clipping — first, before it leafs in the spring, 
say an inch above where it was cut when set; 
second in June, an inch and-a-half above the 
first cutting ; third, in the fall, two inches 
above second cutting. The third year i cut in 
June, four inches higher than third cutting, 
and trim up the sides. Thus I go on until my 
hedge is thick enough. In conclusion, I would 
state that one half of those in the West, who 
have attempted to make a live fence with the 
Orange have failed, not through any fault of 
the plant, but of their own, in not clipping 
enough. Nothing but thorough tending with 
plough and hoe (as long as you plough your 
corn) and severe clipping can make a fence to 
turn anything. From a quail to a breachy 
steer. There are some beautiful hedges in this 
county, which, by-the-bye, I must say is the 
very best county in this very best of States. — 
Mark that, ye who move a crop of stones to 
raise a crop of grain, and spend your income 
in Guano ! Yours, R. H. DAY. 

Mercer Countg, III. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



17 




m0R. 

IS 



^^W^^z?W?*W®*^ 



TUB C.IR0LI\.l CULTIVATOR. 

RALEIGH!, MARCH, 1857- 
A New Volume. 

The present number of the Cultivator com 
mences a new volume. This is, therefore, a 
good timo to subscribe. Will not all our sub- 
scribers who are in arrears for the past year 
send the small amount due, and also one dol- 
lar for the present volume? We again urge 
oui farmers to write for the Cultivator. Let 
us have \our experience. 



ploits of Mr. Willis's Stump Extractor, at 
Orange, Mass., where he has begun to nianu- 
factuie the article on a large scale. 

Well worked, I am told, it will turn out a 
lusty stump each ten minutes, hour by hour. 
This machine is much needed, even in New 
England, and still more in tlie Middle, Western 
and Southern States. It has made many fields 
lawn-like and beautiful, in and around Orange, 
and if brought into requisition, it can do the 
same from Maine to Georgia; The cost is 
something, but not frightful. A good machine, 
with, the exclusive right to use it in any on 
town in fie Union, costs $150 or $200, no 
more. This is less than the price of a piano, 
less than the price df the gold watch, with 
"fixins," which dangle from the pocket of 
many a fob ! 

I think, Mr. Willis, the Patentee, a bene- 
factor • his Patent will make rough places 
smooth, make two, yes, ten thousand spears of 
grass grow where but one grew before, and 
prove an element in the great process of civili- 
zation." — jSfortliern Sentinel. 



Chiness Sugar Cane Ssed. 

The Editor of the Carolina Cultivator has 
received from the Commissioner of the Patent 
Office a quantity of the Chinese Sugar Cane 
seed, to be distributed to members of the State 
A'rricultu-al Society. Members of the Society 
can be supplied with the seed upon application 
to the E litor of the Cultivator as long as the 
seed lasts. 

For two three-cent postage stamps enough 
seed can be sent by mad to plant 175 hills, 
allowing eight seeds to a hill. 

«>»»«»■ 

Stump Machines- 

We have long felt the necessity of the intro- 
duction into our State of a good machine for 
pulling stump;. We have seen in several pa- 
] ers notices of a Stump Puller, invented by 
W. W. Willis, of Orange, Mass., and called the 
"Orange Improved Stump Puller." The fol- 
lowing notice is taken from the Northern Sen- 
tinel : 

" A Wo tD arout Stumps. — I am glad to see 
evidence, that here and there a farmer is "stir T 
ring his stumps." I have just seen the ex- 



Ex^nANGEs. — Since our last notce we have 
received the Eclectic Magazine for March. It 
is embellished with a fin^ en<rr ving of the late 
Hugh Miller, of Edinburg, and contains a num- 
ber of interesting articles. The Southern Lite- 
rary Messenger for the same month, is an excel- 
lent niimhjT. A new song by the author of 
w 'Een Bolt,' 1 arpeaft in its paofes, full of that 
poetic feeling which distinguishes Thos. Dunn 
E 'glish. Gudey for April shines forth in ver- 
nal beauty. It is rich in all its customary va- 
riety of attractions Peterson, also for April, is- 
devoted as usual to the fashionable world. 

Putnam, for April presents a tempting table 
of contents. There is of course much bold- 
ness, flippancy, and impertinence in its psge» 
— much smart satire, indifferent philosophy, 
and radical sectional politics. 

Household Words, for April is also befbre 
us — a promising number of one of the most 
entertaining periodicals in the world. In ref- 
erence to slaver}' it is worse than Putnam ; 
but that might be expected. When these 
magazines are witty, we may la- gh at their 
wit — and when they are absurd, we may 
laugh at their folly. 



18 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Th,b GhiNrse Surak Cane— Sugak Making. 
— This is is the title of a pamphlet of 1 1)6 pages 
by Charles F. Stanshury, A. M., late com- 
missioner at the Industrial Exhibition, Lon- 
don, published by C. M. Saxton & Co., of New- 
York, sent to us by Mr. W. L. Pomeroy of this 
city — price 2.*>e. It contains full directions for 
the cultivation of the Chinese Sugar Cane and 
for making Syrup and Sugar, and will prove 
very valuable to those who intend to cultivate 
this plan*. Orders for the work -cut to Mr. 
W. L. Pomeroy, Bookseller, Raleigh, will be 
promptly attended to. 




J gij 



Legislative Agricultural Society. 

Discussion on the Chinese Sugar Cane. 

Those gentlemen — members of the Legisla- 
ture—favorable to the scheme of re-establish- 
ing the Legislative Agricultural Society, met in 
the Represent lives' Hall, Tuesday night at 7 
o'clock, at which hour only half a d' zen were 
present. The meeting was called to order at 
20 minutes past 7, by Hon. John Brooks of 
Princeton. Ho considered it proper that an 
organization should take place, and that com- 
mittees on organization and on subjects of dis- 
cussion should be appointed as usual. About 1 
40 members were then present. 

Mr. Stebbins of Deeifield,* nominated Hon. 
John Brooks, of Princeton, for Chairman, pro 
■tcm., and put the question, when that gentle- 
man was elected. Messrs. W. J. Buckminister, 
of the Mass. Ploughman, and Aaron Lickin- 
eon, of Heatri WQra appointed Secretaries. 

A committee to nominate Chairman for the 
evening, and an Executive Committee, to act 
during the whole session, consisted of Messrs 
Hyde, of Newton, Stebbins, of Deerfield 
€has. L. Flint, of Boston, Asa G. Sheldon, of 
Wilmington, and Stephen P. Collin, of Long- 
meadow. 

Mr. Brooks made a brief congratulatory, ad- 
dress on taking the chair, on the tl riving state 
of the fanning interest generally. Within the 
State, within the last ten years, the increase of 
agricultural productions had risen from twenty 
six to sixty-three millions in value. With 
jproper care this increase could yet be doubled, 



and the resources of the soil not yet called into 
request. He invited gentlemen to state their 
agricultural experience, and specially called on 
Mr. Hyde, of IVewton, to relate what success 
he had in cultivath g the CI ines-e h gar <j>rie. 

Mr. Hyde, after glancing at the moras mvlti- 
caulis and other agricultural bubbles, said he 
entered on the cultivation of the Chinese Sugar 
Cane with .much doubt as to its ultimate ben- 
efits. 'J hese he had tes ed, and could speak 
from experience. As a forage crop he consid- 
ered it superior to anything known in this por- 
tion of the country. It has the advantage of 
many other plants in its production of two 
crops per annum — the last not a fall one, but a 
very liberal one. It would grow to three or 
four feet in height in .July, and be again ready 
to cut in Oetober. For soiling purposes noth- 
ing could be more generally valuable, as horses 
cow s and pigs were alike fond of it, and se- 
lected it always in preference to any other food, 
that could be placed before them. It was ea- 
sily cured, and could be as easily preserved over 
winter as any common forage crop — although 
it grew to the height of ten <»r fifteen feet. Ft 
was very hardy ; and while other crops would 
wilt beneath the strong sun, it stood up fresh 
and juicy, it did not produce a nice looking 
fodder ; but if cut into pieces, cattle would 
eat it with avidity. Some cattle would seize 
upon a long, rough stalk, and chew it so long 
as they could feel the taste of the saccharine 
matter in it. In order that it should consti- 
tute good fodder, the cane should be cut before 
it is seeded. Jf planted in drills (1-12 pounds 
of seed to an acre, and the stalk 5 or 6 inches 
apart,) it would grow too rank. Care should 
be taken not to plant the seed too deep, or 
make the hills too close. 

Mr. Hyde had tried the cane for sugar, and 
had found it to yield one-fifth of its weight in 
syrup, much better tlian that which came from 
the South — of better quality and heavier. His 
experiments showed him that syrup could be 
produced at the rate of 25 cents per gallon, on 
land like that in Newton. A portion of the 
syrup was not crystalizable, and this was held 
as an objection to it ; but while the fact was 
so, it was also true that the Chinese can© 
would produce a good brown sugar. He was 
determined to give the production of sugar a 
fair trial, and had confidence of his being suc- 
cessful ; and one of his proposed plans was to 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



19 



cut off the seed panicles before they begin to 
ripen, and he had little doubt that by this pro- 
cess he would save a considerable amount of 
saccharine matter. If planted in the middle of 
May, the cane would be ready to cut about the 
middle of September. While he would not ad*- 
viseany one to go into an extrixigant system 
«f cultivation, he would advise all fanners to 
trv it in their gardens and their fields, and one 
trial would go father to convince them of the 
value of the sugar cane than any advice what- 
ever. 

Several gentlemen made inquiry of Mr. Hyde 
respecting the method of the cultivation of the 
cane. He advised that it be hilled like corn, 
when it was intended to use the cane for sugar, 
and drill it in rows when intended for fodder. 
A dry soil was the most favorable for its pro- 
duction, lie thought it might bean exhaust- 
ing crop; and that it would not be hurt by 
being planted on good soil. It stood heat, as 
he said before, and was also able to bear up 
against frost. The seed he had u°.ed was got 
from the Patent Office, and came from France, 
where the best seed came. It was had origi- 
nallv from China. The pure seed was of a 
black color (at least such as he considered pure. ) 
There was a quantity to be had of Col. Peters, 
of Atlanta, Ga., and this was pure ; but if 
mi<rht be that seeds from Paris, where the rest 
came might not be so genuine. The price was 
about one dollar per pound. ; and the charge 
of three dollars per pound, made in this city, 
was suggested by certain parties who wanted 
to combine against the purchasers. Seed, he 
thought, could be grown for a shilling per lb. 
But with all these facts, he advised the great- 
est caution in making experiments and in draw- 
ing conclusions. 

Several gentleman made observations on the 
subject of conversation, only one of whom, ii 
any shape, controverted the statements made 
by Mr. Hyde. That was with reference to its 
supe-tority as a forage plant. The party in 
question says he has -een as heavy a forage of 
Indian corn as of Chinese cane. He sustained 
all Mr. Hyde's statements in other respects, 
and added to them the fact that, after the juice 
was expressed from the cane its fibrous patt 
made excellent paper. He advised, among 
other cautionary and wise rema'-ks, that, in all 
instances the seed u=ed here should be imported 
as there were a number of inferior descriptions, 



and as the liability of the plant to hybridize 
was great, and that all experiments in making 
sugar should he made through the use of the 
old fashioned cider mill, which would suit, un- 
til they hart fairly satisfied themselves that the 
manufacture from the Chinese sugar cane 
would be profitable. The cane was rich in the 
constituents of alcohol. 



New Fertilizer -Important to 
Farmers- 

To the Editors of the A uerican Firmer : 

Gentlemen: — In the last number of your 
valuable journal, you allude to the movement 
now making for establishing manufactories of 
artificial guano from the blood and offals of an- 
imals, treated with sulphuric acid, and mixed 
with phosphate of lime — thus obtaining, with- 
out any extraneous matter, such as gravek, 
earth, &c„ all the valuable components of the 
best Peruvian Guano, in a purer and more con- 
centrated form. 

Havi* g- expressed an intention of u-aking in- 
quiries with a view to inform your readers fur- 
ther on the subject, I take the liberty of offer- 
ing you the following information, being my- 
self the principal share holder in the American 
patent : 

A Mr. Odam, manufacturing chemist in Rp". 
land, patented there, some five years ago, the 
treatment of the blood of animals with sulphu- 
ric and other acids, which were found to sus- 
pend all the elements of putrefaction and hold 
the dried matter ready for decomposition when 
brought in contact with the elements of the 
soil. He mixed his nitrogenous, matter, st ob- 
tained, with phosphate of line which a<-t d 
unon by the Stilphuric a--i 1, forme 1 a nitroge- 
nous super-phosphate of tb.3 most powerful 
kind. 

Mr. Odam manufactured and sold the firs 
vear 5000 tons of this material. Tt gave uni 
versal satisfaction, surpassing Peruvian guano 
in its effects, whenever placed in competition 
with it 

The result was, such an overwhelming de- 
mand for it the following year, as quite sur- ass- 
ed Mr. Odam's means. He then formed a C< m- 
nany upon the direction of which he succeeded 
in placing many farmers; thus securing the en- 
tire confidence of the agriculturists, who knew 
themselves to be perfectly safe in such hand?. 



20 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Mr. Jonas Webb, the most eminent sheep breed- 
er in the worlds (as well known in this country 
as in England,) and who grows five hundred 
acres of sweet turnips yearly for his own con- 
sumption, was elected Chairman of the Com- 
pany and remains so still. They paid the pat- 
entee ten thousand pounds sterling for an ex- 
clusive license to work his patent, as appears 
by the official account published under the 
joint stock ;.ct, and paid him a royalty of two 
shillings per ton upon all the manure thus 
made. Their fertilizer was applied last year to 
upwards of Q,ne hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land. 

Myseli an agriculturist, farming 800 acres of 
my own land in Scotland, I tried, and was 
much surprised at the effects of this manurci 
so far exceeding in itsie-ults those of guano. 

I subsequently made an arrangement with 
Mr. OJam, to patent his process in this country. 
On applying for a patent here, I was unable to 
procure one in consequence of Dr. Hare of 
Philadelphia, having patented, two years be. 
fore the date of Mr. Odam's patent, the treat- 
ment of the "soft parts" of animals with sul. 
pa i r'.c or other acids or with "coperasorothe 
salts." 

Both Mr. Odam and Dr. Hare disclaim the 
treatment of bones, or the hard parts of animals 
with acids, but one claims for treating the 
"blood,'' the other for treating the "soft parts.' 

Alter taking the opinions of the best counse 
in the country, and being advised that Dr 
Hare's was a perfectly good and valid patent 
which could not be disturbed, I found myself 
constrained to make an arrai gement with Dr 
Hare, which I accompli hed, obtaining from 
him an assignment of his patent. lam led to 
understand that certain parties are now manu- 
facturing a manure in which blood andsulphu 
ric acid ate used, but I have not, as yet, direct 
evidence of the fact ; such a manufacture is in 
violation of Dr. Hate's patent, and renders the 
sellers, the consumers, and the manufacturers 
equally liable for damages. 

It is the intention of the patentees to create 
four Co paries only, for manufacturing in the 
United States, one in New York, one in Balti- 
more, one in Philadelphia, and one in Boston 
The city of Bo ton will furnish 30,000 tons oj- 
blood and offal per annum ; the city of Phila. 
delpbia will furnish 60,000 tons annually ; I 
a n not aware of what we may calculate upon 



in New York and Baltimore. I have the cer- 
tificates of Dr. Hayes of Boston, and of Pro- 
fessors Booth and Frazier, of Philadelphia, 
which oppear in the prospectus of the Phila- 
delphia Company, which 1 enclose. 

I proceed in a few days to New York, after 
I organize a Company there, I shall visit Bal- 
tiinote for the same purpose ; our manure wilt 
be sold at 45 dollars per ton of 21 00 lbs. 

Although myself from England, my family 
are Americans. My father being a New Bed- 
ford man, and my mother from Nantucket 
my name may be unknown to you as the bro- 
ther of Mr. Francis Rotch oi Mortis (formerly 
called Butternuts of iNew York State,) who 
was one of the earliest, if not the first importer 
of short horned stock in America. 

I have undertaken the introduction of this 
manure into the United .States, satisfied of its 
superiority over all other artificial manures • 
from experiments, made by myself, and the ob- 
servation of live years' trial in England, I be- 
lieve it will effect highly beneficially sanatary 
results in your large towns and prove a great 
boon to your agriculturists, and a very profita- 
ble investment to the manufacturer. As you 
will see by the accofnpaning prospectus, in or- 
der to meet the present state of the money 
market, thesmallest possible amount of capi- 
tal will be called [or in Philadelphia, and suf- 
ficient merely to make and introduce it next 
season, to a small extent, which is all that time 
will admit of. Wherever it is once introduced 
t will advertise itself. 

I shall be happy to furnish you any further 
particulars, and am, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Titos. D, Rotcii. 

Raising Cat le — Raising Mules-.-— James E„ 
Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanawha county, 
Va., states that the cost of raising cattle in 
those mountain ranges is about $3 a year. — 
They are worth $18 to $20 at four years old. 
Mules, however, are raised at as little expense 
as steers, and are worth from $100 to $150 a 
head at three j r ears old. 

John B. Brush, of Mercer county, Penn., re- 
ports the cost of raising cattle at that place till 
three years oid, it is $15, which is about tho 
price of good ones at th it age. 

John Brooks, of Sherman, Texas, states the 
cost of one doTir and a half a year till three 
years old — Patent Office Report. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



21 



Remedy for Rot in Grapes 

At a recent meeting of the American Wine 
Growers' Association, in Cincinnati, the fol- 
lowing communication was read from Mr 
Werk, on the subject of Grape Rot: 

Allow me to explain to you tht> trials I have 
made in this country, hi the cultivation of the 
grape, during the last eleven yeais, and my in- 
tentions for the future in regard to the rot. It 
is a remarkable fact that vines never fail, in 
this country, in their flowering period ; at 
least, I never have witnessed it. The}' hang 
as full of grapes as the}' can every year. The 
favorable dowering of the vines, in the great- 
est part of the old country, generally is the 
barometer of an abundant crop, an J if the 
flowering of the vines is a failure, the crop, of 
course, is a failure — the enemy there and the 
rot here. The quality there depends alone on 
the d.-y, warm summer, to bring the grapes to 
maturity, which is never the case here, (if the 
vines are not overriden with fruit,) on account 
of the se.-i^n being too io.ig. But this rot is 
thl^ily main destroyer of our grepes. 

Professor Li big. in his complete books of 
Chemistry, speaks of the observations of Dr. 
Halez on the blight in hops and other plants 
(pages 80, 4C>J who stales that the development 
of the growth of plants depends on the supply 
of nourishment and moisture from the soil, 
which is determined by a certain temperature 
and dryness of the atmosphere. The absor- 
bent power of plants, the motion of their sap, 
depends on evaporation ; the amount of food 
necessary for the nutrition which is absorbed, 
is proportional to the amount of moisture given 
out (evaporation) in a givei time. When the 
plant has taken up a maximum of moisture, 
and ihe evaporation is suppressed by low tem- 
perature or by continued wet weather, the sup 
ply of food, the nutrition of the plant ceases, 
the juices stagnate and are altered. They now 
pass into a state in which they become a fertile 
Foil for microscopic plants. When rain falls 
aft'T hot weather, and is followed by great 
heat without wind, so that every part of the 
plant is surrounded by an atmosphere satura- 
ted with moisture, the cooling due to farther 
evaporation ceases, and the plants are destroyed 
by "fiie blast"' or scorching (sonaer brand,) 
"sun burnt or sun blight." 

Now, if these remarks are well founded, and 



1 do believe they are, then we will be nearer to 
our point of preventing our grapes from rot- 
ting, in avoiding too rapid growth in the fore 
part of the season. W e have been cultivating 
our vineyards in the same manner as they do 
in the greatest portion of the vine countries of 
Kurope. We hoe and dig them three or four 
times, at least twice in a season, and hy so 
much cultivation in such rich and fertile soil 
and clit'iate, we urge the vines in their giowth, 
keep the soil moist, and procure for the plant 
too much nourishment in the soil, call forward 
in the loose cultivated soil, the influence of the 
atmo.-phere, and in this way have our plants 
fairly prepared for the approach of our enemy, 
with which we are all very well acquainted — 
cold, fog, and warm moist atmosphere — so that 
by the appearance of one or the other of these 
enemies, our grapes rot, and often fiom one- 
half to three fourths are gone in twenty-!'uur 
hours. As the superabundance of moisture is 
taken up and the evaporation suppressea, it of 
course leaves the enemy a greater chance for 
his ravages. This is not the case so much in 
the greatest portion of the vine countries of 
Europe, as the soil and climate is not so rich 
and fertile as here, and of course frequent hoe- 
ing and higher culture is necessary to obtain 
from the soil the substance by provoking the 
influence of atmospheres to the soil. 

The largest portion of us vine growers have 
often noticed that about the time the rot ap- 
pears, wine plants of a yellowish pale color 
alongside of other vines with a dark green 
healthy color, both fruit and leaves r main 
healthy and sound, whilst the dark green and 
healthy -colored fruit are partly destroyed, and 
the leaves have lest their healthy appearance 
after the attack of the enemies, cold an i fog, 
or a warm moist atmo.-phere. The cau>e of 
this is admirably explained in the remarks of 
Di. Halez in his observations on plants in gen- 
eral. I dug down to the roots of many pale 
and also dark green colored vines, after the rot 
had made its appearance, and without excep- 
tion, I found the pale colored in a harder soil 
and generally on places where tht water could 
run off easily ; the reverse was the case in the 
dark green colored plants. 

Eleven years ago I planted my first vine- 
yard in this counti y, in a timothy field of 
eleven acres. I had learned the cause of the 
rot from other experienced wine growers, they 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



remarking that i lie fog and the we< summers 
We:c the cause of the rot, and this led me to 
think that if the phmts were far apart and the 
soil covered with other vegetations, the fog 
and the wet summers would not have the same 
eflict, as the soil keeps dry under the grass. 
The rains falling in the morning, during which 
the rot prevails, will run off in part, and what 
is absorbed hy the soil will soon be taken up 
by the grass. 

The result of this was, I made the first crop 
in this vine and timothy field, without any rot 
in 1850, and so every year in succession, until 
'54, hut in the spring of '54 my timothy ran out. 
I plowed the field, and that year the greatest 
portion of my crop was destroyed hy the rot 
in spite of the wide planting. By plowing, of 
course I urged the vegetation and made the 
soil more fertile, and retained the moisture of 
this already rich soil, and prepared my fruit 
for destruction by the enemy. 

One of my vineyards was not hoed for two 
years, only scraped to keen the grass down, 
planted three b}' six leet ap;;rt; the \ines are 
laid dry by drawing the soil to the plants as 
we do in a potato or cornfield, so that the wa- 
ter can run off. 

The result of this was, I obtained in the 
year " near seven hundred gallons of wine,"and 
in the year '56 about five hundred gallons to 
the acre, while in the same year, jn vineyards 
alongside, of the same age, and on the same 
exposure, only one hundred to one bundled 
and fifty gallons to the acre was obtained. 

Last summer was a very dry summer, but 
our grapes rotted. By the observations of Dr. 
Holez we con easily account for this. The 
winter of '55 and '56 was very cold, and the 
soil was frozen fiom one to two feet deep. The 
wbole continent was covered with snow one or 
two feet deep. The result of this was a late 
Spring — the soil enriched by the snow and 
loosened by the frost, caused such a luxurious 
vegetation at once, that in four weeks we had 
flowers and grapes formed ; the vine plants 
were met in the highest and richest shite of 
vegetation, with a cold night vt first, and two 
warm rains followed, with great her.t in second 
and third ; the rot we had last season, and the 
mischief was done. This was the reverse in 
1853, s's the winter of '5'2 and '53 was mild 
a d dry, and the spring of '53, with tha fore 
part of the summer, dry and warm, the growth 



was regular and less rapid, and the conse- 
quence was a rich grape year. 

According to all this, I came to the conclu- 
sion to lav my vineyards dry, summer and 
winter, not cultivate them in the spring, ex- 
cept to scrape them, to keep the grass down, 
summer prune, and with all those planted wide 
enough apart to admit of it, T will roll with a 
path roller as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground, to prevent the absorption of rains and 
atmospheric moisture, to check the growth in 
part; but in the fall, as soon as the kernels 
are formed, and the fruit begins to change 
color, at this moment we know that all phmts 
want all their nourishment to ripen their fruit 
and wood, a period of growth of which we are 
all aware there is no more danger of the rot — 
then I will set plow and hoe to work. My ex- 
perience of last year, in a vineyard cultivated 
at the change of color of the fruit, is this: Ca- 
tawba must, of this part of the vineyard, 
weighed 08 degrees, and the Isabella 101 de- 
grees, while the must of another part of the 
same vineyard, and of the same eUposuu^ppt 
cultivated in the autumn, the CatawbaTmust 
weighed 92 degreees, and the Isabella 90 de- 
grees on the saccaromcter. 

It seems to me that any means we can dis- 
cover to check the growth of vegetation in the 
early part of the season, will be a help to con- 
quer the enemy, the rot, be it by the reverse 
of culture— that is, cultivate in the fall when 
the grapes change color — press the ground in 
the spring to (heck the absorption of atmos- 
pheric moisture in part, or by any means we 
can imagine, check the too luxuriant vegeta- 
tion in the spring and first part of summer, a 
step will be taken toward the production of 
grapes insteod of wood, and perhaps will ena- 
ble us to plant many European kinds of vines 
in this rich and feitile climate, as for them the 
too rich and rapid vegetation, with too long a 
season, is destruction. — Ohi<> Cultivator. 



Best time for Pruning- 

^ 

Messrs. Editors — The inquiry made by E. 
Dcnnison at page 31 of this volume, "Which 
is the best time to trim ?" is — (as of course 
we must suppose he means by "trim," "prune,") 
— a very usual interrogatory to thepomologis^ 
He will find, when he owns many fruit trees- 
that the best time to prune is when he has 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



most leisure, an 1 whenever he has his knife in 
his hand. In the Spring and summer the 
wounds will begin to cicatrize quickest ; hut 
pruning cannot then be so rapidly performed 
owing to the mass of foliage and to the difficul- 
ty of arriving at a decision whit to cut away, as 
rapidly as can ba reached m the season when 
leaves have fallen. [ would recommend never 
to saw off a limb at right angles, butobliquely_ 
It promotes a quicker covering of the incised 
surfiee by the young bark. 

Let me suggest as a substitute for shellac 
dissolved in alcohol, as a protecting coat, a 
mixture that I have found vevy adhesive and 
efficacious : — Fresh cow manure and clay, with 
an egg er two and some molasses thrown in ; 
the whole reduced to the consistency of thick 
paste or thin mortar, and applied with a small 
trowel or a knife with a very broad blade. — 
The shellac solution is undoubtedly the- clean- 
est and most convenient to apply, but shellac 
is not always at hand in the country. E. L. R. 
Baltimore, M 1. — Country Uenlhman. 



Culture oi C3lery. 

The principal difficulty in raising large and 
well bleached celery is to get the plants early, 
and sufficiently stocky. This is best accom- 
plished by sowing them early in the Spring in 
a hot bed, and when an inch high, transplant- 
ing t em into a cold frame, and afterwards 
transplanting them into a warm border where 
they can remain till the trenches are ready fo 
them. This will seem more labor than most 
people are willing to bestow, but frequent 
transplanting is the only way to get strong, 
healthy plants that will receive' little check 
when planted in the trenches -during our hoi 
June and Jul}' weather. 

Tn making the trenches the soil should be 
thro vn imt at least two feet deep, and twelve 
in -.lies wide at the bottom ; the first six inches 
being placet on one side, so that it be used 
for covering the manure. Good leaf compost, 
or "spit manure," as the Loud n gardener.- 
say, from old hot bed-;, or what is still better) 
the liquid and solid droppings from a manure- 
cellar well composted with thoroughly decom 
posed peat should be put at the bottom of the 
trench about sixteen inches thick, and covered 
with about six inch s of rich, light surface 
soil. Let the plants be well watered 21 hour> 



before transplanting, and take them up with a 
ball of earth round the roots, and they will 
receive little or no check. Good super-phos- 
phate of lime either in solution or mixed with 
the soil before transplanting, has a very bene- 
ficial effect, in giving the celery an e irly start. 
We have also used with great advantage Peru- 
vian guano, applied in a weak solution, say a 
teaspoonful to two gallons of water. Celery 
is a gross feeder, and revels in ammoniacal 
manures, and the well decomposed organic 
matter or humus of dung, leaves, peat, Stc. — 
The soil should be kept constantly stirred till 
the plants have got a good start, and it is not 
well to be in too much hurry to commence 
earthing up. 

It is indeed a disputed point whether it is 
best to earth up at several times during the 
season as the plants grow, or to do it at once, 
when they have nearly done growing, late in 
the fall. We have always adopted the former 
practice, and have had good success ; and, on 
this account, are inclined to recommend it. In 
earthing up, care should be taken that the so k * 
does not get between the st;dks, and it is not 
well to press it t>o tightly round the plants at 
first. 

In England, celery is allowed to remain in 
the ground all winter ; but from the greater 
severity of our winters, it is better, here, at tho 
North at least, to take it up after it has done 
growing, and stow it away in the cellar. — 
Country Gentleman. 



Compost for Potatoes- 

A correspondent of the Country Gentleman 
recommends Mr. Durant to try 

100 pounds of best Peruvian guano, 
200 " " ground -placer, 

25 " " ground salt, 

passed together in small quantities at a time, 
through a fine riddle, so as to mix them as in- 
timately as possible — and use about half a gill 
u> a hill of potatoes, covered lightly — say not 
f,o exceed three inches — and sec what tho 
effect will be. Some little experience has con- 
vinced him that it will keep off disease, and 
furnish a crop of excellent vegetables, both as 
regards size and flavor. If lie had an oppor- 
tunity to repeat the experiment himself, he 
vould increase the quantity of salt to fifty 
pounds. 



24 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Cutting Fodder for Stock- 

For many years we have used a straw-cutter 
for preparing food for our horses, but a less 
time for neat stock. 1 think we have realized 
the greatest benefit from giving cut hay or 
straw and ground provender to our firm or 
work horses. When the team comes in weary 
nnd hungry after a hard day's work, instead of 
standing up half the night cutting hay and 
grinding whole corn, (I believe all who are ac- 
quainted with feeding and driving horses admit 
that it is unhealthy to give meal in any con- 
siderable quantity with long hay,) it can eat its 
me-s of cut fodder and meal, well mixed and 
moi-itened with water, in a couple of hours, 
an! have the remainder of the night for rest 
and sleep. In the morning a similar mess is 
put before the horses and soon disposed of; 
and, as they take but little drink when fed in 
this way; they are in trim, good condition, well 
rested, and all ready early in the morning for 
another day's work. Unlike the horse who 
has stood at his crib more than half of the night 
and morning, hard at work, cutting his hay 
and grinding his corn, requiring buckets ful ! 
of water to wet the dry mess with which his 
stomach is crammed. Tn this condition the 
team is harnessed, and if put immediately to 
hard labor, (as the cut fed team is preparad 
for,) will soon be injured, and ere long ruined. 

Our trough (made of pine boards) for mix- 
ing feed for three horses, is 6 feet long, 2| wide 
and 2 feet high. Put the hay in and sprinkle 
about half a bucket of water for each horse, 
and stir well with a lisrht, fine tined fork, be- 
fore putting on the meal, as well as after, that 
the whole may be evenly mixed. 

Care must be taken that the trough and cribs 
are kept clean, particularly in warm weather, 
as a little left in them will sour and injure the 
health of the animal. 

A little fine salt, used daily, preserves health, 
especially in warm weather. Four quarts of 
cut carrots are frequently fed to each horse at 
noon, with very little hay and meal. 

We feed meal made from corn, corn and cobs, 
(ground fine) barley, oats and peas, vetches, 
wheat bran and shorts, and huckwhe-it. Ml 
do well, and are fed as we happen to have on 
hand or can procure the cash st. There is a 
Strong pi ' ju lice with many, against barlev for 
horses Before cut feed came into use with us 



barley was mostly given as provendtr to our 
horses. ' Boiling water was put to it 12 or 24 
hours before feeding. Barley meal with cut 
hay is wholesome, and has been the cheapest 
grain for Provender, until within a year or two 
— the heer-drinJrers having raised the price. 

Another advantage in cut feed is, when hay 
is scarce, the coarsest straw of grain, cut and 
fed with meal, with or without a mixture of 
hay, will keep a team at one half or less the 
cost of hay and grain. The man, (a careful 
and observing one too,) who drives my team 
this winter, and has driven it much of the time 
for fifteen years past, is decided in the opinion, 
that in the'use of cut feed over long, there is a 
saving of more than 3"3 percent, in expense of 
keeping increase in health, strength, and pow- 
er of endurance at hard labor. 

This may be considered an extravagant 
statement to those unacquainted with feeding 
in this way, but I think any candid mind will 
come to the conclusion that this is not far from 
tie truth, on a brief review of the question. — 
Thus the animal has several hours more each 
day for rest and sleep. Food prepared inthia 
way is in best condition for the stomach to act 
upon as to rapid digestion, and the nutriment* 
when extracted, is ready to he taken by the 
blood to every part of the body, imparting 
strength for immediate action. „ 

Quite different from this is the condition of 
the horse for hard service that has taken dou- 
ble the quantity — as he usually will — of dry 
hay, then grain or meal, lying in a compact 
lump in the stomach, with three or four pails 
of water to complete the distention of tho 
stomach to its utmost capacity, which is nearly 
twice as large as that of the ho> ee on cut feed. 

Cut food is a preventive or cure for heavcs> 
Some ten years since, a friend of mine had a 
fine young horse that was attacked with tho 
heaves so badly as to be almost useless for 
works. The owner put him on cut feed, which 
very soon restored his wind. From that time 
to the present, he has been in constant service, 
and few are the roadsters that can beat him on 
the road. 

But visible or tangible facts are stronger 
p-oof than all the conclusions or arguments 
'hat can be chawn from su< h a head and pen 
as mine. I will mention one, a-d have done 
with ihis part of the subject. In 1855.1 pavo 
away to a friend whom I knew would treat 



TFIR CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



25 



Icmdly and had but little to do, tine h{ mir learn 
horses, 24 yea'S old, tha&ha I been fifteen years 
in our service, ami much of the time in very 
hard 1 ihor. He wa- a kind- tempered, but very 
high -spirited animal, and what he found to do 
he did with all hismieht, (1 mention this t'nt 
that it may not be said he lived to a ffoo I old 
age thr ugh laziness.) This horse was sound 
in wind, and smooth in every joint and limb, 
and as spirited and active as a colt when 
he left us. I recently heard from him carrying 
a good load over the bill,-! of Bangor and back, 
"by daylight," a distance of 25 miles out and 
in. 

For hay, we use one of Riiggfes & Noirse's 
machines, with spiral knives, set in cylindrical 
form, and cutting upon another of green h de. 
For corn fod lei and straw, for cattle, one (I do 
not know the name of the inventor) with cast 
in>n cylinders with open slaughts to let the cu t 
fodder go free which is preferable to the first 
mentioned, for this work. 

Cut fod ler is fid <try to our catile, (as we sel- 
dom feid any meal.) with wurtzels or rula b.i- 
gas and is usually eaten up (lean, witn the ex- 
ception of the coa sest of the corn butts Soim- 
of th-. dry seasons just past, when our hay crop 
was short, and we did not like to reduce <nr 
stock we had recourse to mixing straw with hay 
even late in th. Spring, wi'h a little meal in ad- 
dition to roots They never left, the barn in 
better condition, and with very much s vino- I 
expense. 

We have never <riven cut fodder to our flock 
of sheep, as we have hand cutters only, and it 
would take more time than we can spare, f.om 
the help we employ. 

My friend, W. D. Dana, of Perry, Washing- 
ton county, informs me that Edmund Lincoln, 
of Dennysville, favorably known to the public 
for his e.vren ive farm, well arranged buildings^ 
and cruod management, has his lar^e flock fed 
wiih cut fee I, to good profit. The flock is kepi 
in tiie basement of a large building, the ha 
above, where it. it is cut an I fed down into cribs; 
at d the "hole arrangement is so bonst meted as 
n nt to i haflt.be wool, or in any w y dis urb 
them. M. TABER. 

Vassalhoro' 1st. mo, 14th. 

Remember that the v\ heel of Providence is 
always in motion, and the spoke' that is upper- 
most will bo under, when its time comes. 



Eeceipts- 

MaMvg Vinegar. — The cheapest mode of 
making vinegar is to mix five quarts of warm 
rain-water with two quarts of Orleans moins- 
ses, and four quarts of yeast. In a few weeks 
you will liave the best vinegar you ever saw. 

To get rid of Rouse Ants. — The best way to 
get rid of ants is to set a quantity of cracked 
walnuts, or shell barks, on plates, and put 
them in a closet where the ants congregate. — 
They are very fond of these, and will collect 
in them in myfiads. When they have collect- 
ed in them, make a general auto-da-fe, by tinn- 
ing nuts and ants together into the (ire, and 
then replace the plates with fresh nuts. After 
they have become so thinned off as to cease 
Collecting on plates, powder some gum cam- 
phor and put it in the holes and crevices ; 
whereupon the remainder will speedily vamose. 
It may help the process of getting them to- 
•issembleon the shell barks, to remove all edi- 
bles out of their way for a time. 

To preserve Floicers in Water. — Mix a little 
carbonate of soda with the water, and it will 
preserve flowers for a fortnight, but the water 
in flowerpots should be changed every day in 
Summer, or it will become offensive and un- 
healthy, even if there is salt in them. 

Messrs. Editors : — -I send you two receipts 
which are recommended by a lady whose judg- 
ment cannot be questioned. They are excellent 
and the pudding simple and homely enough to 
accord with the spirit and name of your paper, 
and will doubtless be valued by some fruga* 
housewife, during these days when a few 'eggs 
are an almost unattainable luxury. I have 
thought you somewhat captious in your demand 
for particular's in re< eipts, but to please ycu 
will give the exact "modus operandi." 

Philadelphia Loaf Ca.le. — One pound and 
a half of flout : half a pound of butter ; thiee- 
fouiths of a pound of sugar ; half a pint of milk 
one and a half teaspoonfuls of soda ; thiee tea- 
spoonfuls of cream of tartar. Rub the cream of 
tartar thoroughly into the flour ; then rub the 
butter ;ind sugar together, adding the milk in 
which the soda should be dissolved one glass 
of wine; one nutmeg; rose water and three 
eggs which should be well beaten. Mix all 
quickly into the flour and bake immediately. 



26 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Contents- 

Page. 

A New Volume - - - 17 

A Now Chinese. Pota'o - - 12 

Agrteultti al Libraries for Schools, - 11 

An Intercs ing fact, - - - - 12 

Angora Goats, - - - - - 6 

Bones as Manure, - - - - - 3 

Best time for Pruninnr, - - - 22 

Chinese Sugar Cane Seed, - - 17 

Chinpse Sugar Cane — fc-'ugar Making - 18 

Culture of Celery. - - - 23 

Compost for Potatoes, - - - - 23 

Cutting Fodder for Stock, - - 24 

Cabha.e, Tut ni|.s ;ind other Croj s - 4 

Cows Dying- from Eating Hair, - - 11 

Chinese Sugar Cane in Texas, - - 13 

Exchanges - - - - - 17 

Improvement in Blasting Rocks, - - 11 

Legislative Agricultural Society, - - 18 

Letter from Texas, - - - - G 

Li be ality of Physicians, - - - 7 

Life of Seeds, ... _ 10 

Manuring, ... 5 

New Fei 'ilizer — Important to Farmers - 19 

New Sugar Cane Cuttings, 8 

Poland Oats, - ... 10 

Raising Cattle, - - - - 20 

Remedy for l\ot in Grapes, - - - 21 

Receipts, - - - 21 

Rotation with pe s for a tobacco Farm, - 13 

Stump .Vachines, - - - - 17 

Substitute for Leafier. .... 7 

The cream-pot breed of Tattle. 1 

The follies of the Age cause Poverty, - 8 

The grape crop of 1856, - - - 15 

The" Hyacinth. - 16 

Th • < ulture of the Osajre Orrmge - - 16 

"Which are the best Roses, - - - 14 
"Wire Nettings to prevent burning against 

StoV '9, - - - - - 3 

"Wea th North at d Sooth. 7 

"Wheat Crop of the United States, - - 11 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 

TREES AND PLANTS-. 

1*""AA LBS CHINESE Sugar Cnne, in q-rntirv 
t \)\J and also parcels ot & 00 set ds for i I 25, 
post ]>,od. 

C, )i ne*'e Imperial U'ljte- Tfiblto, the inn°t valuable, 
and ardv of all esrulrnts. £. r > por '20, £20 per 100. 
Qxfcr Will v.\( 2 to i 5 ;tf>r 1000. 
Lairttm M-tc$erri.M$]>cr l''0 *3 perdnz 
Yd' oiv and Honey />"'W Seed*, and all other kinds 
of taeds. WM. K PRINCE & CO . 

Flushing, N Y. 
n.h It 



SARDS' KARSAPAKULLA, 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 

FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

AND FOB THE CUKE OF ■«- 

S rtfula, Rheumatism, Stubborn Ulcers, Dys~ 
pepsin, Salt Ji'heUm, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples,, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases, Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Liter Complaint, Bronchitis, 
Consumption, Female 
Complaints, 
Loss of Appetite, General Debility, <5fC 
mO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
_L of 1 lie- humane atid philanthropise of all ages. — 
Before the practice of medicine became a science, the 
sick were publicly exposed in the oj en a r, and every 
passer-by named the remedy he considered most suit- 
able for the complaint. VVc possess at the presen 
day. through the agency of the press, a more reliable 
mdee of conveying information to our suffering fel- 
low creatures. Those afflicted with Scrofula, Cuta- 
neous or Eruptive Diseases, will hud ill the columns 
of almost eveiy newspaper and periodical published! 
certificates and testimonials from those who have 
been speedily cun d of these dreadful complaints by 
the purifying and powerfully regenerative qualitios 
of Sands' Sarsaparilla. 

A 8 T0XISH1NG CUR E. 

1'ateksox, N. Y. 
- Messrs A B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen -.— Having 
witnessed the most beneficial eff els Mini the use of 
yourSAKSAPARILI.A, it gives me pleasure to send 
you the following statement in regard to my sou. In 
"the Spring, he took a severe old, and after eight 
weeks of severe Miff ring the disease settled in his 
left leg and f .01 , wh.ch swelled lo the utmost The 
swelling was lanced by his physician, and dishaiged 
inost profusely. After that, no less than eleven Ul- 
c is formed on the leg and foot at one tune. We had 
live d.heretit physiciai s, but none reheved him much; 
and the last winter found him sodnaciakd and low 
that he was unable to leave his bed, suffering the 
most excruciating pain. During this tunc the bono 
bad bvcoiie.' so much affected, that piece af.er piece 
came oui, of wh ch he has now more ihaii iwenty- 
tive preserved in a Imttle, varying trom one half to 
one ami a half inches in length. We had given up 
all hopes of his reco'erv. but at this lime we ■ were 
induced to try your SAKSAP.\RI l.L.A, and with its 
use his health aba appetite began immediately to im- 
ptove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
dozen buttles effected a perfect cure. 

Willi gratitude, I remain truly vours, 
DARIUS BaLLa RD. 
We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ba lard, 
cheerfully subscribe to the f. id s of the i.bove state- 
ment. 

II. & R. S. Hyatt, 
Geo. T. Dean, 

A. M Tl OWtKBIIlDOE, 

C. Eastwood 
Prepared and sold, wholesale and ie - ai!, by A.B. & 

I). SANDS, Druggs s and Chemists, iOuFul.on St., 

corner of Will am. New Yolk. 
Sold also bv Druggists generally. 
Price $1 per bottie ; six bottles for $5. 1 ly 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



27 



Wo. 



H. D. TUilNEii, 
GENERAL BOOK AGENT, 

Ma. 1 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, ~N. C, 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COUKT REPORTS OF NO. CA. ( 

II is for nale, in quantities or by retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising Greek, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Books ; School 
Books ; B I a n k 
Books ; Juve- 
nile and 

Tog 
B oo k s ; 
Miscellaneous 
orks; with all the 
New Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a, lirge assortment of Station- 
ary and Fancy Articles. 

SCHOOL BOOKS.-Ail the different kinds ,>. 
Primers, Spelling Books, Readme Books, Gratn- 
luirs, Aril Unifies, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &c; also Works on Astronomy, Alge- 
br i, ien siry. Pnilosophy, Mn'thenritics, Surveying* 
Gj>ni'trv, B aaiiy, Book-keening, Rhetoric , Alensu 
ration. Trig m inetry, Geology, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery. Farming, Gaidening. Medicine, The. 'logy, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, «fcc, &c. He his always on 
ha id the Standard Engiis i Law Reporter and Digests, 
ail every I' ea Use on Particular subjects; together 
with the various State Reports and Digests, and a 
gMifcral ass .rtmei't of Law Book 5 * of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS— Led 2 ers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, C ish. and Leti-r Books, Reeeiut and Bdi 
Books, MfinonniJiiiii, Bank and Pa^s Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing B «>ks. 

KELIGIOUS BOOKS -Family, Pocket, nnd 
School Bib es, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
B >oks, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.-Piano Music, Music 
Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND F\NCY ARTICLES — 
C i i-=istin_; of Foolsc an and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Po-t and Drawl ig Paper. Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tricing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Q'lills Wafers, Scaling wax, Pocket Books. Aibnms ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red I • i k < ; Prints Gold and Silver ever-p >int''d I'en- 
Ct's, Soils, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Snan-B .oks, Visiting Cards, Car I Casrs, fciold and 
Siver Palter, Inkstnnds, Sla e and S'ate Pencils, Lead 
iPenei's, Bristol and Ivo y Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Biuledores, Rules, India Rubber, < 'aniline Sauc-rs, 
Nr.v.n-in's, Reev.s's, and American Water Col- 
ors, &e. 

N. B. -BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
farms, with neatness and dispatch. 



DO- G VTD^N-SEED^.— To he had at the North 
Car iiina Bo >k*t >re, Gajden-See Is, warranted Iresh 
and L'ood, crop of H5">, selected from the in st tip- 
pr >vel Seedsmen and Gardeners in the Northern 
Country. 



FARMER'S HALL 

RALEIGH, N C. 

The subscriber is geneiai asieut for ihe sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Fanning utensils, lie'd 
seeds, Fertilizers, &e. &c. Almost all ihe articles 
brought to tJie late Fair arc kept on sale and aie 
offered at manufacturers prices with no < <>st ot trans- 
portation, as they were brought free fry ihe Rnilnad. 

There is also a new fire proof Ware House on the 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are stored. 
The following are someof the articles biought to the 
late Fair: Horse Powers, Wheat Fans. Corn Dri Is, 
Field Rollers, Com and Cob Crushers. Harrow^ Cul- 
tivators, and Plows '">! every size and desei iption. 
JAMES M. TOWLES. 



Boo'c Binding 
J()H\ II. DeCAR'IKRKT & SON. 

RARElGII. N. C. 
4 RE still carrying on the BOOK BINDING busi- 
llL ness in all its branches at the old stand over 
'•Turn.' -r's N. C. Bookstore." 

Their increased f'ae bties will enable them to exe- 
cute the binding of Periodicals, Newspapers. Music, 
&c, with promptness and lispatch, at New York 
prices. 

Books ?ent to them from any part ol the State, with 
directions, wiil be bouyd in any style desired, boxed 
and sent back wnbout de av. Address 

JNO. II. DeCARTERET & $0% 

Raleigh, N. C. 



"Learn of the Mole to oioin'h." — 'rope, 
YCHE'S CUL (TYATING PLOW, ( IATKNT- 
j>ii> Stb of jimiarv, lsoij )— called the Mole; 
1'I.av; with vertical cutters near the edge ofa horizoi- 
ial slr.ire. f >rdi vidmg the furrow slice, and a curved 
cutter on the rear of the share for turnimr the whole 
in towards the plow, or as far on the opposite side of 
the sbareas may be desired. Adapted To siding, list- 
ing, breaking turty or hard land, subseilii g, and 
many other purposes. Isliuht, cheap, and suoig; 
and supposed to be the most peifect pulverizer in use. 
For he-use to sell, with directions tor nianufifctur- 
ing, address. W. E. WYCliF, 

riniokville, Granville Co , N. C. 
J-Hip ]'">, 18-^fi. 5 — tt. 



IRON. 



February, IS53. 



tf 



SPRING TRADE, 1857 
TOIiN N. GORDON, GROCER AND COMMIS- 
SI SION MERCHANT, AND DEALER IN ME- 
TALS, 14-th Street, near ihe Exchange Hotel, Rich- 
mond, Ya., offersfor sale — 
Orleans and Coffee Sugars, various grades, 
l.ouf, Crushed, Gr mutated and Powdered Sugars. 
Laguira, Rio and Old Government Java Coffee. 

I Orl-ans and West. India Molasses. 

j Pure Cider Ymegar. 

I Sperm, Adamantine and Tallow Candles. 

j Snips, Fancv and Brown. 
Sole heather, good and damaged! 
All sizes Fhit, lluniyd, Squ ne Swedes, ] 
Aniericau H nnniered, 

! English Reli.iod, 

j English and Am rican rolled, 
English and American bl'Mered Steel. 
Herman, Cist and Sher.r S'eel. 
Broad I'lou ■b Iron, ii to l'J inch. 
American, English and liu-s'a Sheet Iron. 
( >val. halt Oval and naif round Iron. 
NaT Rods, Amerca> and Swedes. 
B ind, Scroll and il >op Iron. 
Horse Shoes, assorted, 
dorse and Mule Shoe Iron. 
Tin Plate, Pig and Bar Tin. 
Sliiel Zinc, Spelter, and Spelter Solder. 
Sheathing, Brazier's and Bolt Copper. 
.McConn'ek's and Palmer Mould Boards. 

'^° Particular attention given to ihe sale of 
Wheat, Flour and Country Produce generally. 



) 



£8 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



Wyc'ie's C^tiva ting Plow. 

PATENTED '26TH FEBRUARY, 1856: (THE 
iil uL'd Plow;.) awarded $&(l premium at the last 
N. C. St. .te Fair; with cuttirig blades i i ■ the place of 
a uiuldbuard ; cuts, divides and iiirns ovei'frie soil; 
■dep isit.ng; the finer parts in the furrow, and tunimg 
over ihe turf, clods, &e , on the surface. Is cheap, 
light, and lasting, and easy to boih dr.vcr anil team. 
Admirably ad tpted to almost any purpose for which 
•the plow is used. 

For license to sell, with further information, address 
\V. E. W'YCIIE. 
BrooknllCj Granville Co. N. C. 
June 16, 1S'56, ",— tf 

_ J. II. Gi'.)ch, Oxford, N. C, solicits orders for the 
above plows. 



DOCTOR HQOFLAND'3 

CELEBRATED 

G E RMAN B i T T E K S . 

PliKPARED BY 

])k. C. M JACKSON 7 Piiilad'a Pa. 

WILL EF|.'KCTU"AI.I,Y CURE 

LIVER COMPT, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or Me, oovs BeMUty, Bisiase o/ the 
Kidneys, and ail diseases fusing fr.oty, a Disordered 
Birer or Stomach. 
Such 
as Consnpa- 
tion, Inward Pi'es 
Fulness or Bi« od to the 
Head, Acidity ol the stomach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Distrust for food. 
Fullness or Weight in the Slomnoh'. Soiir Emd- 
tatinns. S.nkmg or Fluttering at ihe pit ol the t-\<>- 
m-ieli, S> vim niu* of tlin Head, Hurried and diffi- 
cult. Br.wirbin.sr, f' n l i'tering.atlhe Hean,Choaking 
of sull mating sensations when iti a lying pos- 
uire. Dim ies< ol vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight, _ Feyer and Dull Pain in the 
He. id, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
> oilowness ol the skin and eyes, 
Piiti in ihe Side, liack, Chest, 
Limbs, iVe , Sudden flush- 
es ol Heat, Burning in 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil, 
and great de- 
pression of 
■Spiiiis, 
The proprietor in calling ihe attention of the pub- 
lic to this fi eparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in its virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for wtiieh it is recommended . 

It is no new untried aitiele but one i ho ! has stood 
the lest of a ion ye/'i>' trial before the American peo- 
ple, and us reputation and sal.' is unrivaled by any si ■ 
iriilnr prep iralious extant. The.nestimouy in it? fa- 
vor given by the in >st prominent and well known 
Physicians ■intl individuals in all parts of ihe coun- 
try is immense, and aeareful perusal of the Almanac 
published annually bv the proprietor, and to be had 
gr itie ol any ol his agents, cannot but satisfy ihe most 
skeptical th it this remedy is really d> serving the givat 
celehiiry it has obtained. 

Prineioal Office and Manufactory No. 96 Arch Si 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM X. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING REFECTS FROM. THE GER- 
MAN BITTEN. 
Certificate of Dr W SMITH, of P!» e Hitt, Rich- 
■iwm I Co , N. C, March 4, R54 
Dr. C M. Jackson. Philadelphia.- Deal Sir.— I 
have been a subject ul Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for ihe las 1 five years Such was my condition for 12 
months thai 'he physicians' and all who saw nrie said 
1 must die. Whilt; m this condition, 1 was carried 10 
the watering places in Viigiina. Tennessee and Noith 
Camlinji, Inn was not hem filled by any water to 
wi i th I wasiak.n. V Ink on my w.av h< n;e. 1 "-top- 
ped a week at Rutherlordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina fo try the effect • f some Chalybeate water 
in that place. A In ul the lastol ihe. wetk.l well! in- 
to a ding i-t.i'te to get some medicine lor my child ai d 
mysell There wen se\cialoi ilie villi gc pi \s ei- 
ans nj the store, and one of them seemed to take Some 
interes. in my ease and after askii.g me seme qees- 
tions, said he bail | een a dyspeptic, ar.d had b.en 
greatly benefit!, d by ihe use of " Dr. i.oiflai d's Ger- 
man Hitters,' 1 prepared by y u, and he insist; d thai I 
should try the filters He also ci Hid the next day 
at my room, and insisted so mufh that 1 Votild liy 
them, that 1 asked him lo get me o> e bottle. He aid 
it, and I commenced taking ii as directed, and 1 do 
say 1 was moie benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine 1 had ever laken. 

Aher reaching home, one of mJP'eighbois came to 
me for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic.) 
and I gave him nearly all the Biitcis I had leli: which 
effected n ncli good iuhisca-e. He has often calk d 
on me for more < f ihe same kii d ot medicine, snx.ing 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he had 
take . hut I frve not been able to t>et any more for 
him or myself since ; wi I you, theiefoie, please ship 
me a dozen or more as snor. as pnfsible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. SMITH, M. D. 

GREAT CURE OF PUTS. 

Certificate of 1.1'./. AT WOOD. [h'nUmlle, Yadlin 
Cn..X. ('., JVmi. 1. 1853. 

Dr. C. M. Jacks, n--Uear Sir,— Allow me to ox- 
press to you my sincere thanks tor your di-eoven of 
a medieii e. whn h, to say the hast ol it, ha* ificiid 
a cure that all other medicines lhal I have taken ha .a 
entirely failed tod.o " Hoofland's German B iters," 
have cured me of ihe most, stubborn and aggrav.au d 
ease of the Piles that, perhaps, ever iell to the lot ol 
man. My ease is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all my fronds and re 1 at fori-, as I had tried cveiy- 
lh'ng it commended, and nothing did me anv gird 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, lor 
ihe benefit of the afflicted, as yen may thii.k proper. 
Truh yours, 

V\m T. AT WOOD. 

These Risers are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great (advantage over every mneral iicparat'on, as 
they never prositaie, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem' 

Piire7V. pel bottle. Sold bv Druggists and Store- 
keepers in ev ry town and village in the United. 
States and Canadas and lv 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

November 13.->n, Hahigh. 

WAREENTON FUrALP- COLIEGIATE IKST11UTE 
WAN'RENTON, N. C. 

HE 30th session nj' this school will commence on 
the 3d of January next, jirepaied to giv thorough 
instructnictii n in all the bran, hes o female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
lime ol entrant e 

Trims per Frss'on : 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in looms, 
Kngl'sh tuition, 
VI usie on Piano. Guitar, Melodeon, with use 

of instrument, each « 
Oil Painting, 

Persons wishing furihe'- information, will 
apply to 
December, 18.">5. 



T 1 



ST CO 


00 


12 


50 


23 


'0 


IS 


lit) 


pie 


ise 



GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



29 



GRENOBLE HOSK. 

THIS superior hose, manut-ic'ured irom the finesl 
of HEMP, is ada ted an I especially M»ra- 
mended t- >r the use ot Fire Koines'. Mills, Manufac- 
tories. Ships, Steamboats, Patlroads, Hotels, Garden 
uses, &.«. Its advantages over other Hose, are its 
ex rerae liohln"ss and cheapness It will stand as 
much prps*re as Leather H«<se, and has proved to he 
as d. liable ; and all the care it uexds alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
inches in diameter, h lengths from 1W to » feet, 
by CHAKLGS LENZ.MAN'N, 

5t Cedar st , New York. 
Sole Airent lor tiie United States. 

Certificates of us sup-nor qualities irorii the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navv Yards; from Al- 
fred I 'arson. Esq .Chief Kneineer of the New York 
F.re Department; James Smith, Esq. New York, 
and L. Button. Esq.. Waterford, Fire Engine Build- 
ers, and from Some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &c , can be examined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb IS— 6m 

LYO* 'SKATKAIRON 

Has- now hecome the standard preparation 
for the HAIR. Its immense sale, nearly 
fc*g~ 1,000, „JJgfl * 
BOTTLES. 

Per year, attests its exoeller.ee and great 
superiority over all other articles of the kind. 
The ladies universally pronounce the 
KATHAIRON 
To be, by far, the finest and most agreeable 
article they ever used. It kkst-'Kes the Hair 
after it has fallen out; invigorates and beai'- 
tifie? it, giving to it a, rich glossy appearance, 
a-id imparts a delightful perfume, Sold bv all 
dealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 
25 Cents per Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNK00P&C0., Proprietors, 

63 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers, also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
and in great variety. Gin. 

CHINESE SUGAR CAXE. OR SORCIIO SUCRE— 
PURE SEED. 

1MIE subscriber hereby informs ihe Planters. Fa-m- 
er- and Cardeners of the Butted Slates, that he 
rw> obtained from P. PeTeks, Esq , of this city. ihr 
control of his crop of Seed of this valuable plant, 
eomeofth" properties of- which may be briefly sum- 
med np a-* follows :--- 

First ---An acre, of Stales properly cultivated, will 
yield from 400 to 500 gallons of pure Syrup, equal t u 
the best New Orleans. 

Second ---It surpas-es all other plants fit fodder 
and for feeding green to cattle, or hoop, on account of 
the great abundance of sugary juiCe which it contains: 
and, sown in close drills, will yield from thirty to 
filty thousand pounds of superior Green Fodder to 
the aere. 

Third—- It. is fo certain and prolific a crop that 
Planters mav be sure o' succeeding with it as a syrup 
plant anywhere south of Ihe Slate of N^w York. 

This seed, which ha9 been carefully kept pure, is 
now offer°d m cloth packages, each containing 
enough to pKnt half an acre 4 t'eet x 1 1-2 ("eel, will 
be furnished by mail at one dollar and thir y cents 
each, or atone dollar if sent by express, freight un- 
paid. 

Dealers in Seeds and country merchants, or per- 



N 



sons witling t« plant by the quantity, can be suppli- 
ed at a liberal discount froni retail ia',es. 

A pamphlet containing a full description of this 
plant its history, valuable pfoi-erties. and a plate of 
the horse-mill used for eimhmg, will be furnished by 
noai 1 to all applicants. 

Address, with plain directions for mailing or ship- 
ping. 

W. P. OR ME, 

Nov 7, 1856. At lanta , Georgia^ 

TORTH CAROLINA MUTUAJL LIFE JdSKUR- 
a:ce Company, Raleigh, N. C. '.ilns CCmpariy 
insures the lives ot individuals lor one year, a lei in of 
years, or for life, on the mutual pjuxcipl., ihe as- 
suicdfor life participating in all the pieft.v of ihe 
Company. For polities granted for ihe whole term 
of life, when the premium therefor aim unis to £30, 
a mile way be given for one half ihe amount of the 
premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
anty. 

The prompt manner in which all losses have been 
paid by th;s Company, tOgetbet with low rates of 
premium, present great iuciiiCLtneiits to such as are 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to five 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within &0 days after satisfactory 
proof is presented. 

DIRECTORS. 



Wffl. VV. HoLDEX, 

Wm. D. Cooke, 

If. H. RATTLli, 

Wm. H. J.oxes, 
P P. Pe cud' 
Seatox Oai.es. 



Charles E. Jonxsox, 
Wm. D. Haywood, 
Joxh G Williams, 
11 W Hcsted, 

Wm. H. McKrK, 

Charles B Root, 

OFFICERS. 

Or. Charle- E. Johxsox, President, 

William 1). Haywood, Vice President, 

Ricuard H. B ttle, Secretary, 

William H. Joxes, Treasurer, 

H. W. Hustkd, A tnrnev. 
Charles E. Johnson, M. I). ) Medical 
William II. McKke, M.. D. Y Board of 
Uicii'n. B. Haywood, M. O. ) ('vn.-ndtution. 

R. H. Rattle, 

W. W. Hoi.dex. 

Charles I!. Root, 

Communications should be addressed, (post paid) to 
R. H. BATTLE, Secretary. 



(_ Exec it ire Com- 
1 mittee. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

MU : U/L JHSURAoCE COMPANY 

A T THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE North 
IX Carolina Mutual Insurance Con pan'y, held on 
the 9lh hist, the following persons were elected Di- 
rectors and Officers for the ensuing: year : 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY. 
T. H. Seibv, President 
H. D. Turner, Vice President 
H. S. Smith, Secyu-nd Treas. 
John II. Bryan, Aiiornen. 
T.II.Selb.w-., officio. | 

.John II. Williams, Y Executive Committee. 
C. W. D Huleliins, ) ^ 

This Company has been in successful operation for 
more than 7 years, and continues to take ri.-ks upon 
all classes of property in the State, (except Siearn 
Mills and Turpentine Distilleries,) upon 'avorable 
terms. Its Policies now cover property ami untirg 
to $4,500,0(10, a large portion of which is in Country 
-isks : and its present capilal is nearly Seven Hun- 
dred Thousand Dollars, in bonds properly seemed 

The average cost ot Insurance upon the ph;u of this 
Company has been less than one third ot one per 
cent, per annum, on all gtades of property embraced 
in its operations. 

All communications in reference to insurance 
should be addressed to the Secretarv, pest paid. 

H. S. SMITH, Sec'y. 



so 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



AVER'S IM.Ls. 

Anew and si guin-r y successful remedy for the 
cure of all Liilious diseases — Costiveness, Indi- 
gestion, Jaundice, Drop*v, Rheumatism, Fevers, 
Gout, Mh riofsj Nervousness, Irritab hfy, Inflamma-. 
tioiis, Headaclie, Pains in the BreaSI, Side, Hack, and 
Lirr.bs, Female Complaints, &c, &c. Indeed, vei'y 
few are the diseases in which a Purgative Medicine 
is riot more or less required, and much sickness and 
suffering might be-prevenfed, if a harmless but ef- 
fectual Ca thart.ic were more freely used. No person 
can feel well while a costive habit of body previus; 
besides it soon generates serious and often fatal dis- 
eases, which might have been avoided by the timely 
and judicious use of a good purgative. This is alike 
true of Colds, Feverish symptoms, and Bilious de- 
rangements. They all tend to become or produce the 
deep seated and formidable distempers which load the 
hearses all over the land. Hence a reliable family 
physic is of the first importance to the public health, 
and this I'ili has been perfected with consummate 
sk:li to meet that demand. An extensive trial of its 
virtues by Physicians, Professors, and Patients, has 
shown results surpassing any thing hitherto known 
of any medicine. Cures have been effected beyond 
belief, were they not substantiated by persons of such 
exalted position and characters to forbid the sus- 
picion of untruth. 

Among the nany eminent gentlemen who have 
testified in favor of these Pills, we may mention: 

Dr. A. A. Hayes, Analytical Chemist, of Boston, 
and State Assurer of Massachusetts, whose high pro- 
fessional character is endorsed by the 

Hon. EdwaRP Everett; Senator of the TI S 

Robert C. Winthuop, Ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives. 

Abbott Lawrence, Vlinister Plen. to England. 

t John B. Fitzpatrick, Oath. Bishop of Boston. 

Also, Dr. J. R. Cuii.ton, Practical Chemist, of New 
York City, endorsed by 

Hon. Vy, L. Makcy, Secretary of State 

W.\i. B. Astor, the richest man in America. 

S. Lei.and & Co., Propr's of the Metropolitan Ho- 
tel, and others. 

Did sp ice permit, we could give many hundred cer- 
tificates, from all parts where the Pills have been 
used, but evidence even more convincing lhan the 
experience of eminent public men is found iu their 
effects upon trial. 

These Pills, the result of long investigation and 
study, are offered to the public as the best and most 
complete which the preseui state of medical science 
can afford. They are compounded not, of the drugs 
themselves, but of the medicinal Virtues only of Veg- 
etable remedies, extracted by chemical process in a 
state of purity, and combined together in such a man- 
ner as to insure the best results. This system of 
composition for med'cines has been found in the Cher- 
ry Pectoral and Pills both, to produce a more efficient 
remedy thin had hitherto been obtained by any pro- 
cess. The reason is perfectly obvious. While by 
the old mode of composition, eVery medicine is bur- 
d j .ied with more or less of acrimonious and injurious 
qualities, by this each individual virtue only that is 
desired for the curative effect is present. All the 
inert and obnoxious qualities of each substance em- 
ployed are left behind, the curative virtues only being 
retained. Hence it is self-evident the effects should 
prove as they have proved more purely remedial, and 
the Pills a surer, more powerful antidote to disease 
than any other medicine known to the world. 

As it is frequently expedient that my medicine 
should be taken under the counsel of an attending 
Phvsician, and as he could not properly judge of a 
remedy without knowing its composition, I have sup- 
plied the accurate Formulae by which both my Pec- 
toral and Pilis are made to the whole body of Practi- 
tioners in the United States and British American 
Provinces. If, however, there should be. any one who 
has not received them, they will be promptly forward- 
td by mail to his address. | 



Of all the Patent Medicines that are offered hov 
few would be taken if iheir composition, was b l; wn, 
Their lite consists iu their mystery. I have no mys- 
teries J 

The composition of my preparations is laid open to 
all men, andall who are competent to judge on Ihe 
subject freely acknowledge their convictions of their 
intrinsic merits. The Cherry Pectoral was pro- 
nounced by scientific men to be a wondeiluf mod 'ire 
before its effects were known. Many eminent Phv- 
sicians have declared the same thing of my Pills ai*d 
even. more confidently, and are willing to certify that 
their anticipations were more than realized by ' their 
effects upon trial. 

They operate by their powerful influence on the in- 
ternal viscera to purify the blood and stimulate it ii.lo 
healthy action- remove the obstructions of the st< m- 
ach, bowels, liver, and other organs of the body re- 
storing their irregular aciion to health, and l,v 'col- 
lecting, wherever they exist, such derangements as 
are the first origin of disease. 

Heing sugar wrapped they are pleasnnt to take, and 
being purely vegetable, no harm can arise from their 
use in any quantity. 

For n.inute directions see wrapper on the Box. 

PREPARED BY JAMES C. A YER 

Practical and Analytical Chemist 

LOWELL. MASS 

Pkice 2." Cents pfr Box. Five Boxes for $] 

SOLD BY 

\ P F \| Pe ' end -- nd Williams & Haywood, Raleigh, 



GREEN SAUD MARL OF NFW JFBSFY 

rpIIE NEW-JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
i is now prepared to receive orders for (his impor- 
tant Manure. For- all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Mar] is more than a substitute Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annmd Report to the Leg-islature 
oi New Jersey, says : 

" The value ;.f these Marls is best seen in the rich 
and highly cultivated dtstiict which has leer, im- 
proved (almost nfade) by their use. Bui it may be 
interesting to exam ne the causes of their great value 
in agndulfure, and to compare them with oilier mrtil- 
izers. For example : The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as live per cent of the whole weight of 
the Miirl ; a bushel, when dry, weighs eighty pounds • 
and m the proportion mentioned, would contain tour 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel or vmleiH'lted imndashex " 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found in the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

Price, delivered onboard vessels at tin wharves of 
the Company at Portland Heights, Rarilain Bay New- 
Jersey, Stolen Vents per Bufkel. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sent fret, of 
postage. Orders for other fertilizers will 'receive, 
prompt attention Address either of the undersigned 
CHAS SEARS, Pros! 
RicevUle Post-Office, N.J. 
GeoW. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar st., N. Y. 

Tappat Townsem! Treas., 

82 Nassau st.. N.Y. S-lv. 

N. B.— Those wishing Marl for Spring use should 
order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
Orders will he filled in rotation. 



PEACH T; EES FOR S^LE- 

A CHOI E SELECTION 01- KINDS BOTH 
for the Garden and Oi chard, of ihe most beau- 
tiful growth : worked from specimen bearing trees, 
at Sixty dollars per l.ouO. 

Also a general assortment of other T-rtes and 
Plants low. Packing done in the best manner by 
EDWIN ALLEN, 
Nurseries, New Brunswick, ]N. J. 
Nov. 1856. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



31 



PIANOS, MELODEONS, AND MUSIC. 




PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



HORACE WATERS, 

No. 333 iiiiOAmvAY, Nkw Y"oi;k. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK PIANOS AND MELO- 
DEONS. 

1T1E LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE UNITED S 'ATES. 
. Pianos Irom five different Manufacturers, <f ever// variety of »tyk— frorii those in plain rosewood 
case4*t<* $20n, to those of the'most elegant finish, lor $1000. No House in the Union can come in aoifi- 
p-titi.m tor the number, varieiy, and cehbr ty of its instruments, nor the i.itrtmely Low pi-ken at which they 
are sold. 

HORACE WATERS 1 MODERN IMPROVED PIANOS, 
with or without iron frames, have, in their new scale a d improved action, a power and compass of tone 
equaliiiug the grand, with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Press and first music mas- 
ters have justly pronounced them equal if not superior to any other make. They art -g wrunteed to stand 
the ac'i/m. "t e eery climate. 

HORACE vV VT -5 US' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable qual- 
ity-sale a.^eot lor the sale of S I) & H VV. Smith's celebrated Alelodeons— can also furnish Melodeoiis oi 
all other mikers. Prices irom'-)$l;5 to $125; for uvosets ot reeds, $15J ; two banks of Keys, $200; Oiaan 
ped ii bus ine]edeons,'5j75 and iii3i)0. 

MUSI " -One ot the largest arid best catalogues of Music n w published ; sold at greatly reduced prices. 
Ma-: ic sent to whenever ordered., post pud. Personal attention! paid to all orders received by Mail. Se- 
condhand Pianos taken in exchange for new Catalogues smi by mail. Grtat inducements oflertd to 
agent- to sell ihe above A liberal discount to de tiers, teachers, semiuar.es and clergymen. 

Each Iustrimie ^guaranteed to give satisfaction, or purchase money refunded. SECO 
ANOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly iu store ; prices from 30 to $140. 



SECOND HAND PI- 



TESTIMONIALS FROM PROFESSORS, AND OPINIONS OF THE PKESS. 



Says yThe Christian Intelligencer" 'The Horace | 
Waters Pianos, f>r elcgance'of construction, superior | 
depth and sweetness of- tone, were proi.ounced by i 
competent judges at the orystal Palace t be in ali| 
respects masierpieces of Mechanical skill. Having i 
inspected a large number of the Horace Waters' Pi- ! 
arms, wc can speak of their mer.ts, from personal | 
knowledge -is .e ; ug of the very best quality." 

Nothing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in anv department than the Piano-Forte rnaim- ! 
faetured by Horace Wateis, of this city. — Church- 
man. 

Th ■ f blowing is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "Ttie rinesl among the many pianos at. the 
CrystaPP llace are those p'aced there by Horace Wa- 
ters, wi >se msiru nenta are always popular." 

Tne following we take from the "Christian Advo- 
i cate" Memphis Teu.i. "T!i« Horace Waters' Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
teri il. From all we can learn of this establishment — 
and to be the largest in the United States— we have 
io douSi that buyers can do aa well, perhaps better, 
at ihis timo than any other house in the Union." 

" \\r. Waiers h is been long established and is f ivo- 
rably known We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
tnually charged lor articles in his line." — Juckxonian, 
N. J 

"Your instruments are a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos, and on hon r to the skillful m nu- 
faeturer. There is no doubt but they will be appre- 
ciated by the public and all admirers of true merit. — 
Oscar Coin ttant. 



"I tuke great pleasure in pronouncing them insru- 
meiits oi a superior quality both in tone and to.* h. 

August (Jockle." 

For power of tone, depth of bass, and brilliancy of 
treble, together with accuracy of touch, ihey.are equal 
to any make I am acquainted with, and I cordially re- 
commend (.hem to those wishing to purchase. — V. C. 

TliyUir . 

"Our friends will find at Mr. Waters' store the very 
bestassorfinent of music and ot pianos to be found in 
the Uniied States, aid we uige our southern arid 
western friends to give him a call whenever they go 
to New York."' — Graham's Jhnjazine. 

"We consider them worthy of special attention, 
Irom the resonant and exceedingly .musical tone which 
Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining.'' — N. Y. Mu- 
sical Wui id and Tines. 

There is one which, for beautv of fini.-h and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of toic, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the kind we hare ever seen. It is 
irom the establishment of Horace Waters. Being 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the action of the climate, and of standing 
a longtime iu tune. — tiaeunnak Georgian^ Savannah, 
Ga. 

Says th u "Evening Mirror," "They Oho Horace 
Waters' Pianos) are very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comnaris n 
with any other manufacturer in the country, as re- 
girds their outward elegauce, and quality oi tone and 
power. 



82 



TTIR CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



COOKE'S NEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, 



NOW READY FOR DELIVERY. 



~:"r V-rA— "i-"-' ~ ,-<■ 



t ncM3Kr*MCEae '.'.'r^-r, :,.;--.- .*^^JCT£Sae?^:?ia*saa2E!ra3ZE*«CCWa&J* , M^U'ek»W3«C31»iErrr.2aE'. . 



THIS Large and Beautiful M IP of North Carolina is now ready for delivery. It is one of the best 
e -l^riv i.l in ips tli.it h is ever bjea pub lshej of any State in the Union, and is sold at the low price of 
Eight Dollars. 

No Maps will lie sold except by suh sarin' Ion.. &.# mis will bo f >iinii in most of the counties of the Store, Or 
persons desiring a copy of the Map can send their names directly to " Win. D. Cuoke, Raleigh, N. C." 

A G E N T S W A N T E I.» . 

A number of counties in the State are yet unengaged. Persons wishing to canvass for the Map will be 
furnished with the terms, &c, upon application mi the unders-gned. 

Agents at-3 als » wuited for S <uth Carolina and V.rginia. The Map includes Virginia as far north as 
Richmond, and South Carol na as far south as the junction o! the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 

T E I) I T OKH. 

Editors in this State, who. having advertised the Map for six months, are entitled to a copy, will please 
communicate the fact to the Undersigned, that their copies may be forwarded by lirst. opportunity. 

W. D. COOKE, 

Raleigh, N. C. 



Report oi Professors Emnnns and Milch 31', to the North Carolina State Ag. Soc, on 

COOKS'S NEW M.i.P OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

I have had frequent opp iriunities of testing the correctness of Mr Cooke's new Map of North Carolina 
and parts oi the adjoining States. This Map is worthy of spec a! notice: 1st, from the fact that it embraces 
those parts >f Virginia, .South Carol, naand Tennessee which are oi immediate interest to the citizens of this 
State. L'd, that the eastern part of the State is compiled Iron data obtained Ihrnugh the determinations of 
the Coast Survey. Sd, it contains an entirely new feiture in \U pnhiLe extend. ng along the line oft fie Rail- 
road survey from Goldsboro' to Asheville, which exhibits the heights of many interesting points,- as well 
through the central and western p irts of the State lying east of the mountains as amongst the Mountains 
themselves. 

In addition lothe foregoing it may b* justly said that Mr Cooke h is taken unwearied pains to correct the 
geography of the different counties, and to inert the prevalent names ot places, tiiose for instance which 
have come into use since new lines of travel have been established. It is in fact a New Map, and the only m:ip 
which can be relied upon for accuracy in its details. It moreover merits commendation for the aiiistical skill 
displayed in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct. 

EBE.NEZER EMMONS, State Geologist. 

In the encomium passed by Prof. Emmons, upon Mr. Cooke's new Map, 1 fully concur. The particular* 
mentioned by him are of tirist rate importance and interest. Most of the maps of the State, hereto fore pub- 
lished, have furnished few, if any, indications of tlje position of any point within our own limits, with regard 
Ut the States, norili, south, or west of us. This evil has now a remedy. In noticing the map, the vei\ ef- 
jflcient and important ail, in its construction, so fully afforded by Prof. A. \) liactie, Superinieiident ot the 
United States C aistSmve.y, and by Col. Gwynn, having the management oi the Survey of a railroad, car- 
ried over the Blue Ridge into the valley of the French Ur.iUd, .should not be passed in silence Only the' por- 
tion of the map representing the eastern pari of the Stale has been submitted to my iospictiion, but to this 1 
presume, the rest will be made to correspond. fc. MITCHELL 

University of N. C, October 21, l«5(i. 



JOHN N. GORDON, 

Irocer and Commission Merchant and Dealer 

in Metals, 

Hth Street, near the Exchange Hotel % 

RICHMOND, VA. 
May, 18!>6. 3.— tt 



WAN 'IE by by a young lady residing at the 
North, a situation ns Tocher, at the South, 
iu either a family or public school'. She it. qualified 
to teach "the common aid higher English branches, 
Music, and Drawing. Credentials given if required, 
il iii a lamliy, she would prefer one ot religious prin- 
ciples. Address the Ldaor of the " Can.umi Culti- 
vator." feb. 13— if. 








. .. 






-^ ^ 






13 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



i 



im\t\ fa Sigrimltnn,, JSortirulfurc, anil tlje 3ikrjjnmr Slrk 



WILLIAM I>. COOKS, Editor, and Publisher- 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, ff. C, APRIL, 1357- 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIEST OF EACn M05TH. 

TERHS. 
1 Copy in advance $1 00 



6 Copies 
10 
13 
20 " 



5 00 
8 00 

10 o» 

15 00 



NO- -2. 

iimbs and horns, or even an entire absence of 
the latter, having a larger or smaller maas of 

fat on the shoulder or rump, or being covered 
vrith a coat of finer, coarser, thicker, or thin. 
ner hair, aown or wool; still, these differences, 
when proper ca'-e is taken to prevent crossing, 



Subscriptions may begin with nay number; but j usually continue for a Ion? period in those 
Rennet other srise directed, the back numbers of fa d & f h £ transported to 

in e current volume will be sent. * 



RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

One square 12 line?, <v.ie month, 

Each subsequent insertion, 

Ji p^ge one year, 



10, 



Or e j (age " 



Jflisrcllanemt 



Domestic Animals. 



Influences of the ch'nnge of soil or climate on 
AniiTiaU, and of the vari \ti of their food. 

BY D. J. BROWNE. 

Of the domestic quadrupeds which man 
transports to every part of the habitable globe, 
:.rid subjects to various kinds of management, 
both in regard to heat and cold, moisture and 
dryness, as well is to labor and nourishment, 
it cannot le denied that considerable changes 
are manifested in their torn:, contour, size, 
color, and secretions; but these, in general, 
are merely, superficial, the animals being 
greater or less in bulk, with longer or shorter 
Vol. 8, No. 2— A. 



countries remote from those in which they 
a j ,-, were originally produced. They alio depend 
5 ' upon determinate circumstances, and their es- 
I q ! tent increases or diminishes in proportion to 
50,00 the intensity of the causes which occasion 
them. 

Upon these principles it has been observed 
that the most superficial characteristics are the 
most variable. Thus, color depends much up- 
on light; thickness of hair or wool, upon heat 
or cold; and size, form, or the secretion of 
milk, upon the scarcity, abundance, or quality 
of food. It is not to be understood, however, 
that these variations constitute the differences 
in the races or varieties of our domestic breeds, 
but that they have long existed with similar 
forms and habits as at present, either acquired 
and accumulated through a series of genera- 
tions, which, in the course of time, have be- 



come hereditary, or that they have ever re- 
tained their original and typical castes from 
their earliest progenitors. 

In respect to the effects produced by the 
change of food and climate on our domestic 
animals, I would cite the instance of the horse: 



J4 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



given in the Agricultural Report of the Patent 
Office for 1854 If the London "Dray" be 
conveyed to Arabia and subjected to the same 
influences as the native horses of that country 
are exposed, in the course of a few genera- 
tions, he will present the leading characteris- 
tics of the Arabian horse. The head will 
gradually diminish in size, the limbs will be- 
come fine and clear, the massive proportions of 
the whole body will disappear, and not only 
will the external form of the native be ac- 
quired, but, aside from this, something also of 
the chivalrous disposition or spirit. Again, if 
the race thus improved be conveyed back to 
the central or northern parts of Europe, it will 
gradually deteriorate, and, in the course of 
some generations, will assume all its original 
proportions. These facts would tend to prove 
that the Arabian horse cannot long exist in 
perfection in the cool, humid climate of Bri- 
tain ; and the influences arising indirectly from 
that cause are regarded as the principal rea- 
sons of the change. It has also been ascer- 
tained that the large coach horses of Leicester- 
shire, in England, when carried to some parts 
of Yorkshire, where the pasturage is more 
sparse, degenerate and become small; and that 
the " Pad" and saddle horses of the last named 
countv, when brought to Leicestershire to 
breed, change into a fleshy animal with large 
heavy limbs. 

There is also another class of interesting 
Lets connected with this subject. If sheep are 
carried frc.n either of the temperate zones to 
ths burning plains of the tropics, after a few 
years, material changes take place in their cov- 
ering. The wool of the lambs, at first, grows 
similar to that in the temperate climates, b^t 
rather more slowly. When in a fit state for 
shearing, there is nothing remarkable about its 
quality, and, when shorn, it grows out again 
83 with us ; but, if the proper time for shear- 
ing be allowed to pass by, the wool becomes 
somewhat thicker, falls off in patches, and 
leaves underneath, a short, close, shining hair, 
•exactly like that of the goat in the same cli- 
mate, and wherever this hair once appears 
there is never any return of wool. Numerous 
facts of a similar nature have also been ob- 
served in other animals. For instance, in the 
Cashmere goats which have been brought 
down from the mountains of Thibet to Ka- 
.nour, in British India, where the mean annual 



temperature is but 06 deg. F., the down, or un- 
dervest, of their wool, that grows in colder 
climates directly under their fine, lon» silkv 
hair, wholly disappears the first year. 

In pursuing the subject still further, it may 
be stated, that the horned cattle originally 
taken to the Pampas, beyond Buenos Ayre* 
by the earliest Spanish settlers, have un ■• ■- 
gone a most singular modification of the bones 
of the head, consisting of a shortening oftho«e 
of the nose together with the upper jaw. This 
race, or breed, called niata, externally appear 
to hold a similar relation to other cattle as the 
bull-dog does to other dogs, their foreheads 
being very short and broad, with the nasal end 
turned up, and the upper lip much drawn 
back; the lower jaw projects beyond the up. 
per, and has a corresponding upward curve in 
consequence of which the teeth are alwavs ex- 
posed to view. From their very open and 
high-seated nostrils, short heads, and protu- 
berant eyes, when standing or walking, they 
assume a most ludicrous, self-confident air. 
It may further be remarked, that theii hinder 
legs are rather long, when compared with the 
foremost ones, which adds to their awkward- 
ness, by bringing their heads near to the 
ground. 

It is also a notable fact, that cattle reared for 
several generations on rich soils, as those in the 
West Riding in Yorkshire, in England, become 
very large and fat, and are distinguished by 
the shortness of their limbs, while, in drier or 
colder situations, their whole bulk is less, and 
their legs are more muscular and strong, which 
powerfully verifies the truth of the axiom in 
breeding that, " Good cattle are coincident with 
good soil," and are never found as a race on a 
bad one, as is manifested on the Isle of Skye, 
on the west coast of Scotland, where the cows, 
when exposed to the rigors of winter, are often 
reduced to mere skeletons in the spring, many 
of them not being able to rise from the ground 
without help, but recover as the season he- 
comes more favorable to the production cf 
grass. Then they acquire new flesh, -which is 
both tender and sweet. The fat and lean are 
not so much separated in them as in the beef 
reared further south, but inferlarded, as it 
were, which renders the meat very agreeable 
to the taste. 

In New Granada, and other inter-tropical 
countries, the cow also undergoes another re- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



inarkablc physical change : she furnishes a 
supply of milk no longer than the period her 
calf is running by her side ; when it ceases to 
suck, the milk immediately dries up. This, 
doubtless, is owing in a great degree to the 
high temperature of her blood and the in- 
creased flow of perspiration, which are gener- 
ally manifested in all cattle of the warmer por- 
tions of the torrid zone. 

In arriving at the more immediate object of 
this paper, I would oiler a few observations on 
the character of some of the internal and ex- 
ternal structures of the organs of animals, 
chiefly those of ruminants, in order to arrive 
at a knowledge of them as .indications of their 
capacity for fattening and reaching an early 
maturity. Let it first be stated that the chief 
utility of rumination, as applicable to all the 
animals in which it takes place, and the fmal 
purpose of this wonderfully complicated func- 
tion in the animal economy, are still imper- 
fectly known. Whatever may be our igno- 
rance of its object or cause, it is certain that 
the nature of the food has a considerable influ- 
ence in augmenting- or diminishing the neces- 
sity for the performance of that function. — 
Thus, dry food requires to be entirely subjected 
to a second mastication before it can pass into 
the third and fourth stomachs, while a great 
portion of that which is moist and succulent, 
passes readily into those cavities on its first 
descent into the second stomach. It may here 
be remarked that in the young calf, and also 
in the lamb, we find the fourth stomach con- 
siderably the largest, being fully developed, 
while the other three are but imperfectly so. 
This arises from the fact of the nutriment on 
which the young animal subsists (its mother's 
milk) being in so matured a state as to require 
comparatively but little exertion Tor the organs 
of digestion. The other three stomachs, there- 
fore, are not required until the young ruminant 
begins to crop the crude herbage or to feed 
upon dry fodder or hay, when the digestive 
apparatus gradually becomes developed. 

When a calf or lamb commences feeding up- 
on solid food, then it begins to ruminate : and, 
as the quantity of solid aliment is increased, 
so does the size of the first stomach increase 
until it attains its full dimensions. In the lat- 
ter case, the first stomach has become consid- 
erably larger than the other three cavities 
taken together. 



A knowledge of the above-named facts has 
taught the intelligent breeder that care must 
be taken to feed the calf at first with the milk 
of its own dam, which, at the time of its birth, 
is of a peculiar character, and acts as a gentle 
purge, indispensable to its health at this criti- 
cal period, but which would be hurtful at a 
later stage of its growth. In order to preserve 
its thriftiness and health, it should have an 
abundance of new milk, warm from the cow 
for the first two or three weeks, after which it 
may be gradually trained to eat more substan- 
tial or solid aliment, alternately with new milk, 
sweet clover hay, Indian meal, or the best 
grass the farm can afford, until completely 
weaned. If fed entirely upon milk, until the 
time of weaning, it is obvious that the fourth 
stomach of the calf would be unable to receive 
and perfectly digest the recently swallowed 
herbage or hay, without its having previously 
undergone the process of rumination ; and that 
each of the other three stomachs would he 
quite as unprepared to perform its part. Hence, 
if a calf be suddenly changed from a diet con- 
I listing pureh' of milk to one wholly of grass or 
'hay, a suspension of healthy functions must 
I necessarily take place, which will ever after 
; more or less affect its successful growth.— 
! While on this subject, it may be stated that 
' there is a great diversity iu the milk of cows, 
i which is increased by many circumstances, 
such as her age, the condition sho is in, the 
' proximity or remoteness of the time of her 
calving, and, above all, the manner in which 
! she is fed. It frequently happens that, of 
j cows, not only of the same breed, but even 
those which are the offspring of the same pa- 
rents, fed on the "same farm, and in the same 
manner, the one will yield more milk than the 
others. Cows too old or too young also give 
less milk than those of middle age. A lean 
cow never gives so much milk as one in good 
! condition. Cows generally give :no~v milk for 
' a few weeks after they have calved than they 
do at any other time. The food with which 
thev are fed has a powerful influence on the 
milking properties of all cows; and the mode 
in which they are reared has a considerable 
effect on their capacity to give milk. A cow 
reared on bad or indifferent pasture and scanty 
subsistence will neTer turn out so good a mil- 
ker as one reared on pasturage which is sweet 
and rich. From these and other cireumstrnces, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



it is not easy to determine the averag? quan- 1 skim-milk, as both the butter and casein hav 



titv of milk given by a herd of cows. 

The h alth of an animal depends chiefly on 
the supply of nutriment which it receives be- 
ing equal to the waste that is going on in its 
bodr. Healthy adults weigh as much at the 
end as at the beginning of the year ; and 
this depends on their having had suffi- 
cient ~ food to supply the waste which has 
been going on in the system. In young and 
growing animals, it is somewhat different. — 
They require a larger supply of nourishment 
than there is waste, because their bodies are 
constantly increasing in size, which arises 
chiefly from the activity of their birth. Milk, 
the food that nature supplies them with at this 
period, is well adapted to assist the functions 
of organic life, which are now more active than 
in adults. Its chief ingredients are nitroge- 
nized matter, (casein,) and phosphates, for de- 
veloping the system, and carbonised materials, 
(butter and sugar,) for supplying animal heat. 
The casein, or cheesy matter, is the nitroge- 
nous principle, and affords nourishment to the 
muscular and other tissues ; the phosphates 
principally are expended in the formation of 
hair and bones, and are also necessary for the 
healthy functions of the body ; and the butter 
and sugar are the materials, which, by their 
combustion, supply heat to the body. Thus, 
in milk, we have all that is necessary for the 
growth cf the young animal, and it is the 
type and representative of all food ; for, unless 
an aliment contains the principles of milk, it is 
not fitted for the promotion of the health and 
perfect development cf the body. And, be- 
sides, the stomachs of young animals are not 
adapted for extracting the nitrogenous princi- 
ples from food, and the casein of milk is sup- 
plied to them ready separated. In the young 
ruminant, as the calf, the first three stomachs, 
as before seated, into which the food of the 
adult animal enters before it is digested, are 
not used at all. The milk passes at once into 
the fourth .stomach. Hence the necessity of 
weaning these animals gradually, in order that 
their stomachs may be fully able to prepare 
the raw food for digestion. A large quantity 
of the casein in ft* ilk is required for the rapid 
development of the body; and the butter, a 
highlj' carbonised material, is required for sup- 
porting r\ large amount of animal heat. Con- 
sequently, it is n bad thing to feed calves on 



been removed in the shape of cream. J"^, 
Spencer, of England, who was very successfu 1 
in weaning his calves, fed them first with new- 
milk, and then with skim-milk and meal, th • 
latter supplying the necessary nitrogen 
nitrogenised materials. In feeding you n." an: 
mals, they should have good food, and there 
should be no stinting them as to quantity. 

In the growth of young animals, rs well as 
the fattening of adult ones, it has been four..! 
by experience that all exposure to cold should 
be avoided as much as possible, as a low tem- 
perature diminishes the vitality of the system 
and whatever decreases vitality gives a prepon- 
derance to chemical action in the bod)', ami 
injury of some kind or other will be the re- 
sult. Exercise is also neceassary for the rear- 
ing of young animals, although it should be 
avoided in fattening. In order to develop a 
calf or a lamb, it should -be allowed *plenty of 
exercise; but, in fattening, another object is to 
be gained. All motion consumes something in 
the body, which is the cause of the loss of so 
much material in the fattening of the animal. 
In a similar manner, exposure to cold is also 
an absolute loss. The primary cause of all 
this waste is the increased supply of oxygen 
to the lungs ; for, whatever increases this sup- 
ply, tends to the waste of the body and the 
necessity for a supply. Where much exercise 
is allowed to' milch cows, the produce of butter 
is small, which arises from the oxygen con- 
suming the carbonaceous material that would 
otherwise be secreted in the milk in the form 
of butter or cream. With regard to the pas- 
tures which produce the most casein, or cheese, 
it has generally been found that they are poor. 
It has also been conjectured that the exercise 
which the cows take on poor pastures, in order 
to obtain their food, tends to increase the de- 
velopment of the casein in their milk. Fur- 
thermore, it has been observed that stall-fed 
cows yield much more butter and less cheese 
than those fed in pastures, or that are allowed 
to run at large when fed upon hay. It may be 
stated, however, that the richness and flavor of 
milk depend much upon the nature of the food 
of the cow. 

In reference to the size and structure cf the 
internal organs of ah ; ids, as tending to their 
capacity for fattening or reaching an early ma- 
turity, it may be stated that large livers and 



TnE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



W 



iungs indicate a general coarseness of muscle 1 
and bone ; and hance may be regarded as j 
signs of incapacity for taking on fat. It is sup- j 
posed by some that, all animals with large, j 
broad, round chests fatten best, and that they 
have small lungs; but this is found not to bo I 
the case, for horses have narrow chests and j 
large lungs. Southdown sheep have narrower i 
chests than the Leicester breed, yet they have j 
the largest lungs ; but the Leicesters arc known 
to fatten sooner. Again, it is a prevailing 
opinion among butchers that the fattest cattle 
have both small livers and lungs. This, it will 
be conceived, must be a necessary consequence, 
according to the principles just laid down. In 
all cases where there is the most oxygen taken 
into the system, there is the greatest destruc- 
tion "of carbon, and consequently less carbona- 
ceous material deposited in the form of fat. If 
two bullocks had the same quantify of food, 
and one of them had lungs of double the capa- 
city of the other, that bullock would only ap- 
propriate half a.-, much of his food in the for- 
mation of fat. Milk, containing 'much butyra- 
ceous matter, it is '.veil known, is produced oy 
cows with small lungs. The same holds good 
with regard to the liver: for where there is a 
large liver there must of necessity be a large 
secretion of bile, and consequently a large de- 
struction of carbonaceous matter. Thus, if two I 
animals were to eat 100 pounds of fond, and 
one were to secrete GO pounds of hiie, and the i 
other only 40 pounds, the iood th;;t was not 
formed into bile would be converted into fat; i 
hence the gain on the animal with a small | 
liver. 

With regard to external signs, small bones! 
indicate a delicacy of constitution in an :inimal j 
as well as sraallncss of liver and lung-, w'hieb 
shows a tendency to fatten rapidly; while, in i 
an animal with large ears, which aiu usually! 
accompanied by a general coarseness and large- : 
ness of bone and muscle, the reverse is the | 
case. The " mellow feel" of an animal depends 
on the rebounding of the cellular tissue, in 
which is- deposited the fat. Where there is 
much mellowness, it arises from the blood be 
ing easily pressed from one part of the cellular 
tissue to another, and indicates a susceptibility 
to fattening. The chief reason why animals 
get more rapidly fattened at the end of their 
feeding season is, that the fat accumulating in 
the abdomen presses upon the diaphragm and 



abdominal muscles, thus preventing the more 
complete action of the lungs, and consequently 
trie destruction of carbonaceous materials by 
the inhalation of oxygen. The fat also pre- 
vents the oxygen from being absorbed by the 
skin, and diminishes by its pressure the capa- 
city of the liver, and thus also adds to the fat- 
tening process. To similar causes may be as- 
scribed the fact that fattened animals take on. 
more flesh on their hindmost quarters than on 
those before. 

The foregoing views accord in a singular 
manner with many well-established facts con- 
nected with the rearing and fattening of stock ; 
but, as it is impossible in this short essay to 
treat of the subject in all its abstruse and inter- 
esting course of reasoning, it must necessarily 
be deferred. 

■Renovating Old Pastures- 

Messrs. Lditors — How to renovate old pas- 
tures is becoming daily a more important que 5- 
tion to us Connecticut farmers, on poor, stony, 
hilly land; and we must find some better way 
than has been in use heretofore. Will you or 
some of your correspondents favor me with ad- 
vice. 

I have 50 to CO acres of hill pasture, with a 
constant tendency to white birches, briars, and 
brakes, and wish to adopt some method of ren- 
ovating a part of it yearly, but am much at a 
loss how to do this. The soil is not as poor as 
usual hereabouts, and has a kindly eastern ex. 
j jsure, sheltered from cold winds; but it is re- 
mote and somewhat difficult of access, on a 
steep rocky hillside. My predecessor drew 
manure up the long hill, and by dint of hard 
labor, obtained 1 decent crop of corn. Tart 0* 
the laud was under cultivation two or three 
v irs, was then seeded down and is now (some 
five years) very indifferent pasture. Some 
; arts are too rocky for plowing, but these are 
usually moist with springs, and, I hardly need 
add, grow fern and brake faster than 1 can cut 
them. The distance and the difficulty of ac- 
cess forbid the use of stable manure, even if it 
could be snared for the purpose, and I seek 
some other means of renovation. Ashes I can 
procure — both leached and unleached — at a 
cost of about 15 cents per bushel; and also 
some quantity of horn Jits* and shavings, but 
these latter are of course expensive. The land 



ss 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



■would perhaps start a small crop of buckwheat, 
rve, or even clover, and various methods of 
green manuring have occurred to mc, as sow- 
ing clover, using plaster and ashes freely as 
soon as well up, then plowing in early, ir. hope 
of a second crop ; or sowing rye as a second 
crop for spring pasturage ; or turning hogs on 
the clover before plowing in, and getting a crop 
of turnips. 

Clover is, I think, our best green manure. 
Rye has not to my knowledge been used here- 
in this way, and my experience of buckwheat 
is unfavorable. 

Is it best to continue green manuring for 
two seasons, or to plant hoed crops the second 
year? Shall I use ashes solely as a top-dres- 
sing, or plow it in? And in what quantity? 
Trill it pay to use guano or horn-dust, and if 
so, how shall they be applied? I do not care 
to raise crops en this land as I have more close 
at home than I can keep in good heart, though 
my re sources are more ample in way of ma- 
nures than usual in the country; but I desire 
to keep it iu pasture with the least expense or 
cars. Perhaps I ought to state that our sub- 
soil is very open — gravel, or often round stone 
more seldom sand, requiring constant renewal 
of manuring, and for grass land, re-seedirg, 
every two or three years, it. c. 

la plowing under clover, we would reeotn- 
nieixi thai it be done the second year, or the 
year afrer seeding, and that ashes and plaster. 
be ased in connection with raising clover. Gu- 
ano may be tried by way of experiment, and is 
best applied as a top dressing in autumn, but 
may do if sown very early in spring, or as soon 
as the frost is out. Two or three hundred 
i lis per acre will do to begin with. Asb.es 
are high as .i manure at 15c. por bushel, and 
i ■ ''. te we would not propose more than 
>'.' 10 ! -i ! per ••'■/'• h may, like guano, 
be -\_ Lie : as ai pp-dressiug, In autumn, winter, 
or parly in spring. A portion of stable manure 
i...':} be used in connection with these fertili- 
zers, but it should be applied in autumn as a 
top-d: si: .: id finely spread, so as to become 
thoroughly soaked into the soil by the coui- 
: - nt'-of growth. Horn dust should be 

pi jv :i ia 'jvibea rised, and must bo looked upon 
Sj jip c xvtrln : ^ s 1 1 .i.'i.-'i sly, although it has often 
P't, :;,••(•<'; - great increase in growth. There 
is ho •.!••': nearly ; ■■••-.I to clover for green ma- 
li'itrir-g, but probably a year or two of other 



crops should intervene before re-seeding. "W" c 

are inclined to think, however, that scarifying 
and top-dressing with manure, guano, ashes 
plaster, &c, with heavy re-seeding when neces- 
sary, may be sufficient. However, there is so 
much difference in soils, itc., in different locali- 
ties, that a trial only can determine this point 
Country Gentleman. 

Escutcheons- 



When Cuc-non's theory of determining the 
value of milk cows, by the growth of hair on 
its thighs, above and acljaceut to the bag, was 
first introduced, the idea was -received with a 
good deal of scepticism. Time has wrought 
changes. At a late convention by the legisla- 
tive club of the State of New York, one of the 
speakers gave the evidence in relation to Gue- 
non's theory : 

"M. Guenon, a French writer, has discov- 
ered certain indications which he claims to de- 
termine the milking qualities of cows. This 
he calls '' escutcheons," being the hair which 
grows upwards, (contrary to the general rule, 
on the udder, thighs, and hinder part of the 
body. It is easy to distinguish the escutcheon 
by the upward directions of the hair which 
forms them. I cannot go into detail here upon 
the system, but would refer to the work of M. 
GucT.cn itself. But to show that it is esteemed 
worthy of notice, I will allude to the testi- 
mony of those: who have given attention to it." 

Mr. Job:; Uaxton, in a woik published in 
1853, entitled '"How to choose a good Milk 
Cow," ir. reference to the indication of a good 
milk cow, p. 17S, says: "The writer has ex- 
amined many hundred of dairy cows in Bri- 
tain, and the conclusion arrived at in regard to 
Mr. Guenon's te.-t of judging of the milking 
properties of a cow, by the development of the 
eeussov, is th .:, in a very large majority of 
cases, it is homo out by facts." In a London 
daiiy, belonging to Mr. -biggs 51 Edgeware 
road, where about -1"'0 cows are kept, am. 
where nine-tenths of them are far above aver- 
age miikcrs, the <?> vcl jnnenl or tcpicard growth 
of the hair on the posterior part of the udder, 
thighs, and porin.-eum, was too remarkable to 
be accounted for by accidental causes. As well 
might it be said that all other tests, such as 
length of head, softness, and flexibility of skin, 
and wide quarters, were accidental,, and had 
no reference to the milking properties of ft 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



cow. When a phenomenon presents itself 
over and over again, accompanied in a majority 
of cases b}' certain results, we may be certain 
that it is not accidental, but natural ; and 
while we may be unable to account for these 
results upon satisfactory grounds, it is neither 
philosophical or prudent, to deny or ignore the 
connection between the one and the other, and 
thus to forfeit the advantages which the fact 
itself is calculated to afford." 

The late Mr. Phinncy, of Massachusetts, a 
very careful and critical observer, made exami- 
nation of a large number of milk cows, and 
found in a majority of them that were good 
milkers, these developments well marked. He 
conversed with a large number of intelligent 
gentlemen when he was abroad in 1851, in 
Great Britain aVid France, and found but one 
opinion as to the general character of the ani- 
mals which possessed these developments : and 
so far as we have learned the views of gentle- 
men in this country who have gi^en attention 
to this subject, the result has been the same. 

" I think it may with safety be affirmed, that 
this ' one principle' is established — that all 
things being alike, as regards shape, texture of 
skin, &c, cows with well developed escut- 
cheons, will, in a large majority of cases, be 
found to be the best milkers, and above an 
average; while, on the other hand, those with 
very small escutcheons, will be found under, or 
at most, not above an' average in their milking 
properties. 

" In calves, the escutcheons show the shapes 
which thev are afterwards to assume. They 
are more contracted only because the parts 
which they cover are slightly developed. They 
ape easily perceived after birth, but the hair 
which forms them is long, coarse, and stiff. 
After this hair falls off, the escutcheons of 
calves resemble those of cows, though of less 
size. This will enable the farmer to save such 
calves as will probably serve him as good 
milkers. — Farmer and Planter. 



Fion the S uthc-rn Cultivator. 

Hay Making in the South- 

A Brief Fvsjy. read before the '• BeecMsland 
Farmer/ Club" at the October Meeting. 

IbthdlTamlersoftke Club: 

Gdstlemhn-. — As it is expected that each 
member of this Club shall make a report of 



some experiment, I take this opportunity 
present the following, on Hay making : 

About the first of May, I had a ten acre 1 
of good river-bottom land plowed up, wit 
double plows, from 8 to 10 inches deep; tr 
land was then well harrowed with a good tw< 
horse iron-tooth barrow, across the plov.ir. 
and then rolled with a cast iron two-horse re 
ler, in order to make the surface as smooth ; 
possible. The land was soon covered wit 
crab-grass. In consequence of the hot dr 
weather, I had almost despaired of realizing 
crop; but after the heavy rain which fell abot 
the 1st of September, it revived and grew o 
rapidly, and continued to improve until th 
latter part of September, when it was from tw 
to three feet high, at which time I cut it will 
scythes. The plan I adopted fur curing was 
to have what was cut in the morning turne< 
over and stacked up about four or five hour, 
after it was cut, and that part of it that ha< 
from four to six hours sun on it was then pu 
into common size shocks, and remained unti' 
the next day' about ten o'clock, or until the 
dew was entirely off, at which time they wert 
again opened and the hay again spread, and re 
mained so until evening, wheu it was put intc 
shocks again, and remained so until the dew 
was off the next day, when they were opened 
and spread as above stated : in the afternoon, 
such as was sufficiently cured I had packed in 
the barn. 

I measured one acre and obtained from that 
7,675 lbs. of well cured hay, which I sold for 
75 cents per cwt. in Augusta; it was weighed 
at the City Scales, and at that low price 
amounted to §57 55. At $1 per hundred, the 
amount would have been $*7G 75; at §1,*25 per 
hundred, $05 93; and at .$1 50 per hundred, 
$115 12. These prices are not unfrequently 
paid for an article in no way superior. I think 
there were three or four acres in the lot as 
good as the one I measured; the balance not 
more than two-thirds as good. At the rate 
sold, the whole lot would amount to $ i ; ); and 
of course still higher at increased -rates, as 
shown above. 

1 would simply call the attention of the 
members to the tact that if this >.rop had been 
made »r -«er favorable seasons, and if sold at 
the average price that Northern hay commands 
in Augusta, which is about $1 50, it would 
amount to„$02Q, or st'-2 per acre. 

My impression is that two crops may be 
taken from the same land by commencing ear- 
lier in the season, and there is no crop more 
profitable with the same amount of labor. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

JONATHAN M. MILLER. 

Goedale, near Augusta, Ga. 



i 



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THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



TJ. S- Agricultural Society. 

reat National Trial of Machinery and Imple- 
ments of every description pertaining; to Agri- 
culture and Household Manufactures,, at the 
Fifth Annual Icir, to be held in Louisville, 
Kentucky, during the Fall of 1857. 
The undersigned, a Committee of the United 
tates Agricultural Society, appointed at the 
Efth Annual Meeting, held at the Smithsonian 
istitutioD, city of Washington, on the 14th of 
anuary, 1857, to make all necesssary arrange- 
tents for a National Trial in the field of Agri- 
lltural Implements and Machinery," respect- 
illy invite the Inventors and Manufacturers of 
} such articles, both in the United States and 
'oreign Countries, to participate in a public 
rial to be made at the Society's Annual Exhi- 
ition, to be held at Louisville, Kentucky, dur- 
3g the fall of 1S57. 

This new arrangement for the exhibition of 
Agricultural implements and Machinery of all 
;inds in actual operation, results from a convic- 
ion on the part of the Society, that no just 
swards can be made except upon a practical 
working trial before competent judges; and the 
allest opportunity will be afforded to test the 
•ornparative merits of the^various machines that 
nay be entered as competitors for the awards 

• both as regards land for field implements, and 
steam power for stationery machinery. 

A separate trial for Reapers and. Mowers will 

• be made at the appropriate season, special ar- 
rangements for which as to time, place, &c, will 
be announced at an early date. 

It is intended that these exhibitions shall be 
on. the most extensive scale for the purpose of 
testing the working qualities of these important 
implements more thoroughly than has yet been 
□one on any previous occasion either in the 
United States or in Europe. 

All articles from foreign countries intended 
for e: hi! iti >n may be consigned to the ••' Agent 
ufU. S. Agricultural Society, Louisville, Ky," 
by whom tliey will be received and stored free 
of charge 

This brief announcement of the proposed 
Trial is made at this early date to afford the 
most sir.;.!:- time for tho preparation and trans- 
mission of machinery. A circular containing 
.- . <V:l particulars as to regulations will be issued 
fcassoon as practicable, and, with Premium list 
I will he forwarded to persons who may apply to 
the Secretary of the Committee, Henry S. 01- 



cott, American Institute, N. Y., where all busi- 
ness letters should be addressed. 

To enable the Society to make arrangements 
on a sufficiently liberal scale, it is absolutely 
necessary that the Committee should know what 
articles will he offered for competition ; and 
they therefore request that all inventors or man- 
ufacturers who may ha disposed to unite in the 
proposed trial, will communicate their intentions 
to the Secretary at their earliest convenience. 
TENCH TILGHMAN, Chairman. 

Oxford, Md. 
JOHN D. LANG, Vassalboro, Me. 
J. THOMPSON WARDER, 

Springfield, Ohio. 
GEORGE E. WARING, Junior, 

Am. Institute, New York. 
Committee on Implements and Machinery 
of U. S. Agricultural Society. 
Editors of Journals of every description, who 
are desirous to promote the interests of Agricul- 
ture and Mechanics, will confer a particular 
favor by an insertion of the above circular. 

Experiments with the Chinese 
Sugar Cane- 

Editors Genesee Farmer: — On the 5th of 
May, I planted some seed of the Chinese Su- 
gar Cane, in rows three feet apart. It came 
up, and I thinned it out to six inches in the 
row. It grew to the height of eight to ten 
feet. I fed part of it to my cows and hogs, 
and they eat it with great avidity. On the 
16th of September, I cut 40 stalks, and pressed 
the juice out by passing them through a pair 
of tinsmith's rollers; the produce was 7 quarts 
of juice, which I boiled to one quart of good 
syrup, or at the rate of 181 § gallons per acre. 

I concluded to try it again, in order to deter 
mine at what stage of its growth the stalks 
contain the greatest amount of sugar. On the 
.3d of October, the seed being fully ripe, and 
after some light frosts. I cut up 60 stalks, 
stripped off the Laves and pressed the canes 
as before, but as the rollers arc very small, 
fully ten per cent, of the juice remained in the 
stalks; f also spilled four or five quarts of the 
juice. After all mishaps, the result stands 
thus: weight of GO canes, 102 lbs.; juice, 14 
quarts; good molasses, 5 k pints; dry fodder, 
4 lbs.; seed, G quarts. Late per acre of cane, 
49,868 lbs.; juice, 1694 gallons; molasses, 332 
gallons and 3 quarts; dry fodder; 1,93G lbs.; 
seed, 90 bushels — good seed weighs 40 pounds 
to the bushel. 

Farmers keep up your spirits,- for the sweet 
times are coming:. P.. D. 



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■ 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Chinese Sugar Cane—Sorgho 
Sucre- 

Translated for the " Working Farmer' 1 ly If. 
S. Olcott. 

During the past year, T have iridic the pub- 
lic acquainted with the various products ob- 
tained from the stalks of the Sorgho Sucre, 
and have shown how this plant should be cul- 
tivated. I think it well to enumerate the re- 
sults which have been arrived at .since that 
time, to say a word concerning the causes of 
the failures related by various experimenters?, 
either in culture, extraction of sap from the 
stalks, or distillation ofvesou, (juice that runs 
from the crushed canes.) 

The trials made in the middle and Southern 
provinces of France, have confirmed my pre- 
vious assertion that the cultivation of the Sor- 
gho and that of Indian Corn, were strongly 
analogous. Nevertheless, several agriculturists, I products yielded by the Sugar Sorgho, enable 
unwisely thinking to sensibly increase the me to state that we can rely upon GO,'. 00 killo 
yield of stalks, have practiced numerous flooc 



increased to 50 or even 60 ; if instead •' 
leaving the veron to remain undisturbed f 
several weeksaftcr expression, it were at out 
submitted to distillation, they would never hav 
had cause to complain of its having p:-..--.-- 
from the saccharine to the acid fermentation. 

But it is not su indent to cress the es, o: 
to have & special crushing mill ; it is Iiki 
necessary to submit the higa*: :e (crushed stalks 
to the action of an hydraulic press. 

Finally, to sum up, the stalks must be cvS 
when the grain is ripe, crushed as see:. 
as possible, and the distillation of the v io 
(juice) speedily attended to with suitable appa- 
ratus ; those used by the farmers who have ob- 
tained their alcohols with bad flavors, being 
very far from complete. The stalks may als 
be dried, for the sugar is v. 
medullary structure. 

The facts gathered this 



in t! 



ir concerning th* 



ings of the field. The consequence has very 
naturally been, that the sap yielded by the 
Stalks under such circumstances, has only 
given on distillation three per cent of alcohol, 
in place of the five per cent usually furnished 
This unpleasant result is due entirely to the 
too great quantity of water contained in the 
stalk at the time of cutting. I repeat here, 
what I have previously urged, that if irriga- 
tions are necessary when the soil is dry, we 
should not abuse this nor practice it too late. 

The experiments have proved, contrary to 
what I have maintained, that the stalks should 
be gathered when the seed is first ripe. In 
the South (of France) it is done in September. 



grammes per hectare of stalk?, 30,000 killo- 
gramm.es sap, and 1,500 litres of alcohol at 50 
"centes" of very fine flavor, and without essen- 
tial oils. In Champagne ever. 3,000 litres were 
obtained last autumn. 

The "bagasse (crushed canes) may be fed to 
horned cattle. 

As to the yield of seed, it varies from 40 to 
50 hectolitres per hectare. 

All other things being equal, the Sorgho Su- 
cre is from this time forth destined to assume 
an important rank amongst the crops of the 
South (France) and Algeria. I remain con- 
vinced that, if well cultivated and well treated 
in distilleries, it will he for certain countries 
what the sugar beet is for the provinces of the 



If the stalks are cut too soon, the juices they I north of Europe, I io not rlespaii 
contain are proportionately less Saccharine ; 
if they arc cut too late, they yield a smaller 
quantity of sugar. 

At various depots, the alcohols arising from 
the dis. illation of the expressed juice of the 
Sorgho, have been rejected' because they had 
an unpleasant taste. This is solely due to the 
crude methods of manufacture. Thus, if in 
place of crushing the stalks with an ordinary 
wine-press, they had used a regular cane mill 
similar to those in use in the colonics, and 
tvhich M. Cail, of Paris, exhibited at the 
World's Exposition, the yield of sap, in>tead 
of being 35 or 40 per cent, would have been 



sque, 



soon that its culture is introduced ir, Marti 
the Isle of Bourbon, etc. We know tha. 
plant is an annual, and that the rest :» which i: 
yields contains eight to ten per cii.t. of raw su- 
gar analogous to that from the cane. 

If this plant, winch surprises one by its height 
and the beauty of its stalks, be not destined to 
be cultivated in France for its sugar-bearing 
qualities, it is indisputable that it may still be 
regarded as one of our very best forage crops. — 
Cut in July, in the more central portions oi' 
France, it affords an abundant green forage, 
springs up again, and gives in October an- ex- 
cellent second crop. "We do not e.sewhere po=>" 







THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



will be largely undertakan in the Northern and 
Southern States. 

In the letter which we translated for the 
Working Farmer last Spring, INI. Avequin say 5 
that the brandies, ruins, Sec, yielded by it, can 
in no wise compare with the Cognacs, but Pro. 
fessor Heuze, in ;he above article, maintains that 
this inferiority is entirely due to imperfect me- 
thods of manufacture. We shall see, however, 
in the future which view is the correct one. 

The samples of syrup made by us at the West- 
chester Farm School, were of very fine quality, 
equal, we think, to good maple syrup : and that 
given to us by Col. Peters, of Georgia, tasted 
not unlike molasses candy, or the cocked syrup 
which has mot with very general censure from j on baked pears. 

our experimenters last season, the Sorgho has We esteem it our duty to afford every infor- 
.tuiiy met the expectations of its most sanguine i mation in our power concerning the Sorgho, and 
friends. As it becomes more generally known, j shall translate from time to time the remarks 
and new experiments are instituted upon it, we [ mao « e upon it in the French Journals, 
predict that it will meet with more extended fa- j H. S. Olcott. 
vor. Its good qualities may be enumerated as l__^.»-#^«a=- 



ss amongst the grasses, plants which offer such 
t vantages. 

I repeat that the hulls of the seeds contain a 
during matter of a blueish violet shade, which 
\ Secard, of Marseilles, has successfully used 
i the dyes for cotton and linen goods. 

Gustave Heuze, 
Professor of Agriculture in the 
Imperial School at Grign ,n. 
Journal a Agriculture Pratique.] 
Cil'ogramme, - - 2 'bs. 5 1-2 drachms. 
leetare - - -2 1-2 acres 

uitre - - - 2. 1-9 wine pints. 

• Rem arks. — Unlike the Dioscorca Batatas, 



follows : 

1. Its cultivation is no more troublesome than 
that of corn. 

•2. It grows to full height, and will doubtless 



Guano. 

In answer to sundry inquiries as to the price 
of Guano, how to know that it is genuine, 



perfect its seed as far north as the latitude of j what kinds are best, how to use it, and wheth- 
Haliiax. I er it is profitable for a farmer, we offer the fol- 

3. ft is a very profitable forage crop, giving ! lowing remarks : 

two crops — une in July, the other in October — j Guano is sold by the agent of the Peruvian 
of a gieen fodder superior to sweet corn. ' | Government in New York, at $00 per ton for 

4. [t yields. 2G bushels of seed ppr acre, which J No. 1, in bags of about 160 or 170 lbs., and 
make a fine meal, and the hulls of which afford | 500 tons or upward at once, on CO days credit. 



a good dye stuff. 



In smaller lets, it is $65 cash. We bidieve 



5. It, together with this seed, gives also one! that it is not sold in less parcels than 25 lb?. 
thous nd or more pounds of excellent sugar per by the agent. It is a mystery to many per- 
acre, and at the same time fifty-five gallons Of ■ sons how retailers sell guano at less than these 
mousses or syrup. I prices. They may do so and be honest; be- 

6. It gives on dissipation about 300 gallons of cause they buy long tons and sell short ones ; 
alcohol at 50 centesimal. and, a., it costs about 2 2-" cents a pound, if 

7. The crushed stalks may be fed to cattle ! sold at 3 cents, which is the usual price, it af- 
wlioare very fund of it. . fords a fair profit — say $7 a ton. Put guano, 

8. If used tu make syrup only, it has yielded j said to be genuine No. 1. Peruvian is some- 
lo Mr. Peters at the rate of 408 gallons per acre, j times sold by the single ton in this city, at $55 

9. The molasses may be distilled into tafia | a ton. It may be so, but we don't believe it. 
rum, brandy and a beverage- similar to cider. I because men are not apt to do business witn- 

Without being champion to the extravagant out profit much more, nt a positive loss. At 
speculations of some of our friends', we cannot $00 a ton, we should like to know our man, 
but believe that the introduction of the Sugar' and have more confidence than we now have in 
Sorghu into America is of vast importance to our any one in that trade in this city. It is alto- 
j. litical economy, and we think the da}' not far 



distant when its manufacture into sugar, and dis- 
tillation into the various alcoholic compounds, 



ether better for farmers to club together 
and buy their guano direct from the 
agent, at his price, and be sure to get honest 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



43 



weight. In every cargo of Guano there is 50 
to 100 tons in the bottom that is damp, and 
this is sold as No. 2, at about $15 per ton less 
tban No. 1, and the bag.-, weigh 15 or 20 lbs. 
more, on account of the water, and besides, it 
is not so good. Then we have ''Mexican 
Guano," which is sold at any price from 10 to 
$25 a ton. "Ichabo Guano" is worth about 
$i01 There are some other kinds, both genu- 
ine and manufactured, but none but Peruvian 
can often be found at retail. What becomes of 
all the others, is a mystery to those who know 
that some of the largest retail dealers in the 
city buy large quantities of the cheap kinds, 
and cart them to their storehouse, where, for 
aught we can say to the contrary, they are 
still in store, waiting for a rise in the market. 



rain, or else mixed with charcoal dust, or plas- 
ter of Paris. It may be thus used upon wheat 
or other .--mail grain- 

QUANTITY TO Till: ACRE. 

From 200 to 000 pounds we consider the 
most profitable application, though it-has ofl -■'< 
been used to advantage in larger and smaller 
proportions. 

IS IT PROFITABLE. 

For the purpose of renovating the poorest, 
worn-out sandy -plain in the country, or soil- 
denuded gravel knoll, it is the most profitable 
application ever made by a farmer. Upon all 
lands which need manure to make them pro- 
duce a fair crop, it is profitable; aud it is cer- 
tainly so, in very many cases, to use it instead 
of other manure, where that has to be hauled 



It is barely possible, however, that when No. I any considerable distance. If it would bo 
1 and 2, Peruvian and Mexican, Chilian and i profitable to restore such a tract of barren sand 
Ichabo, are emptied upon the floor together, as that, fur instance, between New Haven and 
the moisture of the No. 2 is absorbed, and the Meridou, Connecticut, to a condition which 



Mexican loses its color, and the whole pile turns 

of its own accord, into "genuine No. 1 Peru- 
vian Guano — warranted." 

We should a little rather buy of the atrent at 



would produce crops of grain capable of paying 
all expenses, followed by a heavy crop of clo- 
ver, th<m it would be profitable to apply guano 
to that land, for that is what it would, do. If a 



$65 than of any retailer at $55, notwithstand- , fanner can make the poorest old field as pi o- 
ing the warranty ; and that is the only way to 
know whether it is genuine ; for we defy the 
best judges to tell by looks, taste or smell. 

In England, adulteration of Guano has boon 
carried to an extent hardly to be credited ly 
each honest traders as the Universal Yankee 
nation. As it is generally supposed that some 
of that nation have learned to adulterate li- 
quors, it is barely possible that they have 
learned to adulterate guano. 

As to the best kind, we cannot recommend a 
farmer ever to buvanv but genuine No. 1 P<>- 



duclive as the richest one, for an expense of 

$0 an acre, then it is profitable to use guano. 
The same may be said of Superphosphate of 
Lime. If it is genuine it is valuable, and its 
use profitable. But how some people have 
been cheated with this stuff. — JVtw YorU Tri- 
bune. 



— -*^- » — <^— * *j»»— 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

Chinese Sugar Cane- 

LETTER FROM D8. ROBERT BATTEY. 



Editors Southern Cultivator- — The general 
ruvian guano. Other kinds may be worth interest now fell (over the entire country) ir. 
their cost, but then again they may not be the Chinese Sugar Caw, and the expe. indents 
better than so much yellow dust. j made with it by rn\>c!f : ml -. the :•?, has so en- 

now to rsEGi'ANo, cumbered me with letters ofinquiry that I find 

- The best way is to sow it broadcast, without it a. serious tax upon u«> to reply to questions 
any mixture or preparation, except to break i so often .repeated. M--y I ask the use of a 
the lumps by alight plowing or heavy harrow- small portion of your space that I may .-peak 
ing. and sow the land with wheat or other i to all at one sitting ? If there be any of ray 
small grain and clover or grass, hi all cases. If I correspondents v. ho are no: readers of the 
it is used with corn, potatoes, or other crops, ; Southern Cultivator, I trust the v will at once 
mix it well in the soil,- and follow that crop avail themselves of its benefit* 



with another the same seasou, to get the alter 
effect of the guano. 

If applied as a top-dressing to grass, it 
should be sown immediately before or dining a 



1st. Of the precise dimensions of the mill 
used by Mr. Peters, I cannot speak definitely. 
I would select for mys-df rollers of cast iron 
IS inches in diameter and 24 inches in height. 



i 



T 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



and of the latter dimension i inches should be 
devoted to the cogs and 20 inches (roughly 
turned ofFin the lathe) for the pressing surfa- 
ce-, winch should not be smooth, or the cane 
will slip and greatly retard the pressing. Such 
a mil! will harvest five acres satisfactorily. 
2d. The mill must extract 50 per cent, of the 

entire weight of the cane, or it is not economi- 
st . 
call}" adjusted. If it be put up in the best 

style, and the power is ample, GO per cent, is 
not too high a figure for the best cane. The 
mill should so perfectly accomplish its work 
that the bagaxa shall be a refuse product — so 
far as syrup is in question— after having pass- 
ed the mill. It will be so broken and contused 
that it cannot bo returned So the mil; with any 
advantage, and pressing it after the manner 
adopted for the extraction of cider would be a 



:.' 



■St unprofitable expenditure of time. 



3rd. "The leaves or blades" should be re- 
moved before pressing, and indeed before cut- 
ting the cane from its root. This should not 
be done "carefully," as suggested by a corres- 
pondent, fur this, in the strict acceptation of 
the term, would involve needless waste of val- 
uable time: The fodder should be stripped off 
rapidly and tied into bundles as usual with 
corn for the reasons : first, "tkat it is a valua- 
ble part of the crop ; secondly, il left upon the 
eana it would retard the pressing and contami- 
naie the juice witli an additional quantity of 
objectionable vegetable matter. • 

4th. Let me say by way of explanation to 
my Northern friends : syrup is, with us, the 
juice of the cane boiled down to the consis- 
tence of :: olasscs, while the latter article is the 
drippings from granulated sugar. The first is 
a primary and the latter a secoudary product. 
The i on L-stence is materially the same. 

5uh. To those who desire a statement of the 
i'ii her i barrels of juice and syrup estimated 
f< r i ..••-. f •■■■ uidsay: measure your barrel 
in gal! ns, a:i i by the simple rules of arithme- 
tic, divide my figures by yours, and you have 
the estimate. I give my figurss in gallons as 
being more definite and more easily compre- 
hended. 

6th. In reply to many inquiries for seed of 
[!i dity, I would say ; that I have no 
seed beyond a very small parcel which I have 
grown for my own experiments. I will, how- 
ever, cheerfully assist those who desire in re- 
ferring them, so far as I can, to reliable sources 



for their supplies. Parties who have such 
seed for sale would do well to let the fact be 
known through, your advertising columns. 
Robert Battet. 
Rome, Ga. 

«=$-*--»*- ♦ -£»— > 

Stable Treatment of Horses- 
it is one thing to know how to use a horse, 
but it is another thing to knovs how to take 
cure ofhim. A stabled horse needs special 
care and attention. His feediug must be regu- 
lar as the measurement of the hours. . When a 
change of feed is made it must be done with 
gieat care — giving a small allowance at first 
until the stomach becomes used to the change. 
He must be cleaned every day ; and when we 
say cleaned, we mean all that can be conveyed 
by that word. A good curry-comb, brush, and 
an oiled woolen cloth are the utensils necessary. 
First take the curry-comb and begin at the top 
of the neck, back of the ears, working the 
hand both ways. Proceed in this way till you 
take both comb and brush, and follow the 
comb with the brush, and after every stroke, 
draw the brush across the teeth of the comb to 
clean it. An experienced groom will do this 
instantaneously, This done, take your cloth 
and lay the coat, and remove the dust that ad- 
heres to the outside. The face and ears must 
also fee! the brush- 
Few men know how to clean a horse prop- 
erly. If the above directions are followed dai- 
your horse will enjoy good health generally. 
Stabled horses must be exercised daily. This 
is absolutely essential to good health. If the 
feet of your horses are brittle and are liable to 
break and crack, they must be well oiled 
once a week. A horse thus treated will always 
be ready to go when wanted, and you will not 
be ashamed either to ride ordrive him. 

Another thing quite a-: important is a clean 
and we!! ventilated stable. We cannot excuse 
any farmer or horse owner who docs not cle m 
out his stable twice a day. A stable should ho 
so constructed as to have a wide passageway 
or floor in front to feed from Above the 
manger a space should be left a foot or two in 
widtii clear, and the passage way should be the 
avenue for the suj ply of fresh air to the nos- 
trils of the horse. 

A horse enjoys a good bed, and it should 
never be refused him. At night take your 
fork and make it up light and you will feel 
amply rewarded for the humane treatment you 
have given to your beast. — Prairie Fanner. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Testing Guano- 

The previous analyses show, that guano may 
be perfeely genuine and yet miserably had ; 
•how great then must be the danger of decep- 
tion wheri intentional adulterations, which 
render a bad guano still worse, are superadded! 
Under these circumstances, it cannot be too 
strenuously recommended to the farmer, that, 
unless he wishes to run the risk of throwing 
away his money, he should J> uy u'uano from 
such sources only as are known to he andoubt- 
e 1W trustworthy, or after a previous chemical 
examination. If he is not afraid of a little 
time and trouble, he can institute a trial for 
himself very easily. Tests are now possessec 
of such simplicity as to require scarcely more 
dexterity and attention than roasting or boiling 
coffee, and yet sufficiently accurate to serve in 
doubtful cases as reliable guides. 

1. Test by drying and subsequently washing 
with water.— If the guano, as is generally the 
case with those kinds that are brought from 
Peru and Chili, is a uniform powder, weigh 
two ounce?, spread it upon paper, and let it lie 
for two days in a moderately warm place, in 
summer in a dry and airy situation, in winter 
in a warm room or chamber, in order that the 
air may dry it. What it may then have lost in 
weight must be esteemed superfluous water 
Many sorts ofguai o are so moist as to lose by 
this gentle drying from three to four drachms 
(•20 to "24 per cent.) in their weight. 

If the guano, like the Patagonian and Afri- 
can, is not of uniform character, then, in order 
to obtain a mixture as equable as possible, the 
lumps, which have frequently an altogether 
different composition from that of the powdery 
portions, must be broken in pieces and pulver- 
ized, before weighing off and drying a given 
' quantity. In like manner care must be taken 
to distribute stones, feathers, etc., when they 
are present, equably throughout the mass. As 
the stones are often so firmly stuck over with 
the guano that they can only be freed from the 
latter by tedious scraping, it is advisable to 
pour hot water over a distinct portion in some 
convenient vessel, and to let it soften by stand- 
in? for a night, upon which stones and sand 
will remain behind after agitation and washing 
with water. 

2. Test by coinhustion. — Pour half an ounce 
of the guano to be examined into an iron spoon 



and place it upon red hot cords until a white or 
grayish ash i.^ left, which must he weighed su- 
iter cooling. The less a.-h is left behind, the 
better is the guano. The best sorte of J'eni- 
| vian guano yield, from half an ounce, somewhat 
[more than one drachm of ashes (30 to 33 per 
cent.); whereas the inferior guanos that arenow 
so often offered for sale (for example, Patago- 
nian, African, Saldanhn Bay, and Chili guanos) 
leave a residue of from 2 1-2 to 3 diachms (O'J 
| to SO per cent.;, and those iuteritiutwdly adulte- 
rated a greater quantity of ashes. Of genuine 
guano, the bad, as well as the good, the ash is. 
always white or gray ; a yellow or reddish col- 
or indicates an adulteration with loam, sand 
earth, &c. 

The test is very simple, and at the same time 
i very trustworthy ; it rests .ipon the fact, that 
the I'.itrnjrcnous combinntionsexisting in guano 
and forming, as has been demonstrated in a pre- 
ceding section, its most valuable Ingredients, 
I undergo combustion a- d volatilization when 
[subjected to heat. Here, too, the difference of 
I odour during the combustion is characteristic- 
; The vapours' from the better specimens have a 
pungent smell, like spirits of hartshorn, with a 
I peculiar pinmncy, almost like old Limr>or.r«r 
cheese (decaj'ed;) whilst those rising from in- 
ferior varieties smell like singed horn-shavings 
or hair. 

The combustion may be undertaken on ar.y 
hearth or in any parlor stove, without fear in 
the latter case that a disagreeable odour will be 
diffused throughout the room. A brick should 
be firmly thrust down into the fire, and the 
spoon laid upon it in such a way that the han- 
dle rests upon the brick, and the bowl with the 
guano projects free over the fire. A cork should 
be fixed on to the extremity of the handle, in 
order that the hand may not be burnt when 
brought in contact with the heated spoon. 

3. Lime test. — Put a teaspoonful of each kind 
of guano to be examined into a wineglass, and 
i upon this a teaspoonful of slaked lime ; then 
add a few teaspoonsful of water and agitate the 
mixture briskly. Lime liberates the ammonia 
from the ammohiacal salts contained in the 
guano, in just the same manner as from rotten 
muck and putrid draining;; ; and . this 
escapes; the more excellent, the-refore, a gu> no 
is, the stronger will be the pungen t ammoniacai 
odour ichick- escapes from this guano paste. 
This test does not indeed possess the accuracy 



JTIE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



of the preceelingj but is still in many cases ve- 
ry convenient on account of it's simplicity, and 
aiort | articularly vherc it is desirable to > ass a 
"•enend and approximative opinion upon the 

qualitv of different kinds of guano. Under pres- j scribed above; for then it would be 
ent circumstances, especially, its utility appears found that a guano of the kind in question 
-_" - _. . ( r, because guano of intermediate qual- (yielded three drachms and more of ashes, and 
itv 



to two drachms of insoluble substances, yet 
good merchandise. In such a case most com- 
plete security is afforded against an erroneous 
decision, by the use of the combustion test de- 
scribed above ; for 



now of very infrequent occurence, and ; must accordingly be admitted as an inferior va- 
c rameree presents us for the most part with re- • riety. 

markably got '. or remarkably bad qualities, in 5. Vinegar test. — Pour strong vinegar, or 
examinir _ which the lime test can be advant- j better still, some muriatic acid, over the guano 
a .::• ush used, inasmuch as the difference in the j to be examined : "if a strong effervescence e: - 
strength of the odours is really so remarkable, sues, an intentional adulteration of guano with 
that it cannot escape the detection of the most I lime-- may be inferred. This substance may 
unpractised nose. also be recognized by the combustion test, 

In order to be able to apply this test at any since lime remains behind in combustion and 



moment, it is judicious to keep a portion of 
slaked lime constantly on hand. But that this 
mav not lose effect, it must be carefully ex- 
cluded from the air, and should, therefore, be 
preserved in a dry and well-corked bottle. 

4. Tt-ii :"<":'. ? ( hot water — Make a filter of blot- 
ting-paper, folded together into the shape of a 
cone, and put this into a tin-funnel wire tri- 
angle. Let half an ounce of air-dried guano 
be placed in this, and over it pour hot, best 
boiling water, as long as it passes through of a 
yellowish colour. If the paper with the moist 
gu; no is laid, when no more liquid drops from 
it. in a v.- arm place, and the residue weighed 
when it has become completely dry. the de- 
ficiency from half an ounce will show the weight 
of those elements which have been dissolved by 
the water. Asa general rule it may be held, 
'the larger the quantify of guano that is dis- 
sotted in water, the wore ammoniacoJ salts docs 
it coal- 1 '):, and the better it is. Hence that gua- 
no rous't be preferred, as in the test by combus- 
lion, which upon being so treated with water, 
leaves behind the smallest residue. In the best 
cr Peruvian guanos, the residue from half an 
ounce that is ii soluble in water amounts to 
about 2 drachms (from 50 to 55 per cent); on 
the othci hand, in the comparatively worthless 
guanos from 3 to Ss drachms (SO to 90 per 
cent.). 

Exceptions to this rule may, however, occur, 
namely when a guano contains many soluble 



auguments the quantity of ashes. — Stockkardl'i 

Chemical Field Lectures. 

■^.•-~>-»-£« 

Bexefactoes of Maxkixd. — It is not he who 
invented Brussels Carpeting or Gold Brocade, 
whom the masses have reason to hold in re- 
gard, but he who furnishes something useful 
to every-body. One cf our government officials 
j lately returned from his mission in Brazil, tells 
j as an anecdote that among the first enquiries 
made of him about his acquaintance with our 
j public men, was whether he knew the Ameri- 
j can Chemist, Dr. J. C. Ayek, who invented the 
! Cherry Pectoral and Cathartic Pills. As these 
| articles (more particularly the Cherry Pectoral) 
are in general use in the cities cf South Amer- 
ica they are the most prevalent representations 
of American products, and as many thousands 
there as well as here, owe to them the recovery 
of their health frera malignant diseases, it 
is not strange they should hold the inven- 
tor in esteem, but it is rather simple in them 
to suppose that the Doctor is the only man of 
mark we have among our twenty-five million 
people. — Christian Advocate. 



To Make1IakdCaxdi.es or Soft Tallow.— 

I noticed a request a short time since, for a re- 
ceipt to make soft tallow hard. I send you 
one I know by experience to be good. To 13 
pounds of tallow take half a gallon of water, to 
which add three tablespoonfuls of pulverized 
alum, and two tablespoonfuls of saltpetre, which 
mineral sails. Specimens have been met with heat and dissolve; then add your tallow and 
o commerce which consisted to the extent of one pound of beeswax ; boil hard altogether, 



one-half or two-thirds of sea-salt and Glauber 
salt; such guanos, upon being treated with hot 
water, would only leave a residue of from one 



until the water evaporates, and skim well while 
boiling. It should not be put in the moulds 
hotter than you can bear your hand in. The 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



candles look much nicer when the wicks are J through a liner, cloth and then- boiled to th ■• 
not tied at the bottom. It is not only a disa- j proper consistency. 

■M-eeahle task to cut the wick off, but it injures ! The process, I hardly need to state, was ala- 
the moulds. Never heat your moulds to draw j borious one, yet to a good degree thorough ; 
your candles in cold weather. and while I would not recommend it to the . 

Perhaps it is not generally known that tallow man who may cultivate ids acres, and has at 
from beeves fed on corn or grain, is much soft- | command all the resource- in apparutua that 
er than when fed on grass or clover. There- art and science have afforded him, ;. • I to some 
lore the tallow from grass fed cattle should al- of the many who are dcepiy interested in the, 
ways be selected for summer use and the can- 1 attempt to introduce the cultivation of the cane 
dies will always he hard with the addition of j into our Northern Agriculture, and are anxious 
very little- alum and beeswax. In very cold j to experiment in the matter, but whose most 
weather much less alum must be used, or they extensive a d complicated crushing apparatus 



will crack so as to fall to pieces sometimes ; 

and a third more of each should be use 1 in very 

warm weather, if the tallow is very soft. With 

a little management you can always have hard' to such "emendations and corrections' 

tallow for Summer use where you make all tie experience and good sense. will be 



consists of a mortar and pestle and a strong 
right arm, a statement of the above simj le pro- 
cess, may stimulate to a like experiment, and 



list to 



your own candles. — F. in Co. Gent. 

From the New England Farmer. 

Molasses from Chinese Sugar 
Cane- 

Mr. Editor — About the middle of last June 
I received by exchange several small packages 
of seed from the Patent office, among which 
was one of the Chinese Sugar Cane. On the 
43th of the same month I planted a few seed 
for experiment, from which one hill of seven 
plants was reserved. These thrived well, and 



at the time of the first heavy frost had attain ■ 
ed a growth of about ten feet, with the seed at 
the tops apparently full sized, but, as was an- 
ticipated from the shortness of the growing 
season, not we'd filled and scarcely colored. — 



afford us. 

Please accent, with my best wishes, Mr. Ed- 
itor, the accompanlng sample of the mol; --.s. 
J. J. II. GREGORY. 

Marblchend, Mass., Due. 0, 1856. 

*»• -^.-> 

From the Homestead. 

On the Cultivation of Hops- 

We have long felt confidant that this, a 
source of profit of importance, is not appr* ela- 
ted by our farmers. The following i- fn m an 
extensive hop grower of central New York. — 
We hone to hear asrain from him on the man. 



ner of harvesting, rucking, drying and market- 
ing of the crop ; and doubt not hi: willingness 
to answer questions which may be proposed 
through our columns. — Ed. 

Messrs. Editors : — After selecting a level 
From six of the stalks the juice was expressed j p{ece of 1{mdj c]ear from al} fagt st0fie5> p!ow k 

and boiled down to the consistency of common i ^ thc Fa jj very deep . manuro lt n - c vj hl iht . 

molasses, yielding about a common coffee cup spring, make it rich; plow it again and mix 

full (or one and two-thirds gills) of. a rich sy- 1 tlic Ill;u;ure thoroughly with the soil, and make 

rup, which our grocers considered to be richer j the sur f ace smooth : then mark it out seven 

flavored than ordinary molssses, equal in qual- j tcot one way , U( \ eigilt feet the otll , .._ ?e . tIng 

ity to the syrup of commerce. i your ro , vs straight as possible for i: will he all 

The saccharine substance was extracted feein J the. better to cultivate. Cut vour roots into 

the cane by the following simple process : the j ^ ts „ twQ johUs on a get aud ph , , ±au &t 

cane was divided at the natural joints, and from the cr0S!5 ; ngs of the mKrk3j setting lhrce or 

the pieces thus obtained the hard bamboo like j four ; n a hm Make the hoIcs wkb f a s h 5Tpen _ 

casing was slipped, leaving the pith. The j C(1 stick j QW CH0Ug h to receive the set, in a 

pith broken into pieces of convenient size was j standing position sfauting so that the tops, will 

reduced to powder in a hand mortar, and in this > noarIy come together and cover them lightly 

state was thoroughly macerated in several wa- j with "soil. There can be corn planted between 

ters, until little or no sweetness could be de-j { \ lc rows the g rst voaV) :iai ] a good crop ni i so a. 

tected in it.' The sweet infusion was strained | Give ro0]n cnoug h between the hop hill and 



4S 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



born to run a cultivator ; keep the hill of hops ] 
perfectly clear from weeds, the last hoeing bill ! 
them up well, making the hill large as a good 
sized potato hill. This finishes the work for| 
"ihe first seas.m. Keep cattle from running | 
over them when the ground is wet, as it will 
injure them very much if they are allowed to 

do so. I 

The poles are cut and drawn the Winter fob 
lowin^ and sharpened for setting in the Spring; 
those used here are generally cedar but any! 
other wool w ill answer. They should he from j 
eighteen to twenty-five feet long. ■ Give the, 
soil a «rood dressing of fine manure broadcast, 
over the surface ; plough them out both ways j 
between the rows, turning the furrows from I 
the lulls each way ; then cut off ail the old . 
vines, and you arc ready for setting the poles, j 
Two poles to a hill is all that is necessary ; set j 
them diamonding so tha« it will give seven feet J 
between the. .rows each way. j 

When the vines are up two or three feet high i 
we wind them around the poles going with the 1 
sun andtieing the vines below the second joint i 
with woolen yarn or rushes, only two vines to j 
a pole. When this is done cultivate the sur- j 
face down smooth, hoe them out clean, take all j 
the weeds out of the hill. Cut ail the spare, 
vines off when the so on the poles arc up 6 or 8 
feet. This can he done at the second hoeing. J 
Be very particular and keep the vines on the j 
poles; "they will want tieiug three or four times 
and the wind will blow them off if they are 
. not tied often. It will be necessary to use a , 
ladder ; but make one to stand of itself and let i 
it not lean against the poles. Cultivate them 
ss often as they pet weedy. The last hoeing 
Or hilling up is done about the first of July, 
and in this manner, take a shovel and throw 
about a bushel of soil on the hill bctwen the 
poles; this finishes them until harvest which 
commences between the first and tenth of Sep- 
tember. This is the way hops are cultivated 

in "York State." r t 

THOMPSON BEACH. 

Pcterboro', Feb, }^-^ 

Hard Times Pudding.— Mix half a pint of 
molasses with half a pint of water ; add a table- 
spoonful of butter, melted; a small toasponful 
of salaeratus, and a little salt; stir in flour 
enough to m tke a tolerably thick batter. Bod 
three' hours, and eat with warm sweet sauce. 



From the Southern Cultivator. 

Saving Pea vine Hay— the Chin: 
Proline Pea- 



Editors Southern Cultivator. — In the 
tober number of the Cultivator, I notice a cora- 

municated from "T. C. C." in which he con. 
plains that he can find no suitable substitu 
for fodder, much as he objects to the loss < 
time and corn involved in pulling it. He so/. 
he has found it possible to gather and cur: 
pea-hay su that his horses would cut it, eve-:'' 
after several days sunning. I think ho woull 
find it an advantage to pursue a plan intrc 
duced into our neighborhood by Dr. Goree, 
which is, to plant the peas in rid.es four o~ 
five feet apart, after he has taken off his oa: 
cr p. Just before frost he has the vines pul 
led up and thrown into "winnows." After i 
has taken one day's sun, and before the leave 
get dry enough to crumble he has the rows 
chopped in two every ten or twenty feet (de 
pending upon the amount of vine) then loaded 
on a wagon, and driven to a convenient place 
for stacks, which are made by setting up posts 
fifteen or twenty feet in height, well imbedded 
and having holes bored with a two inch auger 
every two feet, through which are thrusi strong 
poles extending five or six feet on. each side. 
On these arc hung the vines, from bottom to 
top. The stock should be thatched with oat 
or other straw, and suffered to remain untouch- 
ed for a month. ; when he will find a rich : sweet 
[food that will keep his horses and mules (un- 
! less at work) perfectly fat without the assis- 
i tance of other food. 

Another plan which we ilnd successful is to 
j put the vines in rail pens, having after each 
I load two or three rails thrust through from 
I one side to the other, so that the next load 
! may partially rest upon them ; in this way, 
j admitting a free circulation of air. "T. C. C. 1 ' 
! will find by adopting this plan that his most 
fastidious horses will willingly ,. r :* pea hay. 

Mr, Wm. F. Douglass* of this county, is thi 
year planting "China pea," which I think should 
supersede the use of every other. I have no- 
ticed his crop from time to time during the 
season, and must say I have never seen any- 
thing to equal it. I shall plant no other nez-.u 
year, so well satisfied ami of its superiority, 

W. R. 
South Bend, Ark., Oci. % lS5G. • 




Sttwtrtt ta Igrimltet, Ilarttntltttre, attfr tire ftterljattir Mb. 

WILLIAM D. COOKS, Editor, and Publisher- 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, N. C, MAY, 1857. 



NO. 3. 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

TERMS. 

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Subscriptions may begin with any number; but 

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JprceUwroma. 



From the Ohio Cultivator. 

Sheep Husbandry. 

BY JAMES D. LADD. 

In. order that sheep should go through the 
winter well, it is indispensable they should 
commence it well. To secure this sine qua 
non, they must be carefully looked after dur- 
ing the fall or early winter. My experience 
and observation is, that more is lost for the 
want of attention and a little expense during 
the 11th and 12 mos. (November and Decem- 
ber) than any other portion of the year. The 
reason obviously is, our flock-masters, being 
busied about many other things, put off the 
time of getting their stock into their winter 



1 quarters to the latest period that will possibly 
do ; this we often do when we know that our 
flocks are losing flesh, but console ourselves 
that we will make it all ap when we have 
them in comfortable shelters, and have more 
time to devote to them. This, however, is a 
fatal error, for one gallon of grain, with pro- 
tection, from the cold, drenching rains of au- 
tumn, will do as much good as a bushel given 
in the severity of mid-winter, after the poor 
creatures have shivered half their vitality 
away; in fact, if a sheep gets poor in the fall, 
the crows are pretty sure to get his carcass be- 
fore spring. If, however, by extra care he be 
made to worry along, undecided whether to 
live or die,, until clipping time, he will then 
yield but a few ounces of wool, and go to sum- 
mer pasture a skeleton. Ewes in this situa- 
tion do not raise mora than 20 per cent of 
their lambs. 

Sheep, like all. other stock to be the most 
profitable, must be kept strong and healthy 
the year round. To do this, keep no more 
than you can give an ample range of good 
grass during summer,, and comfortable shelters, 
with, a liberal supply of wholesome food and 
drink during winter. 

Commencing with the spring of the year, my 
experience is,, that it is best to divide your 
sheep, according to age, sex, and condition, in- 
to lots of from 50 to 80 — in no case more than 
100; clip off that portion of the wool upon 
which tag-locks collect, and when you are sure 



66 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



that there is enough grass to keep them full, 
turn them out. In this latitude, this will be 
from the middle of the 4th month (April) till 
the middle of the 5th month (May,) owing to 
the season. Allow them 10 acres, with run- 
ning water in it, for 80 head of grown sheepj 
or 50 ewes with young lambs, and salt them 
twice per week for one month, which will bring 1 
you to the time for washing and clipping. 

To perform this interesting operation aright, 
tsfce them to a running stream of soft water; 
put them in a crowded pen as close to the wa- 
ter as possible; have an able-bodied man to 
carefully throw them in, where two men should 
be standing in water 21 to 3 feet deep, to see 
that they get thoroughly wet, and pass them 
directly to the shore, which should be on a 
level with the surface of grass, or with gravel. 
When you have thus passed the flock through, 
bring them again into the crowded pen, and let 
them stand about fifteen minutes. If possible 
there should be a stream of water from 10 
inches to 2 feet wide and 3 inches thick, pass- 
ing through a spout, and fulling from 2 to S 
feet, into the water, where the two men stand. 
Now let the man in the pen commence putting 
in again, and the two in the water convey to 
the spout; place them under, and keep con- 
stantly turning them, so that the water shall 
not fall long on one portion of the body, and 
in two or three minutes the whole fleece will 
be white as cotton. Now take them carefully 
to the shore ; support them a moment, until 
the great weight of water runs out of the wool, 
and they will be ready to travel back to their 
pasture, where they may remain three or four 
days, or until their wool is dry, when they 
should pass at once to the hands of the shearer, 
especially if the weather should be warm ; as 
a very short time after they are once dry, the 
yolk rises enough to discolor the fleece. And 
although it does add to the weight, every judi- 
cious buyer will leave greasy clips, and pay 
more per lb. for clean wool of the same grade, 
knowing full well that it is more desirable for 
the manufacturer. Moreover, we hope you are 
all aiming to "do unto others as you would 
they should do unto you." 

We shall not undertake to say how you shall 
arrange for shearing, or how the operation is 
best performed ; many good shearers differ in 
their modus operandi. There is one matter 
that can now be conveniently attended to, 



which is worthy of consideration ; — have a pot 
of paint and a type (no matter what, a corn- 
cob answers very well if the marker under- 
stands the signification of the character,) and 
mark each sheep, dividing them into three or 
more classes, as to quality and quantity of 
wool : then, when you have a surplus to dis- 
pose of, pick out the light shearers and sell 
them for what they will bring : thus you can 
always keep up a fair average weight of fleece ; 
and, generally, you will increase it until you 
arrive at the maximum. These things all done, 
jovx flock will only need to be salted once per 
week during the summer, and to be changed 
occasionally from one range to another; for 
although, of an average season, 16 acres of 
good pasture land, especially if covered with 
the native grasses, will support 80 sheep ; yet 
I think there is a great advantage in having 
one more range than you have lots of sheep,, 
and change them from one to another, so that 
no one lot shall remain in the same enclosure 
more than six weeks at a time. 

As soon as the pastures are injured by frost, 
place a few troughs in your fields : which may 
be made by setting a board, 6 inches wide, 
upon edge ; lay one 7 inches in width upon it, 
in such position as to form a right-angle ; nail 
the edges together ; lay them on a level sur- 
face, with the base of the angle down : take 
two pieces of 2 inch stuff", 18 inches long and 
12 or 1-i inches wide; place them against the 
ends, which are represented thus _\^, with one 
edge upon the level on which the boards rest, 
and mark the outer edges of the angle. This, 
you will perceive, will describe a right-angle, 
which saw out. Now turn the whole struc- 
ture over ; let the trough rest in the spaces cut 
out, placing the supports 18 inches or 2 feet 
from the end, and drive 3 nine-penny nails 
through into them on each side ; place the tri- 
angular pieces cut out in the ends, and secure 
them in the same way, and you have a cheap, 
convenient trough, that, with some care in 
handling, will last a long time. Have enough 
of these in each field to allow 20 sheep to eat 
out of 12 feet in length ; and give them every 
morning half a bushel of oats, or three gallons 
of corn to the hundred head, and it will fully 
supply the failure of the grass for one month ; 
then, as the weather becomes more inclement, 
increase the amount of grain until you get 
equal to half bushel of corn per hundred head. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



67 



In the meantime, during the second month of 
this feeding (which, in this latitude, will prob- 
ably be from the 15th of the 11th mo. to the 
15th of the 12th mo.), when a cold rain or 
snow squall is approaching, put them in shel- 
ter and give them a little hay ; let them re- 
main until the storm is orer. If you have to 
choose either horn of a dilemma, keep them 
from drinking 4S hours, rather than let them 
o-et soaked in a cold rain— the chilling wet will 
injure them much more than the suffering from 

thirst. 

TYe have now come to the time that they 
should be put into winter quarters. 

Your sheep barn should be placed in a posi- 
tion protected on the north and west by higher 
ground, or a grove of timber, giving one side a 
southeastern exposure; upon this side have 
your yards, in which it is very desirable^ to 
have pure, running water. Opening into the 
yards have double doors, so that you can throw 
open a space, for ingress and egress, at least 
12 feet wide— better 15 feet — or, in a large 
barn, even 20 feet ; this allows a large number 
to pass abreast, and prevents injury from jamb- 
ing against the sides. On this side, also, have 
as many windows as you conveniently can, for 
the admission of sunshine, of which you can't 
have too much. Stocks of all kinds do better, 
every way, to be so situated that the sun's 
rays can penetrate at least a portion of their 
apartments" several hours of each fair day. I 
know the idea prevails to a considerable ex- 
tent, that stall-fed animals take on flesh faster 
in a dark stable. I look upon it as a popular 
error, brought about by the fact that, in shut- 
ting out all light, the animal is protected from 
causes of excitement that might otherwise 
come within the range of his vision. This de- 
sirable object can be attained without depriv 
ing them of the luxury of sunshine, simply by. 
placing the windows higher than they can 
raise their heads. Dr. E. K. Kane, in his arc- 
tic voyage, describes his admission into a small 
spot of sunlight, after the dreary darkness of 
an arctic winter, to be like bathing in per- 
fumed water. Doubtless many a poor beast 
has felt a degree of the same sensation when 
coming out of long confinement in a dark 
stall. 

I have found it most convenient to feed grain 
in the yards, and long food in the barn. To 
this end, place the triangular troughs, hereto- 



fore described, in the yards ; place the racks 
in the barn, so as to divide the space into parts 
of a convenient size, for the different lots of 
sheep ; which should remain divided much as 
they were in the summer. When you com- 
mence feeding in the morning, place the grain 
in the troughs ; open the doors to their great- 
est capacity ; when the sheep have passed out, 
close them ; go in and put the hay in the 
racks. If the day is fair and mild, open the 
doors and leave them, for the stock to pass in 
and out at pleasure until evening ; if cold or 
stormy, close them in until time to commence 
feeding in the evening, then turn out, and 
while you are filling tlie racks, they will have 
an opportunity to drink, if there is water in 
the yard ; then turn in and close up for the 
night. Thus continue, with as much regu- 
larity as possible, keeping the shelter dry and 
clean by frequent litterings with straw, the 
stubbles left in the racks, &c. ; allowing one 
.half bushel of corn, or one bushel of oats per 
hundred head, per diem, with as much hay as 
they will eat, without wasting it, until the 
time of spring pasture. Then follow the direc- 
tions herein given, until you have your clip of 
wool ready for market, and I will guarantee 
you get your money back with interest. 

Sugar from the African Sorghum. 

Interesting facts Concerning the Sorgho or 
Chinese Sugar- Cane, and the Imphee — 
Specimens of Sugar Exhibited — Manures, 
Sic. 

The Farmers' Club was called to order at the 
rooms of the American Institute at noon yester- 
day, Judge Livingston in the chair, and a large 
attendance of members present. 

Horace Greeley introduced Mr. Leonard Wray, 
of Natal, South Africa, who has had more ex- 
perience in the culture of the various species of 
Imphee, (including the Chinese Sugar Cane,) 
than, perhaps, any other European, and has 
succeeded in obtaining as fine crystalized sugars 
directly from the juice as those resulting from the 
Louisiana Sugar Cane. He is referred to as the 
highest authority by M. Vilmorin, of France, 
Count de Beauregard, and the illustrious gen- 
tlemen of the Imperial Acclimation Society, and 
has visited this country, on invitation of a gov- 
ernor of one of our Southern States, for the pur- 
pose of cultivating the varieties of the new su- 



68 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



gar plant which he considers most valuable, and 
to introduce the methods, discovered by himself, 
for obtaining the valuable product of crystalized 
sugar. His arrival at this moment of our first 
experience with the sorgho cannot but be con 
sidered most opportune, and the very valuable 
information which he possesses will be of first 
cons quence in its prospective bearing upon our 
national revenue. 

Mr. Wray commenced by stating that he had 
discovered, growing wild upon the southwest 
coast of Cafftaria, the curious Imphee, which 
was in common use among the natives as an ar- 
ticle of food. He had been so favorably impres- 
sed with its qualities as -to undertake protracted 
journeys to collect new varieties, and met with 
such success as to procure no less than sixteen 
distinct kinds of greater or less saccharine rich- 
ness. Some of the more precocious ones will 
complete their growth in three months, while 
others recmirre as long as four and five. 

The names of the sixteen varieties are as fol- 
lows : Nee-a-za-?ia, Oom-se-an-a, Boom-be-va- 
na, Shla-goo-va, Shla-goon-dee, Vim-bis-chu-a- 
pa, E-a-na-moo-dee, Zim-moo-ma-na, Zim-ba- 
za-na, Eboth-la, E-thlo-sa, Boo-ee-a-na, En- 
1/a-ma, Koom-ba-na, See-en-gla-na and E-en- 
gha. The first four of these are of quick growth, 
and will produce one crop of sugar at the North ; 
the others are suitable for the South, and some 
of them will give two full crops. 

For feeding to stock Mr. Wray says there are 
no crops, possessing an advantage over these 
Jmphees. They are fully equal to southern 
cane, and are greedily eaten by every descrip- 
tion of stock. He had ted his horses, cattle and 
pigs on them. The idea has been advanced by 
some in this country that the bogasses (stalks 
which have been crushed for sugar-making) would 
be good feed for stock, but Mr. Wray had lost 
some animals from making use of them, and on 
opening their stomachs after death the fibrous 
Sorgho stalks were found to have formed into 
hard balls and accumulated in such indigestible 
masses as to cause death. If, however, the bo- 
gasses had been fed with the scum, which is re. 
moved from the boilers, this bad effect would not 
have been experienced. If fed green, as are 
cured corn stalks, there can be no more pro- 
fitable or nutritious article employed, and for 
this alone its cultivation would be profitable. — 
These crushed stalks, or bogasses, make an ex- 
cellent paper, and Mr. Wray has samples in En- 
gland which are superior tfi straw paper. 



Judge Meighs desired to know if there wa s 
much value in the seed. Mr. Wray said, that 
for a feed for fowls there could bft no better, and 
that from his African Imphees very fine bread 
can be made. The Chinese variety is not so 
good for this purpose, because of the bitter pelli- 
cle which surrounds the seed proper, lyinjr un- 
der the outer black hull, but he had a process 
for obviating this difficulty. The seed would 
have an immense value for the manufacture of 
starch. The amount practically obtainable is 
forty -five per cent, and is more easy of extrac- 
tion than that fiom the farinaceous Mexican corn; 
and from the ease of its manufacture, and the 
high price of corn, it is evident that the "Im- 
phee" will be cultivated to a considerable ex- 
tent for this purpose. 

The remarkable vitality of the plant Is shown 
by a statement made by Mr. Wray. He had a 
plantation of it on his estate in Africa, which 
he wished to remove to give place to a crop of 
arrow-root. The field was thoroughly ploughed 
at the end of the season, and the stumps re- 
moved ; but the few which escaped the notice of 
his' workmen shot up into great luxuriance of 
growth, and in two months and five days had at- 
tained the height of seven feet. As many a* 
twenty-two stalks grew up from a single stump, 
and the juice of all these made as good sugar as 
the parent stem. 

In our own country there have been similar 
instances during the past season. Mr. Browne, 
of the Patent Office, it will be remembered by 
those of our readers who saw the articles pre- 
viously published in the Evening Post, states 
that five cuttings have been made in Florida 
from one set of stalks. In South Carolina, 
Georgia, Illinois and New Hampshire, three and 
two have been obtained ; and we may safely 
calculate that as a fodder crop both the Chinese 
and thes3 new African varieties will give us at 
North two crops of excellent nutritious forage. 

Mr. Olcott, of the Farm Jchool, asked if the 
coloring matter from the seed hulls could 
be procured in such quantities as to make it a 
profitable department of industry 1 Mr. Wray 
replied that as yet the matter had not been defi 
nitely settled. He bad not supposed it would, 
but more extended experiment might prove to 
the contrary. The taint is abundant in the en- 
velope of the seed of the Chinese variety of sor- 
gho. Fowls which had been fed on the seed 
were found to have been tinted even to the cellu- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



69 



Jarstructure of their bones. Their dung was 
colored of a purplish hue, and could be readily 
distinguished in the yard from that of birds 
which had not partaken of the seed ; but this 
peculiarity did not lesson its value as a food. — 
He had not tried it as a feed for horses because 
of its extreme high price ; and when he went 
to Kafflrland the natives told him not to feed 
horses on it, as it nntde them "puffy." Mr- 
Olcott exhibited specimens of ribbon, colored 
with the dye from the Hulls of the sorgho seed? 
and stated that he had scraped off some of the 
waxy effervescence from the stalk, and it burn- 
ed with a clear flame. Mr. Wray, said this 
production would not be of consequence, as the 
small quantity obtainable and the tedious- 
ne«s of the operation of scraping it from the 
stalks, would much morp than counterbalance 
any profit from its sale. He thought the com- 
putations made by Mr. Hardy, the Director of 
the Imperial Nursery at Hanima, Algiers, could 
not be considered as at all practically valuable. 

The seed should be thoroughly dried before 
the stripping of the seed is attempted, and can 
then can ke threshed out with flails in like man- 
ner to wheat, barley or other grain 

Professor Mapes inquired if the sap in the 
stalks will sour on exposure to the atmosphere, 
as is the case with the Louisiana Cane, and if 
the crystalizable property was injured? 

Mr. Wray stated that on one occasion he had 
been absent. from his estate when the canes were 
ready to be harvested, and his Kaffis, thinking 
he would return within a day or two, had cut 
up and stacked his entire crop. He was not able 
to return, however, until after the expiration of 
a fortnight, and he then found that about one 
inch of either end of the stalks had soured ; so < 
without further loss of time, he had set his men 
to work to remove these portions, and w l, en 
the juice from them was boiled down, it made 
quite as good sugar as any previous sample. 

The Zulu Kaffirs put the stalks into pits 
which they dig in the ground, and preserve 
them perfectly for several months. 

In regard to the density of the sap, Mr. Wray 
adverted to a trial which had been made in Mar- 
tinique, upon the estate of the Count de Chazelle, 
the object of which was to decide the compara- 
tiTe densities of the sugar-canes from the cele 
brated Grand Terry districts and of Mr. Wray's 
Imphees, both of which had been grown by 
the Ceunt The result was that the latter 



showed a density superior to the forn er by 
three and one-half degrees. The sugar cane 
gave 7 deg. Baume, and the ImpTiee 10 1-2 deg« 
This richness is quite remarkable, for ordinary 
Luoisiana cane does not average higher than 
7 1-2 to 8, if we remember aright, and it shows 
what we may in future expect from the intro- 
duction of this valuable plant to the domain of 
our national agriculture. 

The quantity of juice to be obtained from 
the stalks was dependent upon the power of 
the mill. Count de Beauregard had sixty per 
cent ; but his mill was an imperfect one. Un- 
der favorable circumstances as much as seven- 
ty per cent, might be calculated upon, and of 
this sever teen per cent, was crystalizable su- 
gar. The quantity of suga' - per acre he esti- 
mated at three thousand pounds, but both quan- 
tity and quality would be controlled by the 
perfection or imperfection of processes of man- 
ufacture. Mr. Wray had discovered the only 
successful method of obtaining the sugar 
which has been made public. M. de Montigny, 
Count de Beauregard and others, had sought in 
vain for it but he had been fortunate enough to 
arrive at a complete success, as was proved by 
the samples of sugar which he exhibited to the 
Club. 

Several specimens were shown. One of 
them is not purged of the molasses, because Mr. 
Wray desired to prove that the syrup from the 
Imphee possesses no unpleasant flavor. We 
tasted it and found it very pleasant in flavor, 
reminding one of maple sugar. Another sam- 
ple had been purged ; it presented the appear- 
ance of fine clayed Havana. The crystals are 
firm and sharp, and the taste is not different 
from good Havanas, which are now selling in 
the New York market at 11 and 12 cents, by 
the quantity. 

If Mr. Wray is not amiss in his calculations 
as to the yield per acre, or if we can but ob- 
tain one thousand pounds, what an immense 
gift to American Agriculture is he about to 
make ? Our rapidly waning crops of sugar is 
at once exchanged for the greatest abundance, 
and a vast source of wealth is opened for our 
farmer?. He has already expended some 
twenty thousand dollars in his experiments and 
attempts to introduce it into Europe, and it is 
to be hoped that his visit to our country may 
prove remunerative in proportion to the im- 
portance of his discovery to ourselves. 



70 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



Inquiry was made by a gentleman present in 
regard to some suitable crushing apparatus. — 
Mr. Hedges, the inventor of the Little Giant 
Corn and Cob Mill, said he had invented a mill 
for this purpose, which he had exhibited at the 
recent Fair at Washington, and received a sil- 
ver Medal. He had planted some five hundred 
hills of seed in a hot house in Philadelphia, 
and would be able to crush the canes and make 
sugar as early as June 1st, which would be in 
ample time for the next fall's crop. His mill, 
of which he showed a cut, consists of three 
vertical iron rollers, of great strength, one of 
which is firmly anchored in a beam set in the 
ground ; the other two are attached to the 
platform, so as to revolve simultaneously with 
the progress of the horses. The canes are fed 
to the rollers from a feeding table, the express- 
ed juice runs down through a shoot, and the 
begasses drop out at the opposite side. 

Monsieur Augustus d'Onville, of France call- 
ed the attention of the club to a new corn-plan- 
ter, of his own invention, and a committee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Field, Pardee and Waterbu- 
ry were appointed. 

Horace Greeley spoke of Mr. Hedges' new 
steam boiler, for cooking food for stock, &c, 
and moved the appointment of a committee to 
go to No. 197 Water street to examine it. The 
chair appointed Mr. Greeley ana Messrs. Par- 
dee and Olcott on this committee. 

The subject of the day — Manures — was next 
in order. Professor Mapes addressed the club 
upon the varied excellence of manures in a 
more or less progressed condition, claiming that 



How to Apply Leached Wood Ashes. — 
Editors Country Gentleman : — I have been a 
dealer in ashes for twenty-five years, and when, 
farmers have come to me to purchase ashes, I 
have often heard them express their opinion of 
ashes and experience in using them. In this 
way I have obtained some information upon the. 
suhject, as well as from my own experience in 
using ashes. I am of opinion that ashes vary 
much in their results on different soils, and vary 
as much upon the same soils apparently, in dif- 
ferent places. When skillfully applied to 
the right kind of land, they will pay at twenty- 
five cents a bushel where hay is worth twenty 
dollars a ton. From one to three hundred bush- 
els can be put on an acre at one dressing with 
profit. They should always be spread broadcast 
upon land that has been plowed and harrowed 
once. One or more harrowings should follow 
after the ashes are spread. Great care should 
be taken to spread the ashes evenly ; all lumps 
should be pulverized. When applied to the right 
kind of land ashes area very lasting manure. — 
A farmer must not expect to get all the benefit 
of a dressing of ashes, or if he pays twenty -jive 
cents a bushel to get his pay back, in one or two 
years. Therefore it is necessary to have a rota- 
tion of crops all of which would be benefitted by 
leached ashes. Perhaps as good a one as any 
is to apply ashes, and sow spring grain wjth clo- 
ver and herds-grass — reap, and mow or pasture 
one, -two or more years — then corn. If there 
was but one hundred and fifty bushels of ashes 
applied in the first place, after corn apply one 
hundred and fifty more, and then go round again 



if phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, mag- ' w j t h the rotation. If thiee hundred bushels pc r 
nesia, or any other plant ingredient had passed j acre was applied in the first place, go round with 



through the animal economy and should then 
bo applied to nourish plants, it would give a 
greater product than a substance of like chem- 
ical constitution, but less fully refined organ- 
ism : that there was a regular progressive re- 
finement in the ultimates, from their first de- 
parture from the original rock, to enter into the 
constitution of plants and animals, en<'h time 
being more improved, and capable of sustain- 
ing a higher growth of vegetable. 

Dr.' Waterbury differed from the views of 
Professor Mapes, and offered some remarks, 
upon the conclusion of which the club ad- 
journed. 

«^-»— ^—©-^- ■ 

ISp 35 Read our advertisements, i 



the rotation twice before applying any more 
ashes, and then nol more than one hundred bush- 
els per acre. Ashes succeed best generally upon 
gravelly and sandy land. Land that is highly 
manured with stable manure should be dressed 
oftener and heavier with ashes than that upon 
which a^hes is the enly manure applied. 

E.G. 



Boil youk Molasses. — When molasses is 
used in cooking, it is a very great improvement 
to boil and skim it before you use it. It takes 
out the raw taste, and makes it almost as good 
as sugar. Where molasses is used much for 
cooking, it is well to prepare one or two gal- 
lons in this way at a time. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



71 



Peat and Charcoal as Absorbents- 

Mr. Editor : — I noticed in your paper of 
the 21st ult, an article from the Genessee far- 
mer, headed, "Peat and Charcoal as Absorb- 
ents of Ammonia," on which I offer you a few 
remarks. ' 

It seems to me that the writer, while correct 
in the facts that he has stated, has made con- 
fusion in the arrangements of them, and is in- 
correct in his deduction. 

The power of substances to absorb gas of any 
kind, is one thing. 

The power of substances to take gas from 
other bodies, with which it is already combined, 
is another thing. 

The power to stop or retard fermentation, by 
which any gas is produced or set free, is a 
third thing. 

Yet these three things seem to be confoun- 
ded by the writer of the piece in question, if not 
by the authorities he cites, and hence this in- 
ference given by him, that peat is much supe- 
rior to charcoal in its power of absorbing am- 
monia, is not to be relied upon as a correct de- 
duction from the premises given. 

The experiment of Saussure referred to, upon 
which it is said, most of the adherents of char- 
coal as an absorbent of ammonia base the recom- 
mendation of it, does, it is true, represent the 
power of charcoal in its dryestand purest con- 
dition, in which state it was found by this ex- 
perimeat to absorb the enormous amount of 
ninety times its own value of ammonia. Now 
it would seem that those who recommend char- 
coal on the strength of this experiment being 
aware of the condition upon which the experi- 
ment was made, would not have expected the 
same actual result from that substance in a dif- 
ferent and iess active state, and, even with a 
considerable deduction on that account, the ab- 
sorbing power of charcoal over ammonia, would 
still be very great, and very valuable. Are 
there any experiments with peat, made in a sim- 
ilar way, that is plaoed in a dry state in contact 
with ammonical gas, to show that its power of 
the same kind, is equal, or nearly approaching to 
tuat of charcoal. None are cited, and I do not 
remember ever to have seen any. 

The article says that the charcoal which is 
used for this purpose, has generally been ex- 
posed to the atmosphere for some time before it 
is used, and its pores are filled with air and 
moisture. 



Now it is especially admitted that the at- 
traction of water for ammonia is superior to that 
of charcoal ; if so, it would be the natural in- 
ference that damp charcoal would absoib even 
more ammonia than that which was dry, conse- 
quently, that moisture, previously absorbed, 
will not impair the power of charcoal as an ab- 
sorbent of ammonia. Wi'h regard to the pres- 
ence of air in the pores of charcoal having the 
effeet of injuring its power as an absorbent 
of ammonia, the writer of the article makes no 
statement or argument, and it does not "seem 
necessary to enter into any discussion of the 
matter further than to observe that peat is an 
absorbent of moisture and air as well as char- 
coal, so that in whatever way these elements af- 
fect the absorption of ammonia in charcoal, they 
will in the same way affect it in peat, and un- 
less the absolute power is greater than that of 
charcoal, its comparative power when affected 
by the presence of these elements cannot be 
greater, and that its absolute power is greater, 
or even equal, has not yet been shown. 

As it was admitted that the attraction of wa- 
ter for ammonia, was superior to that of char- 
coal, it is not to be supposed that charcoal will 
effect any change in a watery solution of am- 
monia ; it will merely absorb so much of the 
solution as will find its pores, and will hold it as 
it does any other moisture in considerable resis- 
tance to the power cf evaporation. When the 
absorbing power of ammonia is spoken of, I have 
always supposed that the ammonia was to be 
presented to it in its free state, as a gas, and not 
in combination with water. 

Reference is also made to some experiments 
of Dr. Davy, in which Peat and Peat Charcoal 
were mixed with fermenting urine, the result of 
which was, that the quantity * -mixed with peat 
charcoal, lost three-fourths of all the ammonia 
it contained, while the same urine, mixed with 
peat not charred, lost no ammonia by several 
days' exposure to the atmosphere." 

This statement is far less conclusive in favor 
of the absorbing power of peat than the writer 
seems to suppose. In the first it was only^ai 
charcoal that was used, while, if I recollect 
rightly, wood charcoal was employed in Saus- 
sure's experiment, and it is very possible that 
the power of the two substances may vary con- 
siderably, at least it has got to be shown that it 
does not. 

The more important objection lies, however, 
in the action of other substances. Urine does 



72 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



not contain ammonia in a free state when first 
voided. Ammonia is but one of the products of 
its decomposition, or of its fermentation as it is 
here called. Now charcoal has but little, if any 
power of checking this fermentation or decom- 
position in readily fermentable mixtures, though 
not so liable to it in its own substance. When 
mixed with the fermenting urine, it would 
merely contain so much of the ammonia as its 
own pores, with the aid of the water in the urine 
would absorb, while the rest of ammonia gene- 
rated by the fermentation would escape. 

Peat, on the contrary, is a very compound 
body, containing various elements which have a 
powerful action in preventing, and even stop- 
ping fermentation. This being done, no ammo- 
nia was formed, and consequently none escaped, 
and the urine remained mixed with the peat, 
and undecomposed, and the experiment is no 
proof at all of the power of peat to absorb and 
retain ammonia. Thus the inferences the wri- 
ter of the article would draw from the experi- 
ments he has cited, seem to be unfounded. 

Granite Farmer and Visitor. S. W. 
«»»»»»■ 

Breadstuff's in Europe- 

The Mark Lane (Eng,) Express, of 5th Feb., 
the most reliable source of information in 
Great Britain on the subject, presents the fol- 
lowing review of the British Corn Trade, for 
the year 1856 : 

'Another year has just closed upon us, and 
placed its important records on the scroll of 
Time. Its commencement was characterized 
by the lodgment of the allied armies on Rus- 
sian soil, with gigantic preparations for a re- 
newal of the colossal struggle ia the opening 
spring: all pacific counsels being well nigh 
considered impossible. But on the elapse of 
seventeen days, a rumor became general that 
Austrian intervention had commenced, which 
however, was as generally distrusted. Still, 
these reports coming when prices were at 
about their highest point, viz., 76s. lOd. per 
quarter, produced an immediate effect through- 
out the country, from which the markets did 
not recover till the smallness of stocks towards 
harvest, and the heavy and devastating rains 
which then occurred, sent the averages up to 
77s. lOd. on the 7th of August. From that 
point, with fluctuations varying from Is. to 5s 
weekly they have at last receded to 59s. 8d. per 
quarter. The reduction traceable to the effect 
of peace amounted to about 10s per qr., and 



transpired in the course of three weeks in Feb" 
ruary. We estimate the remaining difference 
of 7s. per qr., to the generally inferior condi- 
tion and damage of the last year's crop. The 
spring opened with some fears as to the rava- 
ges of insects on the growing plants ; but 
these reports happily applied to certain locali- 
ties only, and there was little uneasiness on 
any score, except as to the holding out of stocks 
till harvest, even with the most liberal impor- 
tations from America and the opportune aid 
of Russian supplies. On this head we admitted 
our doubts, and did our best to secure a suffi- 
cient supply ; while the fact that the weekly 
sales noted at the close of August amounted 
to no more than 40,895 qrs. fully justified the 
views we entertained, for they were then little 
more than half the quantity of the previous 
season. As harvest time drew nigh, an almost 
tropical heat produced a simultaneous ripen- 
ing of the grain throughout two-thirds of the 
kingdom. The first gatherings had an Aus- 
tralian dryness, and a complete change to low- 
er prices was in prospect, when down poured 
the rain upon the ripening corn. Yet while 
we deplore the measure of injury done espe- 
cially in Scotland and the North, the nation 
pays but a moderate price for the necessaries 
of life ; and our agricultural friends in the 
South, though somewhat disappointed are not 
without fair remuneration. The stores of Rus- 
sia availing till the new and abundant crop of 
America was gathered, millers have been at no 
loss as to the management of our own crop, 
which hitherto being only worked off in mode- 
rate quantities will be more serviceable after 
March. As to future prices we are inclined to 
consider them more susceptible of improve- 
ment than otherwise — the whole world having 
commenced its consumption with little if any- 
thing bej r ond a year's produce as its depen- 
dence. The crops of Spain and Portugal have 
proved an almost entire failure, those of Italy 
scarcely reaching to its necessities, France be- 
ing certainly short, as well as Belgium and the 
Baltic. Russia itself not over-abundant, and 
America alone in a condition to meet serious 
claims, which have have been so freely met al- 
ready, that New York has not been so bare for 
years. Our own crop too, as a whole, being 
deficient, notwithstanding the extended growth 
of wheat, there promises now to be but little 
surplus at the season's end ; while, therefore, " 
we indulge in no apprehensions, we feel re- 
minded of our dependence upon that Being 
who feeds the sparrow and sustains the world, 
and congratulate our common humanity that 
the 'goodness of God endureth continually.' " 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



73 



Sugar Cane Mills, Boilers, &c- 

The wide spread cultivation of the Chinese 
Sugar Cane gives rise to a general desire for 
more particular information respecting crushing 
mills, boilers, &c, and we, therefore, gladly 
avail ourselves of the kindness of a friend to 
furnish the following statement from a manufac- 
turer of Mills, Mr. A. N. Miller, of Savannah, 
Georgia. 

1st. Cost of a 2 roller, vertical mill, 1 8 inches 
long and 24 inches diameter. $100. This in- 
cludes rollers and bearings. The addition re- 
quired will be to elongate the shaft in the driv- 
ing roller so as to allow for a spur bevel wheel, 
to be placed on when steam power is to be used. 

2d. The cost of a 3 roller will be $15 , in- 
cluding bearings. 

3rd. A 3 roller horizontal mill of the size 
named above, with sides, frames, and pan, will 
cost $350. We make a snug 3 roller mill, rol- 
ler 12 inch diameter and 2 feet long, with frame 
and pan, complete spur and pinion, for horse 
power, at $225. These have proved large 
enough to answei a good purpose in Florida for 
200 or 300 acres, and will keep a battery of five 
pans supplied. 

4th. We do not make the pans and kettles- 
Mr. B. H. Weed, of Savannah, has them on 
hand. 

5th. A vertical 3 roller mill, with cast frames 
and pan, will cost the same as a horizontal 
($350,) which (horizontal) is much preferable. 

Another gentleman of Savannah, writes : 

"I have seen Mr. Weed, and the prices of 
Boilers are as fallows: — 50 gallons, $13; 60 
gallons, $15; 80 gallons, $18; 100 gallons, $21; 
150 gallons, $35." 

A late number of the National Intelligencer 
also furnishes the following : 

SORGHO SUCRE— HOW TO MAKE 
SUGAR. 

The introduction of this article into our coun- 
iry has called for an exercise of our mechanical 
talent to bring forward something to meet the 
experimenting demand for new sugar mills. In 
passing through the Institute Fair my attention 
was attracted to a singularly constructed revolv- 
ing machine running upon three rollers; but 
upon close examination, I found it to be a Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane Mill, invented by Mr. Hodges 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, who has been so successful 
in improving the Little Giant Corn Mill, and 



ha's also, lately, invented a most complete agri- 
cultural steam boiler, one of which is also in 
operation at the Fair. 

This Sugar Mill is certainly of a rrrst novel 
construction. It consists of three vertical cast 
iron rollers, supported between strong cast 
plates, resting upon a triangular wood frame 
about eght feet on its sides. Under each cor- 
ner is a large truck wheel so adjusted when 
working as to revolve in a circle, the shaft of 
one of the rollers occupying the cen re of the 
frame and clutched fast to a timber below, pre- 
venting its turning, while the other two, being 
geared into it at the top, are made to revolve 
around it as the whole frame is turned by the 
horse. On one corner is a feed table, from 
which a man feeds the cane, which, having been, 
acted upon by the two roller?, passes out upon a 
table on the other corner, which is removed as 
often as a sufficient quantity accumulates. The 
juice passes down through the bed plate and is 
received in a vessel made for that purpose. In 
a few minutes the truck wheels can be changed 
and the clutch removed, and the whole is ready 
to travel. There being no heavy beams to 
^raise, posts to set, or over-head sweeps to pro- 
vide, and at the same time so easily transported 
from place to place, it will prove to be just the 
thing needed by our farmers at this particular 
time, and from the cheapness of the article it 
must meet with ready sale. All interested in 
this line are a.lvised to give it an examination. 
Southern Cultivator. 



«< « o ■ » 



Preparation of Tobacco for Mar- 
ket- 

In late numbers of oui paper, the attention of 
planters has been called to the advantage of 
paying more attention to the manner of prepar- 
ing their crop for market, as the appearance of 
the sample has frequently as much to do in ef~ 
fecting a good price as the quality. From a cir- 
cular from D. T. Williams, Esq., a tobacco fac- 
tor in Richmond, we copy the following advice 
upon this subject. He says that the stock is 
probably very decidedly less than on first Janu- 
ary, 1856, and thedemand for all grades greater, 
and that tobacco will rule high during the pres- 
ent year. He adds : 

"As far as can be ascertained, most of the 
crop now on hand w T as cut green ; this portion 
of the crop should be prized in pliant order and 
quite hard. This will, in a great measure, neu- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



tralizethe bad effects ; and for such qualities/as 
also Lujrs and Inferior Grades, I would advise 
early deliveries. Thai inte ided for shipping 
should be carefully assorted, neatly managed, 
and prized very straight, in good dry order, to 
weigh 1,500 to 1,650 ; this adds very material- 
ly to the sale of it, and this class will sell at any 
time during the year. (Have your hogsheads 
made very strong.) That designed for manu- 
facturing purposes, will command fine prices es- 
pecially the Yellow Wrapper, a lair portion of 
which it was my good for.une to sell last season 
Filling clashes should be prized in safe order, 
and to average 1,200 pounds. The Yellow 
Wrapper should be managed with great care, 
and nicely packed in small tierces or boxes, to 
weigh from 200 to 400 lbs., the prices for which 
may be safely estimated at from 40 to 100 dol- 
lars per 100 lbs Owing to the limited supplies 
of this class heretofore received in this market 
a large number of our manufacturers have been 
debarred from using it ; but I am gratified to 
state, that a very decided disposition is 
mani tested to increase this branch. It is con. 
sidered a fair estimate that the Lug portion of a 
fine crop does not exceed one-fifth, consequently, 
I unhesitatingly recommend to planters, having 
fine crops, to decline offers of 20 dollars per 100 
pounds, average, and for very fine crops, with a 
great deal of Yellow Wrapper, I would advise 
them to decline 25 dollars. These are not idle 
ca'culations, but facts based upon my actual sales 
of last season, and the prospect this season is 
decidedly more flattering. The advance in 
Manufactured Tobacco is very decidedly greater 
in inferior grades. This truth should be conclu- 
sive, and .-erve to check the disposition to ave- 
rage sales; and I trust my friends generally will 
let nothing deter them trom trying this market 
this season. Deliver the fine yellow in May 
and June, July at farthest. The market may 
now be considered as opened. Only inferior 
grades are offering-, which have commanded 
high prices." — Ex. 

^ a ♦ ■ » u 

Recipe for Mending China. — From an En- 
glish Alamanac we cut a recipe for mending 
china, a long time since, and the opportunity 
having occurred for trying, we found it admi- 
rable, the fracture scarcely being visible after 
the article was repaired. It fc made : take a 
very thick solution of gum arable in water, and 
stir it into plaster of Paris until the mixture be- 
comes a vicious paste. Apply it with a brush 
to the fractured edges, and stick them together. 
In three days the article cannot be broken in 
tlii/jSame place. The whiteness of the cement 
Teasers it doubly valuable. 



From the Homestead. 

Tobacco Sheds— How they should 
bo built. 

Messrs. Editors: — In "your paper of the 
19th of February, a correspondent wishes to 
know the best plan for a Tobacco Shed. From ] 
my experience in curing tobacco, I think the 
best plan is : First to put up a good frame '■> j 
shingle the roof, for if covered with boards, it | 
will leak and greatly injure the tobacco. 

If you design to build large, set the posts on 
stone ; but if no larger than a common sized 
barn, set them on sills, the sills on stone or 
brick from two to three feet from the ground, 
so as to give tne air a chance to circulate under 
and through the tobacco. There should be 
placed, either on the roof or at the gable ends, 
ventillators to give at all times while the tobac- 
co is curing a free circulation of air. 

My plan for the ends is the following. Take 
scantling from two to two and a half inches 
square, frame the corners together and then 
take inch boards for slats, place them in the 
frame at proper distances and by making round 
tenons on each upper end of the slats and in- 
serting them iu each side of the frame, making 
a kind of blind. Fasten the slats together with 
a cord, wire or leather strap, ; and with a cord 
and small pul]ey above, the blind can be open- 
ed or shut very easily when occasion requires. 
If every second or third board is hung on 
hinges the wind will sometimes blow down the 
tobacco while curing and consequently destroy 
a considerable quantity. 

Another objection is, when you want to 
dampen tobacco for stripping if the doors on 
the sides are open and it should rain at the 
time and "beat in," it would thereby cause a 
further loss, as tobacco, when once rained on 
cannot properly be reclaimed. If others have 
better plans I should like to hear from them. 

G. B. 
Windsor, 1857. 



RADtsnES. — If any of your readers, who can- 
not raise good radishes, on account of worms, 
or suitable soil, will strew common wheat bran, 
one inch thick, on any good soil, and hoe it in, 
and then plant their seed, they may eat as good 
radishes as anybody can grow. — Rural New 
Yorker. 

-*- — «3»— ♦■ 

Deal with the earth as you trade with men 
and farming will be as profitable as you can 
wish. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



75 



Spoiling Potatoes. — Is it any wonder that 
we rarely if over see such a thing as good pota- 
toes 5a this city, whe -e every dealer takes the 
most affectual way in his power to spo'l them 
for food? Is it possible that people who grow 
poLatotes, or those who are constantly dealing in 
them, do not know that they a"e always injur- 
ed by exposure to the light, and if the exposure 
isconi'nued long enough, they are utterly ruin- 
ed ? So great is the change that a tube', natu- 
rally me dy, nutritious and palatable, is changed 
by exposure to light, and by that alone, during 
its ripening period, to a g"een, biite", watery 
mass; and every hour that a potato is exposed 
to the light, after taking it out of its dark bed 
where it grew, it is injured in some degree, 
tho' not actually spoiled until it has been ex- 
posed for a long period. There is no way of 
preserving potatoes fit to eat except by keep- 
ing them in darkness. Let this be remember- 
ed. Let exevy consumer of potatoes in this 
city keep the truth here stated constantly in 
view, and we shall have better ones to eat, be- 
cause we shall then be able to compel dealers 
to keep their stock where it is not continually 
suffering injury. If we all know that every 
corner groce-yman is poisoning this universal 
article of food, we shall compel him to stop 
the foolish p-actice that now p-'eva'ls, of keep, 
ing the potatoes he has for sale in baskets and 
babels, standmg out in the street, ful'y expos- 
ed to all ihe influence of h'ght and drying w'nds, 
by which they a i- e so deJeterfousW affected. — 
N. Y. Tribune. 

Corn Meal for Milch Cows. — In the fall 
of 1852, I began to feed three farrow cows for 
the purpose of supplying a milkman in this 
vicinity with milk for market. I had a few 
beets and turnips with which I begun, and as 
- 1 designed the farrow cows for the butcher in 
the spring, I commenced giving them meal from 
corn and barley, some ten bushels of old grain; 
then corn meal alone, increasing till they ate 
one peck each a day. I tried it cooked and 
raw, wet and dry, mixed with cut fodder, com- 
posed of hay and straw, and corn stalks cut up 
together, varying the amount of each as con- 
venience might suggest, (as I think all animals 
require a variety.) 

Now for the result. The cows increased in 
milk, giving more on the above feed than they 
had done on grass during summer. Contrary 



to my expectation, they did not improve very 
fast on the food given, and I was obliged to dry 
them up early in March ; to x,et them fit for 
the shambles. My cows that were coming in 
in the Spring, had two quarts of corn mevl 
each per day, and the)- also gave liberally. — 
The milk being sold daily, gave an excellent op- 
portunity for testing the amount given at the 
time. I made up my mind that corn meal was 
the best for milk of any food for the milch cow, 
and still think so, if good rich milk is wanted. 
It has been, tried considerably in this vicinity, 
with the same results as here given. I feed cut 
feed, but I do not think that would vary the 
result ; with me, if the cows get their daily al- 
lowance, I get the returns. — Ohio Wool Grow- 
er. 



Cooking Without Fire. — A patent has been 
recently granted Mr. Albro, of Burybam- 

plain, N. J., for a culinary contrivance for cook- 
ing without fire. The required caloric is gene- 
rated by the employment of lime and water. — 
Between these two substances there is a strong 
chemical affinity, and when they are brought 
in contact in the proper proportions, thej r unite 
with such rapidity and energy as to develop an 
intense heat. No decomposition takes place, 
and therefore ho gas escapes ; thus heat is pro- 
duced without combustion. The inventor turns 
this phenomenon into a highly useful purpose 
in the present improvement. During an ex- 
periment made in our office the other day with 
one of these contrivances, we cooked a slice of 
ham, stewed a dish of apples, baked some 
other apples, and boiled a quantity of water, all 
at once, at a consumption of perhaps a quarter 
of a cent's worth of lime. The inventor makes 
several different sizes ; the largest does not ex- 
ceed a lady's bandbox. Among them is & din- 
ner pail pattern so arranged that the mechanic 
when noon time arrives, has only to pour a hah 
pint of water in the pail, in order to cook a 
warm dinner. The lime and edible are oi 
course arranged at home. — Farm Journal. 

How to Raise Onions. — Good onions may be 
raised with very little trouble, if they are watt 
ered two or three times with t.t ong tobacco 
water, when four five inches high, or at other 
times, if the maggots are devouring them. We 
have tried this remedy several times with great 
success. — N. M Farmer. 



76 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 




i0rticnlturaL 



Cutting drifts, and Grafting. 

BY hi DTJRAND. 

The subject of improving and growing fruit 
is one which should claim our special attention 
every season, as the time comes around: and 
as the Apple stands at the head of all fruits 
with the farmer, we will give our attention to 
this point now. It may be, and often is, neces- 
sary to repeat, in the course of a series of years, 
the same general plans in principle in regard 
to orchard and fruit growing generally, of 
which we may do in this instance. But our 
idea is, in this article, to confine oil.; attention 
to preparing grafts and grafting, though we 
may allude, in connection, to orchard culture. 

Apple grafts may be cut any time after the 
leaf falls in autumn until before the buds start 
in the spring, and these may be kept a year or 
more, though this is not often necessary. But 
in this climate, any time from the 20th of Feb- 
ruary until the 1st of April, or befcre the buds 
swell, will answer to cut Apple grafts. The 
grafts should be cut from the outside of the 
tree, thrifty shoots of the previous or present 
season's growth, from six to twelve inches in 
length, as may be. Of course, the several va- 
rieties should be tied up in separate packages, 
and also labeled. This may be done by shav- 
ing down a large scion in each bundle, an inch 
or two in length, and then marking in notches 
or in numerals, as Baldwins, No. I, Greenings, 
Ne. II, Spys, No. Ill, Spitzenbergs, No. IT., 
Ac, at the same entering the names and num- 
bers down in a "fruit book," for future refer- 
ence at grafting time. This plan followed out 
will prevent all mistakes in mixing up grafts, 
so that each kind may be found when wanted. 
After the scions are all gathered and labeled, 



they should be packed away in the cellar in a 
lot, in rugs, or they may be packed in a wool- 
len cloth kept moistened in a lot, in a cool part 
of the cellar. Moisture will not hurt scions, 
but the object is to keep the scions in their 1 
natural state, as when cut from the tree. If 
the scions are kept three or four months, and 
quite moist, as the warm weather increases the: 
buds will push out sometimes half an inch in 
length or more. In this case, the buds should 
be lopped off close, when the scions are set in 
the stock. Sometimes such scions do well, 
but they often shrink and die out after a few 
days of hot weather. On the other hand, 
scions that have bark well shriveled, when se 
in stocks that have the leaves well started 
such scions in a few days will swell out the 
buds and grow finely. Still it is the safest 
way to have the scions just right, and if they 
are to be kept until warm weather, they re- 
quire a good deal of attention to keep them so- 
Some grafters cut and set the scions the same 
day; this plan will sometimes do very well, if 
the grafting is done very early, but the safest 
way is to have the scions cut as we have named 
above. As to the time for grafting, it may be 
done in this climate any time from the 15th of 
April, to the 15th of June, or later as may be, 
more depending on the character of the scions 
than in the season for success. We have had 
as good success with those scions set as late as 
the 10th of June, as with those set earlier in 
the season; yet it requires a little more care in 
sawing off the stock, to prevent barking, etc., 
in late grafting, One advantage, in late graft- 
ing large trees, is, that you will only get a short 
growth the tint season— say from six inches to 
twelve or fifteen inches growth, and the scions 
will not be so liable 10 break off by wind and 
hail storms the coining winter, as where the 
scion get two feet or more in growth by early 
grafting. Still early grafting has its advantages, 
and this work generally should be done in a 
month from the middle of April to the 20th of 
May, or by the time the blossomi are well out. 
Now, as to the manner and kind of grafting to 
be done on large stocks, the common "cleft 
grafting" is the best, although this is often done 
in a bungling manner by green hands. In graft- 
ing large trees, to have this work done in a busi- 
ness-like manner, requires three hands at least : 
nameiy, one to saw off the limbs and pare the 
stocks, a second one to set the scions, and a 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



77 



.hird one tu put on the wax. While one or 
two hands are sawing off and paring the stocks, 
the third one may be cutting- and sharpening the 
scions, so that no time need he lost The scions 
may be cut from two and a half to three inches 
in length, sharpening the wedge of the scion an 
inch and a half, leaving an inch and a half or 
so of the scion, above the stock after it is set 
One side of the scion thould be left a little full 
of timber in sharpening, and this side should be 
set the outside of the stock. If the scions are 
laro-e, as some will be, a shoulder may be cut 
on the scion, but generally this will not be neces- 
sary, as large scions may be pared down pretty 
thin, and then set in large stocks. Some graft- 
ing " bunglers" we have seen, will leave their 
scions sticking up above the stock, three, four, 
and five inches long; this is a bad business, in 
nine cases out of ten if they live they will get 
broken off by winds and birds There it looks 
again as though the grafter expected his scions 
to have apples by the " Fourth of July;'' at 
least a wrong calculation. As to the size of the 
stocks for grafting, those that are about the size 
of a hoe handle, or from an inch to an inch and 
a half diameter will answer best. Some grafters 
saw off limbs two and a half inches in diameter, 
and though scions will usually live and grow in 
such stocks, yet it takes a longer time for such 
stocks to heal over; then the stock often pinches 
the scion so tight as to kill it. So we prefer to 
go two or fouT feet further out, until we find the 
limbs of a convenient size to saw off. In graft- 
ing a large tree, go fir=t into the top so 
saw off, throwing the bush over, outside, and 
down out of the way. Care should be taken to 
saw each tier of under limbs at a distance of 
from two to four feet out beyond the limbs alone, 
so that when the grafts get well started they 
will not grow up into each other, but will have 
room to spread. Of course, two scions should 
be set in a stock, usually one scion if they live 
will be enough, but with care can be retained if 
wanted as may be. 

Most grafters now use a chisel and a wedge 
combined, to split and open the stock, with a 
small hammer to strike. In absence of th e 
chisel, a half worn butcher knife, and a small 
steel wedge and hammer will answer a good 
purpose to split the stocks and set the scions. 
A fine edge and stiff back, some such as joiners 
use to saw clapboards, should be used to saw 
the limbs, and a gotd pruning knife to pare the 



stocks. The grafting - wax should be made of 
seven parts — namely, four of resin, two of bees- 
wax, and one of tallow, melted together in an ■ 
iron kettle, and when it has become thoroughly 
dissolved it may be poured into cold water, and 
then pulled like shoemaker's wax i-; rolls; or it 
may be left to stand in the kettle, and pulled 
and washed as wanted. This latter plan we 
prefer, as the iron kettle will draw the rays of 
the sun, and soften the wax so that it can easily 
be worked; so that warm, sunny days, should 
be selected for grafting in the early season, not 
only for comfort, but to melt the wax. The in- 
side of the ham's should be well greased to pie- 
vent the wax from sticking while working it, 
and also when putting it on to the stocks. First, 
put a goorl cap r >t wax on the top of the stock, 
covering it well, and down to thy sides, cover- 
ing the split well to keep out rain and moisture.. 
Some grafters spread on the wax thin, as some 
will butter on bread where it is thirty cents a 
pound, but there is nothing gained by this poli- 
cy. When the wax is made after the above 
rule, it will not melt and run in the hottest, 
weather, neither will it crack and come off in 
the coldest weather, hut it will remain on the- 
stock for two years, or until the stock is entirely 
closed over wliere it is well covered at grafting. 
When large ti ees that are thrifty are grafted, 
it will be well to take off most of the branches, 
leaving the limbs pretty much like bare poles, 
though a few branches and shoots may be kept 
to draw up the sap. Where trees are large, 
and thettops and branches are a good way up 
from the ground, it will be a good plan to head 
the trees down, that is, saw off the main bran- 
ches of the tree at a convenient distance down 
or where the branches start out from the trunk, 
so as to form a new head by the sprouts. — 
These sprouts or shoots may be budded the 
first or second season, or you may wait three 
or four years and then graft the stocks. If the 
trees are very large and slow growers, a part 
of the tree, say the south half, may be headed 
down first, and then after two or three seasons' 
growth of sprouts, the north half may betaken 
off in the same way. Managed in this way, 
the trees will continue to grow unchecked ; 
whereas, if the whole top were taken off at 
once, the sudden check of sap might kill them. 
If an old tree is sound at the trunk, no matter 
how many dead limbs there may be upon it, 
the sprouts or thrifty limbs may be grafted and 
the dead wood taken off, it will pay. 



73 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



If such orchards or trees are unthrifty from 
neglect as they generally are, they may be first 
grafted and then pruned, afterwards scraped 
and washed ; and then the soil should be 
plowed for crops and heavily manured, espe- 
cially under the treea. Crops of corn or pota- 
toes may be raised for two or three years to 
advantage, or till the soil becomes well shaded 
again by the growing sprouts and grafts, the 
soil to be well manured with each crop. The 
The scraping should be done- directly after a 
heavy storm by a " tree scraper," to be had at 
the implement stores. Beginning fit the upper 
branches and scraping off all the moss and 
loose bark, and so down the trunk to the 
ground. After this, a washing of strong pot- 
ash or lye water may be put on by a large 
white-wash brush. Managed in this way, the 
old rieglected t^ees will put on a new dress, 
while the bark will present a smooth, thrifty 
appearance. When large trees are headed 
down and large limbs are taken off, the stumps 
or wounds should be covered with gum shellac 
dissolved in alcohol to the consistenc*. of thick 
pai nt, and put on with a brush. On this point 
most cultivators understand that the wounds 
should be covered by some kind of composi- 
tion, where large limbs are taken off. But 
with judicious yearly tiimming, but few or no 
large limbs will need removing, and so when 
the pruning is done in the summer or early fall 
with only small limbs taken off, the shellac or 
composition may be disposed with. Where 
large trees of slow growth have been grafted, 
it may lie well to let all the sprouts grow fo r 
three or four years, only cleaning them away 
around the grafts. This will cause the tree to 
bring up the sap in a measure, otherwise cut 
off by a removal of the top. Where large sin- 
gle trees standing in pastures er meadows are 
wanted for shade, the top of the tree, two- 
thirds down, may be cut off and grafted, leav- 
ing the large branches and boughs for shade 
until the grafted top is well grown, so as to 
make shade when the lower limbs can be 
grafted. In this way you can renovate 3'our 
scattering trees, and at the same time retain 
the advantages of shade for men and animals. 
[K Y. Horticultural Review. 

Soils best suited f or the various 
Garden Vegatables. 

A good many readers who are desirous of 



forming a vegetable garden, are yet at a los 3 
how to prepare their soil to suit the various 
kinds of vegetables they may wish to cultivate 
As some slight guide, yet reliable, so far as it 
goes, we offer the following : 

Asparagus. — Ground should be light, yet 
rich; a sandy loam well mixed with rotten 
dung or seaweed, is recommended. A °-ood 
quantity of dung, trenched twelve or fifteen 
inches belowUhe surface, is right 

Beans.— The bean is propagated to the best 
advantage in a stiff, moist loam, with a consid. 
erable proportion of clay, although it will grow 
well on any properly prepared garden soils 
Mr. Loudon gives the following directions for 
ts culture : 

For early crops, one pint of seed will be re 
quisite for every eighty feet of row; for main 
crops two quarters for every 240 feet of row ; 
and for late crops nearly the same as the early 
Plant in rows two and a half feet apart, for the 
smaller, and three feet for larger ; the small,if 
beans two inches deep, and three inches dis- 
tant in a row; the larger three inches deep and 
four inches distant in the row. 

Beet. — For a b d four and a half by twelv e 
feet, one ounce of seed is requisite. The soi 
in which it naturally delights is a deep, r'ch 
sand, dry and light, rather than moist. Trans, 
planting will not answer where the object is a 
large clean root. 

Cabbage.— Every variety of cabbago grow 
best in a strong, rich, substantial soil, inclining 
rather to clay ihan sand; but it will grow in 
any soil if it be well worked, and abundantle 
manured with well rotted dung. 

Carrot. — The carrot requires a light, mel. 
low soil, mixed with sand, and should be dug 
r trenched one or two spades deep, breaking 
well the lumpy parts, so as to form a porou 
bed and even surface. 

Celery. — Celery delights in a soil rather 
moist, rich in vegetable mould, but not rank 
from new rotted dung. 

Cucumber. — In our climate cucumbers wil, 
grow in any soil, though not with the sam e 
degree of vigor, provided they be supplied with 
a sufficiency of heat, light, water, and air. It 
js an object with many market gardeners and 
others, to produce cucumbers at an early pe 
riod, and for this purpose artificial heat is'neces. 
sary. For early forcing " one-third of rich top 
spit eaith f.-om an upland pasture, one-half 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



79 



vegetable mould, and one-sixth of well decom ' u ation, in October, and cover during the winter, 
posed horse dung with a small quantity of For summer and fall use, sow again in May, and 
sand. . j water freely. The distance between the plants 

Lettuce. — All the sorts grow freely on any should not be more than two feet. 



rich, mellow soil, where the sub-soil is dry 
For the most part raise this vegetable as a prin 



Turnip.— Sand or gravel, with a mixture of 
loam, produce the sweetest and best flavored 



cipal crop, on' beds set apart for it and keep the j roots. It should be made fine and not too rich, 



varieties separate ; but to multiply the supplie 
throughout the summer, portions may be sown 
thinly intermixed with onions, carrots, and 
spinage, which will come off before the leituceg 
are fully grown. 

Melons. — The melon nrifl succeed in any 
strong, unexhausted loam, rich in vegetable 
matter, with a mixture of sand, but not too 
light. 

Onion. — The onion, to attain good size, re- 
quires rich, mellow ground, on a dry sub-soi] 
jf the soil be poor and exhausted, recruit it 
with a compost of fresh loam snd well consumed 
dung, avoiding to use stable dung in a rank', 
unreduced state. Turn in the manure to a 
moderate depth ; and, in digging the ground 
let it be broken fine. 

Parsnip. — The soil should be light, deep, 
and free from stones. It should be dug or 
trenched before sowing, one good spade deep at 
least, being careful to pulverize the soil thor- 
oughly, that the roots may have no obstruction 
10 prevent their running down long and straight. 
If the soil be proper for them, it is said that 
they will not require much manure ; and wha^ 
is used should be perfectly decomposed, or, if 
recent, be depos'ted at the bottom of the trench. 
They do not impoverish the soil like onions. 

Peas. — The soil should be moderately rich, 
and the deeper and stronger for the lofty grow-: 
ers. Peas are not assisted, Uut hurt, by unre- 
duced dung recently turned in. A fresh sandy 
loam, or road-stuff, and a little decomposed vege- 
table matter is the best manure. The soil fo r 
t he early crops should be very dry, and rendered 
so, where the ground is moist, by mixing sand 
with the earth of the drills. 

Radish. — The soil should be light^and mel- 
low, and well broken by digging. A scattering 
of the smaller growing sorts may be sow n 
among other crops, such as spinage, lettuce, and 



est the turnips be rank and ill-tasted. 

We have given these brief directions, partly 
to call attention to the fact that the season is ap- 
proaching when ground should be prepared, gard 
dens set in order, seed procured and everything 

made ready for a vigorous gardening campaign 

a campaign not so laborious or expensive as a 
military campaign, nor so detrimental and evil 
Lin its consequence, for the fruits of it are health 

he rich products of the earth, satisfaction in en- 
joying the fruits of our labors and sweet content- 
ment. — Real Estate llegisier. 



Tile 



iTIJ. 



onions. It may also be drilled between wide 1 male or female plants. A portion perfect in 



EnfTOUS SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR: 

Your correspondent, "J. F. M." must have 
read the opinions of some wise Eastern and 
Western Botanists, who siy: "there are no 
pure staminate or pistillate plants,'- though a 
man half blind can distinguish the blossoms at 
the. distance of 10 or 15 feet. At an ea-ly day 
we had male and female plants only. I had an 
eighth of an acre in Strawberries, and had to go 
to market to buy fruit of an illiterate market 
woman who never read in her life, but raised 
five times as much fruit on the same space of 
ground ;is others could. Aware of this, her 
neighbors, when she thinned out her plan's in 
the fall and threw them on the road where they 
travelled, picked them up and pianed them; 
and the result was, they never bore a sino-] e ber- 
ry. The old woman's object was to deceive 
them. 

When I was green enough to believe in the 
old woman's sexual character of the plant and 
published it, my doctrines were ridiculed be- 
yond measure. But our market gardeners, 
aware of the old woman's success, became con- 
verts, and the fruit.went down to one third its 
former price. From seed nearly all are pure 



rows of beans, or on ground intended to be sown 
with a late spring crop. 

Tomato. — To have an early crop, sow th e 
seeds in a dry and warm soil, and sheltered sit- 



male organs (stamens,) and more or less perfect 
in female organs (pistils,) and bear more or less 
perfect fruit, more or less deformed ones, and 
more or less entirely barren. These, herma- 



80 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



phrodites, are the only kind known in Europe, 
till enlightened by oar market woman, as the 
great Linnaeus and his followers held the doc- 
trine. Wise men could not be expected to be- 
lieve an ignorant market woman wis^r than 
themselves. I would advise "J. F. M. : ' to get 
our seedlings, the Prolific, McAvoy's Superior^ 
and the Extra Red. The first is hermaphrodite 
and the only plant we have ever seen that bears 
a full crop of large, perfect fruit. It not only is 
attentive to its own flowers, but to all flowers 
in its vicinity, and pistillate plants require no 
other impregnator in the garden. The males, 
having no children to attend to, run at random, 
rind soon kick all the women out of bed. If the 
Prolific should do this, the cultivator would sus- 
tain no los<, us no pistillate is as vigorous a 
grower. None bears a larger crop or larger 
fruit. McAvoy's Superior I deem the best of 
all pistillates. But she is not a Mormon. She 
is not willing to be one of the hundred wives, 
even to the head priestess. If far sepiated from 
plants with male organs, many berries are im- 
perfect. I should plant every third bed or row 
with the Prolific. Many deem a rich, loose 
loom, best for Strawberries. I mix with my 
rich garden mould one-half of the poorest and 
stiffest clay I can find. The result is, planlsof 
much larger growth that stand dry weather, 
bear more and larger fruit, and the plants are 
never thrown out of the ground in the spring 
when the ground thaws. The Extra Red is 
not equal to the Prolific and Superior in quality, 
requiring more sugar. The fruit is all of good 
size, of great beauty of color, and an immense 
bearer, and very valuable as a market fruit- 
The Superior, if taken to market, requires to be 
taken with care, as the fruit is not firm. There 
are but few of these Seedlings yet cultivated 
for market, as they are a recent production and 
seldom, if ever seen in market, as it is sold by 
Mr. Heath and others, and private families, at 
an extra price. Mr. McAvoy, Mr. Schneike, 
Mr. Ernest, Mr. Jackson, Mr. Pentland, and 
Mr. Kelby, and many other gardeners, have 
t'lem for sale. The Prolific, the Superior, and 
Extra Red, were from seed I raised by impreg- 
nating Hovey's Seedling with the largest Eng- 
lish hermaphrodite. McAvoy planted the seed, 
and gave some of the plants, by my direction, 
to my tenant, Mr. Schneike. The Prolific was 
among a great number of plants sent him by 
McAvoy, and was first known as Schneike's 



Seedling. A premium was offered by our Hor- 
ticultural Society for a Seedling Pistillate, supe- 
rior to Hovey's Pistillate, or any other pistil- 
late, of $50, and after a full test, it was awarded 
to Mr. McAvoy. 

N. LONGWORTH. 

Cincinnaxi, Ohio, 1857. 

P. S — I have seen berries of the [Long- 
worth's] Prolific and Superior that measured 
six inches. 



Cultivation of the Peacii Tree. — Profes- 
sor Mapes of New Jersey, in treating of the 
cultivation of the peach tree, says that peach 
stones, in falling from the trees, always bun' 
thsrnselves alike, point downward, and this 
ought to be imitated. Broad end upwards, the 
frost open them and water enters. He de- 
scribes a plan, the idea of which is to fit the 
bud in the process of building, by cutting 
away so much of the bark as will allow the in- 
sertion of the bud in place of the removed bark. 
The peach tree must be set one inch higher 
than in the nursery from which it is taken. — 
The new growth should be taken in, early in 
the next spring. The double lobe is a fruit 
bud, and the stock should never be shortened 
in next to it. If a peach be borne on the end 
of a long, struggling dependant branch, its 
death is not far distant. Peach trees eighteen 
years old may be rendered fruitful by proper 
treatment. The soil must be worked early, 
or there will be no crop. A very large hole 

ought to be made in planting. 

«»» ■» ««»■ 

Stirring tiie Soil in Dry Weather. — Never 
stir sandy soil in dry weather, except to kill 
weeds. When sandy soil is dry, stirring it in- 
creases its dryness. Clay soil should be stirred 
in dry weather, enough to keep it perfectly 
pulverized. The pulverized earth at the sur- 
face acts as a mulch to keep the moisture be- 
low. All soil which is now perfectly fine is 
made more dry by being moved. But clay 
soils, when rain com«s, beopmes encrusted. 
The crust should be frequently made fine by 
the rake or hoe. — Ohio Farmer. 

Preparation of Seed. — Some seeds are so, 
slow of germination that weeds grow in ad- 
vance of them, and thus render their cultivation 
the more difficult. Many of these, such as the 
carrot, parsnip, &c, may be buried in a bag in 
the soil a few days before use, and thus swell 
materially by the humidity and other necessary 
conditions found in the soil before final use. — 
This mode of treatment in many cases will do 
away with the necessity for steeps, and render 
early germination quite certain. Care should 
be taken not to have them buried long enongh 
to cause material sprouting, as the new sprout 
might be broken off or injured during planting. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



81 




THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 

RALEIGH, MAY, 1857- 

Cooke's Hew Map of North Caro- 
lina- 

The agents for this beautiful map are now 
engaged iu canvassing the State, and an oppor- 
tunity will be offered to those who desire to 
have an accurate Map of their State, to procure 
one. The price of State Maps is usually ten 
dollars, but the Map of North Carolina has 
been put at the low price of eight dollars, that 
it may be in the reach of every person. There 
is but one price for the map. Those who are 
not in reach of an agent can send their names 
and residences to W. I). Cooke, Raleigh, who 
will have the map delivered. We copy the 
following notice of the Map from the Raleigh 
Register : • 

In a late issue we very briefly returned our 
thanks to Mr. Wm. D. Ceoke, the compiler, 
for a copy of this important publication. We 
were compelled, however, to defer a descrip- 
tive notice of the work itself, until we should 
have leisure to do it justice. 

An accurate and minute map of our State 
has long been needed, and the want was deep- 
ly felt. When Mr. C several years ago, un- 
dertook the task of constructing one of the 
character demanded, he wisely determined to 
do his work slowly, and to resort to every pos- 
sible scrarce of information. In addition to va- 
rious documents, maps, and surveys promptly 
furnished him from the government officers, 
State and Federal, he instituted an extensive 
correspondence, reaching to the remotest bor- 
ders, and penetrating the darkest recesses of 
the State. The facts thus gathered, formed 
ftp immense incongruous mass, which it re- 



quired much time and severe labor to explore, 
to separate and compare. The publication 
was subsequently delayed by repeated correc- 
tions of the proof-sheets, but is at last before 
the public in its completed state, and in a form 
which cannot fail to recommend it to the libe- 
ral patronage of our citizens. 

The Map is constructed on a scale of eight 
miles to the inch, six feet by four. It is hand- 
somely bordered, embellished with a daguer- 
reotype view of the institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb and the Blind, of which Mr. Cooke is 
the Principal, and by sectional and compara- 
tive representations of several portions of the 
State. The body of the work embraces large 
portions of the adjoining States of Virginia, 
South Carolina, and Tennessee. It exhibits 
the political divisions, towns, rivers, mountains 
sounds and shores, rail-roads, plank-roads, and 
canals, distinctly marked, plainly lettered, and 
beautifully colored and shaded. The lines of 
proposed improvements are also indicated, as 
far as the probability of consi ruction would 
seem to warrant. The whole work is brought 
down to the most recent date, and with re- 
markable fidelity represents North Carolina as 
she really is. 

We regard this Map as one of the mostim- 
portant contributions yet made to the wealth 
and prosperity of the State, and trust that the 
compiler will be amply rewarded for his labor 
and zeal so well laid out in constructing it 

It is but justice to add that the merit of the 
engraving of this Map is due to Messrs. J. H. 
Colton & Co., of New York, who have been 
long fav rably known to the public as publish- 
ers and artists. 

Bones as a Manure. — A late number of the 
Country Gentleman has an elaborate article by 
Levi Bartlett, of N. H., on bone manure. He 
concludes that there is no other manure whose 
effects are so lasting as an application of ground 
bones. Besides the increase of crops, he says 
it supplies phosphate, which the grasses gene- 
rally lack, on old and long grazed fields in New 
England, and cause what is called "bone dis- 
ease" in cattle. Mr. W. recommends that the 
bones be pounded, and thus broken to pieces, 
boiled or ground, and then spread evenly over 
the soil, and mixed with it. He has a field that 
was thus dressed years ago, and the effect is 
yet very perceptible on clover. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 




GBP 



mtflmmaiM. 



Thick and Thin Sowing. 

At the present moment the comparative mer- 
Us of thick and shin sowing are actively dis- 
cussed in England, not only at Farmer's clubs, 
but at every market table. Farmer Holdfast 
whose white head and wrinkled brow, would 
Jead us to suppose that he had farmed for at 
least half a century, gives as his conclusion, 
derived from all these years of experience, that 
he should rarely think of sowing less than 
three bushels ; whilst Mr. Newlight, who is but 
a young agriculturist, states with equal confi- 
dence that the best crop he ever saw was from 
the sowing of three pecks. 

Now, as there is in this a great deal of differ- 
ence, one may at first be led to conclude that 
one or both of these gentlemen must be in er- 
ror as to facts ; but if we inquire a little far- 
ther into the matter, we shall find that while 
the larger quantity might not have been too 
much in past times, and may not even now 
where the condition of the past is maintained, 
the smaller seeding, on the other hand, is not 
too little where all the conditions of the soil 
have been improved. 

Farmer Holdfast when he was young, and 
we all know with what tenacity tlie lessons of 
our youth are adhered to, was taught that the 
rougher you got in your wheat the better, and 
80 the ground, with a single ploughing, was 
sown with the grain, and imperfect harrowing 
left some of the seed exposed, whilst much 
was covered up with huge clods. Here, then, 
on a cold, underdrained soil, a large portion 
perished from exposure; much of what was 
covered suffered from similar causes, and a 
large proportion of the plants which ultimately 
appeared would spring from such a depth that 
their tillering would have to commence at the 
third or fourth joint or node upwards, in which 
case new roots must be made at that node, and 
all below would die away ; and thus much 
time and energy of growth is lost to the plant, 
which would therefore tiller but slightly, yield 
ing even then but weak stalks and stunted ears. 
But the process of tillering is interfered with 
Sn another way by two thick sowing, for if the 
seed should come up well, this, like thick plant- 



ing of trees, causes the plants to grow up thin 
and emaciated ; the central axis is elongated, 
in which case the lateral buds are not usually 
brought to perfection ; or, if they do grow, 
they are thin and irregular, and without a dis 
position to rebranch, for it must be remembered 
that when lateral branches are strong, they, in 
turn, give off others. So in deep and thick) 
sown wheat, each successful grain has to an- 
swer for at most but three or four ears, whilst; 
one seed under the best tillage will make from 
10 to 20 ears of corn, and well tillered corn 
has always the largest heads. Upon this sub- 
ject the following experiment which we carried 
out last year may not be without interest, al- 
though even here we have no analogy to the 
rough work of Farmer Holdfast's youth, as- 
our ground was so smooth that our seeds came 
up well, and did tolerably afterwards. 

On February 2, 1854, we planted eight rows 
of wheat, with 24 grains in each row, at depth 
as follows : — 



1-2 inch 
1 

1 1-2 " 
2 

2 1-2 " 

3 ■' 
3 1-2 " 
4 



Came up March 21—48 days, 
" 20—47 " 



Starved. 

22—49 

23- 

24- 

25—52 " ) Weakly pln'i 

26—53 " [ and tillered 

27—54 " Hut slightly. 



J— 49 " ) Good plan) 
3-50 " J- tillered wel' 
I — 51 " J in Spring. 



The produce of these bracketed groups may 
be stated in proportionals, as 2, 6, 4, so that 
from this experiment we were led to the follow- 
ing conclusions : 

1. Shallow sowing perils on account of the 
winter exposure of the whole plant. 

2. A range of depth from 1 1-2 to 2 1-2 in-i 
ches is best. 

3. Deep sowing is longer in producing the! 
plant, and its plants are always weakly. 

4. Irregular sowing at different depths with- 
in a wide range, requires far more seed for a 
good crop, than depositing the seed uniformly 
at a proper depth, or within a moderate range. 

Again, in the comparatively rougher farming 
of the past, much grain was choked with weeds ; 
and thus it appears that thick sowing was an 
absolute 'necessity in the earlier days of farm- 
ing, in order to guard against the contingen- 
cies arising, 

1st. From the colder climate, attributable to 
a general want of draining. 

2d. From the consequent bad tilth of land, I 
thereby resulting in rough clods, amongst 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



which seed would be scattered at irregular in- 
tervals. 

3d. From the very irregular depths at which 
it must consequently be sown. — London Gar- 
dener's Chronicle. 

The Common Caper. 

The common caper (Cajiparis epinosa) is a 
deciduous-leaved shrub indigenous to Southern 
■and Eastern Europe, usually found amongst 
rubbish and upon old walls. In the Grecian 
islands, it occurs by the sea-side on rocks. 

This plant is cultivated on a large "scale be- 
tween Marseilles and Toulon, in many parts of 
Italy, as well as on Malta, Sicily, and the is- 
lands of the Levant. It is propagated from 
cuttings, or suckers, which are planted about 
1 feet apart, in a lean soil, without manure. 
It may also be raised, by sowing the seeds upon 
■old walls, where they will take root between 
the bricks, and endure for many years. The 
plants require to be sheltered from severe 
winds, and to be favorably exposed to the sun, 
and scarcely ever suffer from drought or heat 
In spring, they need only one dressing ; in au- 
tumn, they are cut down to within 6 inches of 
the ground, and covered with the surrounding 
earth, which is raised about them on all sides. 
The succeeding spring, they are laid bare to 
the crown of the stump, soon after which they 
throw out fresh shoots. In the early part of 
the summer, they begin to flower, and thus 
continue in succession, until they are destroy- 
ed by frost or cold. In the vicinity of Toulon 
this plant is cultivated in orchards, in the in- 
tervals, between the fig and olive trees ; and in 
the neighborhood of Paris, it is trained on low 
walls, and the shoots during the winter are 
laid down and covered with earth, to protect 
them from the frost. 

In the islands of the Mediterranean, and near 
Toulon, the flower buds of the caper are gath- 
ered while very young ; for, as they enlarge, 
the} T decrease in value ; the collecting of these 
buds forms a daily occupation for six months 
in the year, while \he plants are in a flowering 
state. As the buds are gathered, they are 
thrown into a cask among as much 
salt and vinegar as is sufficient to cover them, 
and as the quantity of capers is increasedj 
more vinegar is added. When the caper sea- 
son closes, the buds are then sorted according 



to their color and size. The smallest and green- 
est being best, they are separated from the 
larger ones, and put into small casks of fresh 
vinegar, when they are ready for shipment or 
use. In this state, they will keep well for 
many years. In Italy, the fruit is prepared in 
the same way as the flower buds ; both are 
bitterish, acrid, and aromatic. It is said to be 
a common, though pernicious practice, to put 
filings of copper in the first pickle, to give the 
buds a green color. 

The chief supply of the capers used in this 
country as an ingredient in sauce to be eaten 
with boiled fish and meats, especially mutton, 
are from Sicily and the south of France. — Pa- 
tent Office Report. d. j. b. 



From the Ohio Cultivator. 

Raising Irish Potatoes- 

Cap tal Advice frosi a Premium Potato 
Raiser. 

Selecting and Preparing Ground. — Select a 
piece of good rich land, and plow it thorough- 
ly and deep, and then make it fine by harrow- 
ing and rolling, if necessaiy, but be sure you 
have it mellow. I would not furnish the seed 
for the chance of a crop of Irish potatoes plant- 
ed among clods. I am aware that in a rainy 
season the land will be easily mellowed, but in 
a dry one it will produce nothing but small po- 
tatoes, and few in a hill. 

Drains and Water Courses. — Now look over 
your potato patch, (unless it be underlaid with 
gravel, and ler.ches water down readily,) and 
observe all low places where water will settle, 
if only for a short time, and make a good drain 
that will let it off readily ; as water standing 
on potatoes but for a short time, will spoil the 
crop. This cannot be too well done ; and be 
sure you keep your drains open, as they will 
do no harm in very dry seasons. 

Laying out and Planting. — We plant in 
rows both ways, for convenience in tending, as 
it requires much less hand work when they 
can be worked both ways with cultivator and 
plow. We cut our potatoes for planting quite 
small, and then put two or thrae pieces in each 
hill, or enough to make three or four stalks. 
It is a great error to put in so much seed that 
you will have 8 or 10 stalks to the hill. If I 
was requested to give directions for raising 
small potatoes, that would be the first rule I 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



would lay down. It would be just as reasona- 
ble to «xpect large ears of corn from a hill w T ith 
8 or 10 stalks in it, as to expect large potatoes 
from hills that have too many stalks in them. 
We furrow our land about 3 or four inches 
deep, and as close as we think we can get 
through conveniently with cultivator and plow 
mid cover the seed with mellow soil, and with 
hand hoes, about three inches deep. We have 
tried several other ways of covering, but al- 
ways to our cost ; as indeed we have never 
made any profit by doing things the lazy way,, 
if thereby it was done any the worse ; for if 
good farming won't pay, you will starve on 
poor farming. 

In tending the crop, we are careful to keep 
the land well stirred, especially in dry weather; 
by so doing the mellow soil on top acts as a 
mulch, thus preventing the lower parts from 
drying out, while it attracts what moisture 
there is in the atmosphere. Just before finish- 
ing, or laying them by to grow, we go through 
them both ways with the cultivator, running 
the teeth deep and close to the hills on every 
side, thus mellowing up the soil afresh for the 
tubers to grow in. This also cannot be too 
well done. Where labor is cheap, and pota- 
toes dear, it would pay well to remove all the 
soil from the growing plants, and replace it; im- 
mediately after being well pulverized. We 
then plow them snugly with the shovel plow, 
and all that is necessary afterwards is to keep 
them clear of weeds. 

Good Advice — Plant early and well, find 
then tend well, and you will seldom or never 
fail having a tolerable crop, even in the dryest 
seasons. I am very well aware that it takes 
some courage in Yery dry seasons, especially 
just after a wet one, when crops come up puny 
and look sickly, to keep in good heart, and not 
conclude that your crop will not pay for tending 
any how you can manage it, and therefore you 
will give it up. My advice is, keep doing your 
best ; keep your soil mellow, and your crop 
clean, for I have never yet seen a season that 
there has not been slight rains, at least ; and a 
very slight rain will make good potatoes, if they 
are well tended. We always make the most 
money out of our potato crop in hard seasons, 
when poor cultivators have none. 

G. S. Innis. 
Columbus, April, 1857. 



The Oregon Pea- 

Statement o/H. M. But. of Monroe, Ouachita 
Parish, Louisiana.. 

The celebrated ''Oregon pea," said to have 
been discovered in Oregon or the Rocky 
Mountains, a few years since, has been culti- 
vated by me upwards of twenty-five years, 
and by my father about fifty /years, He ob- 
tained the seed from the captain of a slaver, 
from the coast of Angola, a year or two after 
the cession ot Louisiana ; and it has been 
known and cultivated here ever since thai pe- 
riod as the "Angola pea.'' 

As I had seen miraculous statements con- 
cerning the Oregon pea, for a year or two past, 
and as I had a great fondness for agricultural 
experiments, I of course, was among the first 
to obtain a few of the seeds. As soon as I saw 
them, I was satisfied of their identity with the 
Angola pea, but as I thought that I might pos- 
sibly be mistaken, I cultivated them, and the 
result confirmed my previous opinion. As I 
have raised this pea for years, I can speak of 
its qualities. It is well adapted for the table, 
forhayanda fertilizer. It is undoubtedly a 
tropical plant, and, for aught I know, it would 
continue to bear for years from the same stalk. 
I frequently cut it for hay, when it began 
to form its seeds, before the coming of frost, 
when it is as full of branches and leaves as at 
first. 

Statement of George Luthbr, «/' Longstreei, 
Moore County, N. G., 
I planted the Oregon peas, I received bom 
the Patent Office, on the 23th of April. They 
came up and grew well for some time ; but, on 
the 4th of August, when they were from 2 1-2 
to five feet high, we had a heavy squall, which 
blew them all down, and broke about half of 
them off at the ground. I thought for some 
time the roots would send up sprouts, but they 
did not. I offered some of those that 
were broken off to my cattle and horses, 
but none would eat them. I observed 
closely, to see if the branches come out at every 
joint, but in this I was disappointed, and they 
did not begin to bear until late in the fall, and 
then only bore pods on the extreme ends of 
the limbs, and these so late that a third part 
were destroyed by the frost, though the fall 
was mild. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



The "Chinese" pea, from its size and color, 
could not be distinguished from the Oregon 
pea. I obtained a few plants from these, which 
were perfectly similar to the Oregon pea, until 
the stalk was about a foot high. Then they 
began to blossom, and bore pods which resem- 
bled those of the Oregon pen. They then sent 
out a number of vines, each of which bore at 
every joint It was lute in May when I re- 
ceived them. I planted some of the first that 
ripened, and they matured from frost. 1 think 
three, if not four crops <if them, may be made 
here in one season. 

Statement of Wh. H. Corny, of ButeviUe, Ma- 
rion Co., Oregon Territory. 

There is no such product here as the "Ore- 
gon pea," described by a writer in the report of 
1853. There is an excellent field pea, which 
was introduced by the Hudson Bay Company. 

It is a yellowjsli white, and nearly the size 
of what is known as the "May" pea in the 
Western States. The stalks, when planted in 
good rich land, grow 4 feet high, sending out 
several lateral shoots, with short joints, 
which have from 2 to -i pods at a joint, that sel- 
dom contain more than six peas. 

What is known here as the ''Field''' pea will 
yield on good land 30 bushels to the acre. The 
peas arc fed to hogs, and the vines make good 
hay. 

Peas are considered superior to wheat to fat- 
ten hogs. The cost of raisin is about ihe 
Fame as mac of grain. 

Statement <>/ Victor Scriba, of Pittsburg, Al- 
leghany Co., Penh. 
The "Oregon' 1 pea was cultivated bee both 
in 1854 and '55. In the former, on account of 
the great drought, it entirely failed. Last 
Spring, I sowed mine about the middle of April 
but a late frost killed nearly half the plants I 
had. The other half lingered for several 
months, semingly not to grow at ail, until the 
last of August, or early in September, when 
they grew more vigorously and commenced to 
blossom. The early frosts, however, about the 
middle of October, killed the unripe pods 
titalks, and leaves in a single night. The 
stalk attained a height Gf only 2 1-2 or 3 feet. 
• All the other Oregon Peas cultivated in this 
vicinity, as far as I could learn, shared the 
■same fate. — Patent Office Reports* 



Summer Management of Sheep. 

In the Spring do not turn your sheep into 
the pasture until it is well up, or until it is an- 
| kle high, so as to have something to shade the 
J ground ; keep your sheep close, and feed them 
| on hay and grain of some kind — they will eat it 
well if kept from grass. When put upon pas- 
ture, have three or more fields, and change 
them often, so that their pasture maybe sweet. 
I have known a neighbor lose three hundred 
sheep out of six hundred in one summer.- — 
He divided them into three parts, and put 
them into three large fields, with no shade ex- 
cept what the fence on the south side of each 
field made. The sheep lay along the fence, 
and when the nose fly came, the sheep were to 
be seen running with their noses to the ground 
fighting the fly, and eating only just enough to 
keep life in them. The sheep did not go more 
than eight or ten rods from the fence, and this 
was eaten close to the ground when there was 
plenty of pasture on the north side of the field; 
as a consequence the sheep poisoned themselves 
in their own filth. The fly laid its eggs in the 
nostrils of the sheep, and they soon died in great 
numbers of "worm in the head." 

Now, you would ask, how should he save his 
sheep ? He should have put them all in one 
field, and forced them to go further from the 
fence ; and about two or three days after the 
first shower, he should have changed them to 
another field. Whenever you see your sheep 
run with their noses down to the ground, drive 
them to your farthest pasture ; the fly will stay 
about where the sheep have lain. Keep 
changing- them from field to field, and you will 
not be troubled with "worm in the head." — 
J. D. Chamberlain, in, Genessee Farmer. 

An Ite.w for Trout Faxciers. — We find the 
following in the Hartford Times, relative to 
the cellar proces of trout breeding : 

During the past winter, Dr. E. C. Kellogg 
has succeeded, without much trouble, in breed- 
ing trout in his cellar. He placed a box, with 
proper partitions, in his cellar, and put some 
sand, gravel and stones in the bottom. He 
then procured two trout, a male and female 
and went through the process which has proved 
successful in France, of pressing the spawn 
from the female, and placing it in his box. 
He then filled the box with Connecticut river 



* I 



88 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



water, and kept a small stream constantly run- 
ning through it. This was about seven weeks 
ago. He has now seventeen fine, lively young 
trout, from half an inch to an inch in length, 
and more in the process of hatching. By hold- 
ing the eggs to the light, little fish C£- '■<■• seen 
in them distinctly. The old ones are ktj) i in 
a tub, and are not allowed to range among the 
small fry. The little ones of a week old have 
all the characteristics of the old fish, and they 
will dart under a stone with great rapidity, 
when the water is stirred up a little. Our pop- 
ular water works are constantly developing new 
sources of comfort, not the least of which is 
that which furnishes a good supply of trout, 
fresh for the table, in the cellars of our citi- 
zens, at all seasons of the year. 

Early Crops op Cucumbers, Melons, &c. — 
The real difference between the live gardener 
and his opposite, is striking in every part of 
his vocation or calling. His inclination to be 
first in cleanliness, quantity and season, of all 
his produce so far as the means at his disposal 
will allow him. If neither green houses nor 
hot beds, are among his means of accelerat- 
ing or preserving vegetation, nothing daunted, 
he sets about devising the best to supply their 
place. Supposing the regular handlights are 
also wanting among his fixings, he sets about 
providing a substitute that will do next best. 
As these are within the reach of all, none but 
the negligent are without them. Common 
sense, a few feet of boards, some panes of glass, 
saw, hammer, and nails, being the stock in 
trade required. 

Common sense, will very soon, out of these 
materials construct some rough boxes without 
top or bottom, the size of the panes of glass, 
and thus be in possession of miniature frames, 
or green houses if you wish, for it is not long 
under one of these contrivances before seeds 
soon exhibit the effects of their use. Of course 
all those who can, will have the boxes made 
and painted, and a groove cut on the inside to 
receive the glass, and it will be better yet if the 
box is formed spanroof fashion, or highest in 
the centre, two pieces of glass being used, one 
on each side. Boxes made to fit panes of glass 
one foot square wdl be a very useful size, or 
or they may be larger. 

With these our model gardener goes to 
work, say about the first or second week in 



April, in this lattitude, earlier or later, as the 
seasons come along in other parts, and digs a 
hole in a thorough warm border, sufficiently 
large to take a wheelbarrow load of good warm 
manure. This is trodden down firmly and 
some six inches of good soil placed over it. It 
is left a day or two, and then half a dozen or so 
of seeds, such as cucumbers, melon and squash 
are sown in the ordinary way ; the frame is 
placed on, and no further care is needed ex- 
cept giving a little air in very hot sunny days. 

Those who have not tried I he above, c;m 
hardly realize how much thecro is accelerated 
by it in fact, the sied may be safely committed 
to the earth nearly three weeks earlier than 
without, with good prospect of success. 

Of course egg-plant, tomato, pepper, and 
all other seeds, may be sown and hastened by 
the same process, and befit for planting out 
by the time the ordinary soil gets sufficiently 
warm to receive them.^r- Country Gentleman. 



Points in a Good Horse- 
in purchasing a good horse, sight, wind, 
feet and limbs must be the uppermost objects 
of inquiry ; for nine horses out of ten are de- 
fective in one of these particulars. First, then 
examine his eyes, and do this before he comes 
out of the stable ; see that they are perfectly 
clear and transparent, and that the pupils or 
apples of the eye are exactly alike in size and 
color. Next examine his pipes ; if good and 
sound on being nipped in the gullet, he will 
utter a sound like that from a bellows; but 
if his lungs are touched, and he is broken-wind- 
ed, he will give vent to a dry, busky short 
cough ; look to his limbs also, and in passing 
your hand down his legs, if you find &x\y unnat- 
ural protuberance, or puffiness, or if feeling 
first one leg, then the other, you discover any 
difference between tbem, disease, more or less, 
is present ; h? may not be lame, but he is not 
clean upon his legs. If he is broad and ftill 
between the eyes, he may, be depended on as 
a horse of good sense, and capable of being 
trained to almost anything. If you want a 
gentle horse, get one with more or less white 
upon him ; many suppose that the parti-col- 
ored horses belonging to circusses, shows, &c 
are selected for their oddity ; but it is on ac- 
count of their gentleness and docility; in fact 
the more kindly you treat horses, the better 
you will be treated by them in return. — Spirit 
of the Times, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Green Corn for Fodder. 

BY T. C. PETERS, 0/ DARIEN, N. Y. 

. Ill many regions of the United States, the 
high price of land makes it difficult for those 
who cultivate small farms, to realize profits 
proportionate to the capital invested. To such 
persons, in particular, it becomes a desirable 
object to be able to keep cows in order to en- 
rich their land cheaply, and to derive revenue 
from the products of the dairy. What is term- 
ed '.'soiling" is, in these cases, of the highest 
inaportance. 

There is no doubt that at least three animals 
can be kept in good condition upon the green 
food cut and fed to them daily from a piece of 
land that would barely support one, if left 10 
feed thereon, while the manure thus saved, if 
properly applied, would be more than equal to 
the cost of the labor involved, without taking 
into the account the g;un in land. 

It has been found difficult during hot and 
dry summers to have a ready and sure supply 
of green food. Realising this difficulty in feed- 
ing teams, two years ago, I made an attempt to 
supply the defect by sowing Indian corn broad, 
cast ; and though the season was unusually hot 
and dry, the experiment proved successful. — 
Last spring, I accordingly proceeded to the cul- 
tivation of corn for that purpose, in a system- 
atic manner. 

The ground selected was near my barn, and 
in good condition, as to heart ; and all the pre- 
paration T made was to plow it once and then 
drag it down smooth. As the corn grown in 
this region is the common "Yellow," I sent to 
Ohio, and obtained my seed from the large 
Southern varieties. 

On the 2d of June, I set one of Batchelder's 
corn planters to drop the hills a foot apart, and 
then run it backward and forward as near the 
rows already planted as possible, without ac 
tually interfering with them. After planting if- 
in this manner, I 'gave it a good rolling. It 
came up finely ; I then found that the planter 
was a decided improvement upon the former 
modes of sowing corn. 

On the 6th of August, I cut an average stalk 

from one of the hills, when the tassell was just 

in sight, and found it to weigh 3 1-2 pounds. — 

When subsequently cured, it weighed a pound. 

The amount of green food which may thus 



be grown, under favorable circumstances, seem 
almost incredible. An acre contains 43,560 
square feet. If, therefore, but one such stalk 
were to grow upon each foot, there would be 
over 76 tons produced to the acre. 

The supply of food thus furnished was be- 
yond all my expectations, and satisfied me that 
hereafter, I could in no other manner do so 
well as to prepare a small lot for planting or 
sowing corn to feed my teams. I think that 
any lanp that will produce tons of hay, will 
will yield 10 tons of corn fodder. I think also 
that, at the North, the Southern corn will do 
best for sowing, while, at the South, some of 
the Northern varieties will grow full as rank 
and strong as can be desired. 



Garden Seed- 
There is a matter to which I wish to call the 
attention of the public, and especially that por" 
tion of it who deal in garden seeds ; and that 
is, the bad quality of many of the kinds that 
they send round among us. At five cents a 
paper, which, on an average contains not more 
than a table spoonful, they can well afford to 
furnish us with the very best of new seeds, in- 
dued with full and active vitality. But I am 
sure some do not, and I hazard the remark that 
none take the pains they ought to take. The 
loss of 5, 10 or 15 cents is not too much ; but 
that is by no means the whole loss. There is 
the loss of the labor of preparing the ground^ 
of sowing the seed, of much of the manure 
used, and of the expected crop. And there is 
the vexation, which, in this world, which is so 
full of vexations, ought not to be inflicted upon 
us, if seed-sellers can well help it. The com- 
plaint does not proceed from one only, but 
from many. 

There is hardly any seed which does not lose 
a portion of its vitality ; some lose all if kept 
over more than one winter. It is pretty well 
known that seed-sellers take back in the fall 
the seed unsold in the preceding spring,, and 
the suspicion is rife among us that the seed 
taken back is offered again, and perhaps a third 
or fourth time. The papers bear no date of the 
year when the seed was raised ; and why do 
they not ? 

I fear the seed-sellers do not take sufficient 
care to put up only the best seed. In all casea,, 
where the plant is biennial, they should us© 



88 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



none but large healthy roots ; and when it is 
umbeliferous, like the parsnip, or branching, 
like the beet, they should put up none but 
such as is borne on the central umbels and the 
principal branches. If they were to remove 
the inferior umbels, (the umbels only,) and the 
tops of the inferior branches, at the time of 
blossoming, or before, the umbels and branches 
left would bear better seed ; and those re- 
moved, would probably, if left, have borne 
only abortive seeds. 

It has been said that cabbage seed, raised 
from cabbage stalks, the head being removed, 
seldom produce plants that head well. So rea- 
son teaches. 

And it has been said also that squash and 
pumpkin seeds, taken from the stern end, are 
more apt to prodtfee fruit similar to the parent 
than those taken from the blossom end. It is 
well worth while to ascertain if this saving is 
correct. Reflection would probably suggest a 
reason why it is so. 

This spring, more complaint has been made 
of the bad quality of parsnip and onion seeds 
than of any other ; but the beet beds show 
many vacancies. 

Doubtless the failure of many seeds is due 
to the ignorance or carelessness of the sower. 
It will take but a few lines to remark that, in 
a dry season, covering the seed soon, for three 
or four days, with a board or a piece of 
©Id carpet, will sometimes cause it to vegetate, 
when otherwise it might not. 

Can you, Mi. Editor, give a list of the seeds 
which lose their vitality soonest, and of other 
seeds which retain their vitality longest ? — 
Honest seed-raisers, and all are honest, for 
aught I know, would be glad to learn. Yours, 
*c., S. Ham. 

Keene. N~. H. 



We fully agree with our correspondent, that 
there is great need of improvement in the qual- 
ity of garden seeds. We have long been aware 
that if there is anything in whieh the public 
are humbugged, it is in garden seeds. Bnt the 
cause must not be laid to the established seed 
dealers ; it belongs wholly and exclusively to 
the purchasers. They require cheap seeds, 
and always buy of those who sell the lowest, 
and of course, they get them ; for no honest, 
iflpright seedsman could supply pure fresh 



seeds at the unusually low prices at which they 
are new sold. 

The truth is, the mass of the people buy 
garden seeds as they would a pound of sugar 
or a bushel of corn ; the cheapest always find- 
ing the most customers. The standing of the 
seedsman is no consideration, &nd the seeds of 
an unknown dealer are just as readily taken as 
those from the merchant who is well known, 
and has a reputation to lose. The competition 
among dealers, and the eagerness to secure cus-' 
toniers, has lowered prices, and as they are 
below what fresh seeds can he raised for, they 
must of course be adulterated to afford a liv- 
in</. The dishonest seedsman, if there are any 
such, must pursue this course or purchase hap- 
hazard, any seed offered for sale, of which 
there is always an abundance, without know- 
ing anything about them. Probably not one 
in ten of those who buy seeds are aware that 
the best seedsmen, who can be relied upon, 
have their seeds raised expressly for them, and 
often furnish the stock, or know that it is pure; 
it is the only way they can be certain of their 
genuineness. The only remedy is, therefore, to 
deal with first rate houses, with men who are 
known, and to be willing (o pay a fair price for 
a pure article. If, however, they must be had 
at a low price, purchasers must expect to have 
them mixed with old seeds ; for it is* the only 
way in which the dealer can compete with the 
cheap seedsman. Our advice is, to buy noth- 
ing in the way of seeds, plants or trees, because 
they are cheap. — Horey's Magazine. 

"A subscriber' 1 (whom we suspect to i c some 
narrow minded Leech) asks us why we adver- 
tise Dr. Ayer's Pill ', and we will give him our 
seven reasons for so do doing. The first, se- 
cond and third is, he pays us. The fourth is 
we know them by experience to be good. The 
fifth is that Dr. Ayer's preparations being re- 
commended by better men than we — bj? phy- 
sicians of the highest talent and the deepest 
learning in the land, we are well sustained on 
our own convictions of their value. The sixth 
is that they are cheap as well as useful. The 
last but not least is, that they have done and 
are doing an amount of good in this communi- 
ty which our old fogy friend if he could repeat 
himself ten thousand times might never hope 
to equal, and we trust by making them known 
to render some service to our readers as well as 
ourselves. — Christian Advocate. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Table of Contents. 



An item for trout fanciers, 85 

Boil your molasses 70 

Breadstuff's in Europe 72 

Bones as a manure, 81 

Corn meal for milch cows 75 

Cooking without iiie, 75 

Cutting grafts and grafting, 76 

Cultivation of the peach tree SO 

Cooke's new map of North Carolina, 81 

Early crop of cucumbers, melons, &c, 86 

Green corn for fodder, 37 

Garden Seed , 87 

How to apply leached wood ashes, 70 

How to raise onions, 75 

Peat and charcoal as absorbents 71 

Preparation of tobacco for market, 73 

Preparation of seed 80 

Points in a good horse,. 86 

Recipe for mending china, 74 

Radishes, S3 

Raising Irish Potatoes 75 

Soils best suited for various garden vegetables, ..78 

Stirring the soil in dry weather, 80 

The strawberry, .' „ . 79 

Sugar from the African sorghum ^sheep husband- 

. ry 65 

Thick and thin sowing, 83 

The common caper, S3 

The Oregon Pea, 84 

Tobacoo sheds, how they should be built, 74 



ISN'T IT SO ! 

; USE ARTHUR'S Celebrated 
Self-Sealing Cans and Jars, and 
you will have fresh fruit all the 
FRESH FRUIT year at Summer prices. 

i Full directions for putting up all 
'kinds of Fruit and Tomatoes, ac- 
company these cans and jars 
I They are made of Tin, Glass, 
Queens' Ware, and Fire and Acid 
■proof Stone Ware. The sizes ar; 
from pints to gallons. These cans 
•and jars are entirely open at the 
[tops, and nest, to secure economy 
jiu transportation. 
j For sale by Storekeepers 
[throughout the United States. 
I Descriptive circulars sent ou ap- 
plication. J3gT Orders from the 
jtrade solicited. 

Be sure to ask for "Arthur's.' 
THAN |It has stood the test of two seasons, 

jhaviug been used by hundreds of 
jthousands of families, hotel and 
jboarding-house keepers 
I We are now making them for 
the mill ion. 

ARTHUR, BURN AM, &, 
GILROY, 
[Manufacturers under the Patent, 
N. E. cor. Tenth and George Sts., 
PHILADELPHIA. 



IN WINTER 



BETTER 



SWEETMEATS. 



A CHANCE FOR THE MILLION. 

r f^HE subscribers are desirous of securing an Agent, 
JL either male or female, in every town and county 
of the Union, to engage hi a light and pleasant busi- 
ness, by which they can make, with ordinary energy, 
from $5 to $10 per day. Every information will be 
given by addressing with stamp, to pay return letter. 
S. A. DEWEY & CO., 
Ap., 1857— 8w Box 151, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PREMIUM THRESHING MACHINES. 

The North Carolina State Fair, held at Raleigh, 
awarded the First Premium* far our celebrated 
Threshing Machine. 

THIS Machine has been fully tested in this State 
and Virginia, and approved by all who have used it 
on account of its simplicity of construction, ut lity, and 
durability. We have no hesitation in saying they are 
the best Threshers now in use. They are economical 
in cost, simple in construction, and less liable to get 
out of working older. We also make a Hiib Horse 
Pouter, which is adapted to either four or six horses. 
This Power is all that a planter can desire to do the 
power-work on a plantation: it is very simple in its 
construction, celebrated for its strength, and not 
easily got out of repair; and, from the same quantity 
of power, can do more work than any other now in 
use 

Ji is unnecessary for us to particularize further as 
to the advantages of our Thresher and Power, but 
respectfully solicit the attention of all, to call and ex- 
amine for themselves at our manufactory, where they 
can be seen iu full operation ; and any recommenda- 
tion that may be wanted will be given, from planters, 
and others of this city, who have used them for the 
last four years. 

All orders promptly attended to. 

Repairing done at short, notice, on application, at 
our manufactory, on Washington St., opposite Jar- 
ratt's Hotel, Petersburg, Ya. 

J. W. DAVIDSON & BRO. 

Ap., i 857 — 3m 



FEUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 

TREES AND PLANTS. 

1TAA LBS dI NESE Sugar Cane, in quantity 
1 J \}\J and also parcels of 80OO seeds for §1 25 
post-paid. 

Chinese Imperial White Potato, the. mo«t valuably 
and iiardv ol all esculents. $5 per 20, $20 per 100. 

Osier Willoics, §2 to §5 per 1000. 

Lawton Blackberry, $18 per 100 $3 per doz. 

Yellow and Honey Locust Se' j d.s, and all other kinds 
of seeds. 'WM. K PRINCE & CO., 

nih It Flushing, N. Y. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY 

AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE North 
Carolina Mutual Insurance Company, held on 
the 9th inst. the following persons were elected Di- 
rectors and Officers for the ensuingyear : 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY. 
T. H. Selby, President, 
H. D. Turner, Vice President, 
H. S. Smith, Sec >/ and Treas. 
John II. Bryan; Attorney. 
T.ILSelby/vi'^'cio. ) 

John R.Williams, y Executive Committee. 
C. W. D Hutchins, | 

This Company has been in successful operation for 
more than 7 years, and continues to take risks upon 
all classes of property in the State, (except Steam 
Mills and Turpentine Distilleries,) upon favorable 
terms. Its Policies now cover property amounting 
to $4,500,000, a large portion of which is in Country 
risks ; and its present capital is nearly Seven Hun- 
dred Thousand Dollars, in bonds properly secured. 

The average cost of Insurance upon the plan of this 
Company has been less than one third of one per 
cent, per annum, on all grades of property embraced 
in its operations. 

All communications in reference to insurance 
should be addressed to the Secretarv, post paid. 
H. S. 'SMITH, Xec'y. 



90 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



NEW Y03& STATE 

AGRICULTURAL 

BY 
WHEELER, MEJLICK & CO. 




^fimvn ?c 



Double Power, and Combiued Thresher and Winnower, in operation. 
We are Manufacture s of Endless Chain Railw.iy Horse Powers, and banners and Planters' Machinery 
for Hoise Power use, and are owners ol the Patents on, and nncipai makers oi the following valuable Ma- 
chines : 

WHEELER'S PATENT SIMILE HORSE POWER, 

AND 
OVERSHOT THRESHER WITH VIBRATING SEPARATOR. 

This is a One Horse Machine, adapted to the wants of medium and sinail grain growers. It separates grain 
and chaff Irom the straw, and thresh, s about 100 bushels of wheat or twice as many oats per day, without 
changing horses— by a change nearly double the quuntity may be threshed. — Price $1(30. 



WHEELER'S PATENT DOUBLE HORSE POWER, 

AND 
OVERSHOT THRESHER WITH VIBRATING SEPARATOR. 
Th : s mac. due is like the preceding, but larger, and for two horses. It does double the work of the Single 
Maohines, and is adapted to the wants of large and medium grain grower t, and persons who make a busi- 
ness ol threshing.— $160. 

WHEELER'S PATENT DOUBLE HORSE POWER, 

AND 
COMBINED THRESHER AND WINNOWER. 
( S H O W K IN CUT,',) 
This is also a Two Horse Machine : it separates the grain from the straw, and winnows it at one opera- 
ration, at the average rate of 15o bushels of wheu ana 3t)o bushels of oats per day. In out do"r w .»rk, and 
for persons who make a business of thresh ng, it it; an unequaled Machine. — Price §245. 

ALSO CLOVER HULLERS, FEED CUTTERS AND SAWING MACHINES. 



OurHorsp Powers are adapted in all respects to driving every kind of Agricultural and other Machines, 
that admit of being driven by Horse Power, and our Threshers may be driven by any of th>; ordinary kinds 
of Horse Powers in use — either are sold separately. 

5KT To persons wishing more information ami applying by mail, we will forward a c'rcukr containing 
such details as purchasers moitly want— and can refer to gentlemen having our machines, in every Stute and 
Territory. 

Our firm has bee-\ engaged in manufacturing this class of Agricultural Machinery, 22 years, and have had 
longer, i .rgc.r, and more extended and successful experience than any other House. 

All our Machines are warranted to giveenti:e satisfaction or may be returned at the expiration of a reason- 
able time for trial. 

JfcS" Orders from any part of the United States and Territories, or Canada, accompanied with satisfactory 
references, will be filled with promptness and fidelity. And machines securely packed, will be forwarded ac- 
cording to instructions,or by cheapest and best loutes 

WHEELER, MELICK & CO., 

may 1-lt ALBANY, N. J. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



91 



H. D. TURNER, 

GEtfE&AL BOOK AGENT, 

Jfo. 1 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, iV. C, 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COURT REPORTS OF NO. CA., 

Has for sale, in quantities or by retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising Greek, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Books; School 
Books ; B I a n k 
Books ; Juve- 
nile and 

Toy 
B oo k s ; 
Miscellaneous 
Works; -with all the 
N~cw Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a large assortment of Station- 
ary and F.tncy Articles. 

SCHOOL BOOKS.-AII the different kinds o. 
Primers, Spelling Books, Readinu Books, Grarn- 
hiars, Arithmetics, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &c; also Works on Asironomy, Alge- 
bra, Chemistry. Philosophy, Mathematics, Surveying, 
Geometry, Botany, Book-keeping, Rhetoric, Mensu ■ 
ration. Trigonometry, Geology, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery, Farming, Gardening. Medicine, Theology, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, &c, &c. He has always on 
hand the Standard English Law Reporter and Digests, 
and every Tteatise oh Particular subjects ; together 
with the various State Reports and Digests, and a 
general assortment of Law Books of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS— Ledgers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, Cash, and Letter Books, ReceiDt and Bill 
Books, Memorandum, Bank and Pass Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing Books. 

RELIGIOUS BOOKS.-Family, Pocket, and 
School Bibles, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
Books, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.— Piano Music, Music 
Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND FANCY ARTICLES — 

Consisting of Foolscap and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Post and Drawing Paper, Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tracing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Quills, Wafers, Seal ingwax, Pocket Books, Albums ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red Inks ; Prints, Gold and Silver ever-pointed Pen- 
cils, Seals, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Scrap-Books, Visiting Cards, Card Cases, Gold and 
Silver Paper, Inkstands, Sla.eand Slate Pencils, Lead 
Pencils, Bristol and Ivo:y Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Battledores, Rules, India Rubber, Carmine Saucers, 
Newman's, Reeves's, and American Water Col- 
ors, <tc. 

N. B.— BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
forms, with neatness and dispatch. 

8CT GARDEN-SEEDS.— To be had at the North 
Carolina Bookstore. Garden-Seeds, warranted fresh 
and good, crop of 1855, selected from the irnsf ap- 
proved Seedsmen and Gardeners in the Northern 
Country. 

February, 1857. tf 



M 

© 
© 

CO 

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o 

O 

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O 

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o 

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O 


o 

•r-i 

■+.:> 

a 



TWENTY-FIVE WITNESSES; 

OR, THE 

Forger Convicted- 

JOHN S. DYE IS THE AUTHOR, 

Who has had 10 years experieu'e as a Banker 
and Pnblisher, and Author of A series of Lectures 
at the Broadway Tabernacle when, for IS succes- 
siee nights, over 

IW 50,000 PEOPLE ,£0 
greeted him with Rounds of Applause while he 
exhibited the manner in which Counterfeiters ex- 
e#He their Frau :s, and the Surest and Shortest 
Means of Detecting 2he\n ! The Bunk Note Mn- 
g ravers ail say (hat he. is the greatest Judge of Pa- 
per Money living 

G\ REATEST DISCOVERY ol The Present 
X Century for 

Delecting Counterfeit Bunk Notes. 

Describing every Genuine Bill in existence, and 
exhibiting at a large glance every Counterfeit in 
Circulation. Arranged so admirably, that Ref- 
erence is easy and Detection Instantaneous. 

JKT No ^n'dex lo examine ! Fo pages to hunt 
up! But so simplified and arranged, that the 
Merchant, Baker and Business Man can see oil 
at a. Glance-. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN. 
Thus each may read the same in his own Na- 
tive Tongue. 

MOST PERFECT BANK NOTE LIST 
PUBLISHED, also a List of All the Private 
Bankers in America. A complete summary of 
the Finance of Euiope and America will be pub- 
lished in eadh edition, together with, all the impor- 
tant News of the Day. Also 

A SERIES OF TALES 
from an old Manuscript found in the East. It f ur 
nishes the most complete History of 

ORIENTAL LIFE 
describing the most perplexing positions in which 
the Ladies and Gentlemen of that Country havo 
been so often lound. These Stories will continue 
throughout the whole year, and will prove the 
most entertaining ever offered to the Public. 

{KT - Furnished weekly to Subscribers only, at 
$1 a year. All letters must be addressed to 
JOHN S. DYE, Broker, 

Publisher and Froprietor, 
70 Wall Street, New York. 



FARMER'S HALL 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

The subscriber is general agent for the sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Farming utensils, Field 
seeds, Fertilizers, &c. &c. Almost all the articles 
brought to tt.e Jate Fair are kept on sale and are 
offered at manufacturers prices with no cost ot trans- 
portation, as they were brought free by the Railroad. 

There is also a new fire proof Ware House on the 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are stored. 
The following are some of the articles brought to the 
late Fair: Horse Powers, Wheat Fans. Corn Drills, 
Field Rollers, Corn and Cob Crushers. Harrows, Cul- 
tivators, and Plows of every size and description. 
JAMES M. TOWLES. 



Book Bin dini 
JOHN II. DeCARTERET & SON. 

RAREIGH, n. c. 

ARE still carrying on the BOOK BINDING busi- 
ness in all its branches at the old stand over 
"Turner's N. C. Bookstore." 



92 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Pi 



Wyclie's Cultivating Plow. 

> A TEN TED 2CTH FEBRUARY, 1856. (THE 
Bladed Plow,) awarded $20 premium at the last 
N. C. State Fair; with cutting blades iu the place of 
a moldboard ; cuts, divides and turns over the soil ; 
depositing- the liner parts in the furrow, and turning 
over the turf, clods* etc., on the surface. Is cheap, 
light, and lasting, and easy to both driver and team. 
Admirably adapted lo almost any purpose for which 
?he plow is used. 
\ For license to sell, with further information, address 

VV. E. WYCilE. 
BrookviUe, Granville Co. N. C. 
J-doe 16, 1856. ft-tf 

i. H. Goocb, Oxford, N. C, solicits ordeifl for the 
above plows. 



c 



]' 



DOCTOR HOOFLANB'S 

ckleekated 

(i K 1! M A N B I T T E 

PREPARE? BY 

Dr. (.!. M. JACKSONT, I^ilad'a. 

WILL EFFECTUALLY CURE 

LIVER COMPT, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or Nervous BebUit/j, Disease of the 
Kidneys, and all diseases arixino front, a Disordered 
Liver or Stomach, 
Such 
as Constipa- 
tion, Inward Piles, 
Fulness or Blood to the 
Head, Acidity of the stomach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Disgust for food. 
Fullness or Weight in the Stomach, Sour Eruc- 
tations, Sinking or Fluttering at the pit of the sto- 
mach, Swimming of the Head, Hurned and diffi- 
cult Breathing, Fl ittering at the Heart, Choaking 
or suffocating sensations when in a lying pos- 
ture. Dimness ol vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight, Fever and Dull Pain in the 
Head, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
Vellownessot the skin and eyes, 
Pain in the Side, Back, Chest, 
Limbs, &e , Sudden flush- 
es ol Heat, Burning in 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil, 
and great de- 
piessiou of 
Spirits, 
The proprietor in calling the attention of the pub- 
lic to this preparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in i's virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for which it is recommended. 

It is no new untried article but one that has stood 
the test of a ten years' trial before the American peo- 
ple, and its reputation and sal« is unrivaled by any si- 
milar preparations extant. The testimony in its fa- 
vor given by the most prominent and well known 
Physicians and individuals in all parts of the coun- 
try is immense, and a careful perusal of the Almanac 
published annually by the proprietor, and to be had 
gratis of any of his agents, en nnot but satisfy the most 
skeptical that this remedy is really deserving the great 
celebrity it has obtained. 

Principal Office and Manufa ;tory No. 96 Arch St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM N. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING EFFECTS FROM THE GER- 
MAN BITTERS. 
Certificate of Br. W. SMITH, of Pine Hill, Rich- 
mond Co., IV. C, March 4, 1854. 

Dr. C. M. Jackson, Philadelphia.— Dear Sir,— I 
have been a subject of Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for ihe last five years. Such was my condition for It 
months that the physicians and all who saw me said 
I must die. While in this condition, I was carried to 
the watering places in Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, but was not benefitted by any water to 
which I wastaken. While on my way home, Ijstop- 
ped a week at Ruthcrlordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina to try the effect of some Chalybeate water 
in that place. About the lastot the week, I went in- 
to a diug store to get some medicine lor my child and 
myself. There were several of the village physici- 
ans in the store, and one of them seemed to take some 
interes; in my case, and after asking me some ques- 
tions, said he had been a dyspeptic, and had been 
greatly benefitted by the use of" Dr. fioofland's Ger- 
man Bitters," prepared hy y» u, and he insisted that I 
should try the Hitters He also called the next day 
atmy room, and insisted so much that I would try 
them, that I asked him lo get nte one bottle. He diil 
it, and 1 commenced taking it as directed, and I do 
say I was more benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine 1 had ever taken. 

Alter reaching home, one of rny neighbors came to 
me for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic,) 
and I gave him nearly all the Bitters 1 had left; which 
effected i inch good iu his case. He has often called 
on me for more of the same kind of medicine, saying 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he had 
take! „but 1 h'tve not been able to get any more for 
him or myself since ; wiH you, therefore, please ship 
me a dozen or more as soon as possible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. SMITH, M. D. 

GREAT CURE OF PILES. 

Certificate of W.J. ATWOOD, Ilimtsville, Yadkin 
Go., IV. C, My. 1,1853. 

Dr. C. M. Jackson — Dear Sir, — Allow me to ex- 
press to you my sincere thanks for your discovery of 
a medicine, which, to say the least of it, has effected 
a cure that all other medicines that I have taken have 
entirely failed to do. "Hoofland's Gorman Bitters," 
have cured me of the most stubborn and aggravated 
case of the Piles that, perhaps, evor fell to the lot ot 
man. My case is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all myfrindsand relations, as I had tried every- 
thing recommended, and nothing did me any good 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, lor 
the benefit of the afflicted, as you may think proper. 
Trul v yours, 

W m. T. ATWOOD. 

These Bitters are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great advantage ov^r every mineral preparation, as 
they never prostrate, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem. 

Price 7">c. per hottte. Sold by Druggists and Store- 
keepers in every town and village in the United 
States and Canadas. and by 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

November 1850. Raleigh. 

WAESENTON FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

WARRENTON, N. C. 
npHK 30th session of this school will commence on 
JL the 3d of January next, prepared to give thorough 
instruetructiun in all the branches oi female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
time ot entrance. 

Terms per Session : 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in rooms, ftfO 00 

English tuition, 12 50 

Music on Piano, Guitar, Melodeon, with use 

of instrument, each 23 00 

Oil Painting, 15 00 

Persons wishing further information, will pleas* 
apply to GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 

December, 1855. 






THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



98 



GRENOBLE HOSE. 

^r^HTS superior hose, manufactured Irom the fines! 
X of HEMP, is adapted and especially recom- 
mended for the use of Fire Engines. Mills, Manufac- 
tories, Ships, Steamboats, Railroads, Hotels, Garden 
uses, &e. Its advantages over other Hose are its 
extreme lightness and cheapness. It will stand as 
much pressure as Leather Hose, and has proved to be 
as durable ; and all the care it needs alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air. 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
inches in diameter, in lengths from 100 to 200 feet, 
by CHARLES LENZMANN, 

54 Cedar st., New York. 
Sole Agent for the United States. 

Certificates of its superior qualities irom the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navy Yards; from Ai- 
red Carson, Esq., Chief Engineer of the New York 
Fire Department ; James Smith, Esq , New York, 
and L. Button, Esq.. VVaterford, Fire Engine Build- 
fers, and from some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &c, eau be examined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb 18— 6m 

LYON'S KATHAIROU 

Ha? now become the standard preparation 
for the HAIR. Its immense sale, nearly 
] ,000,000 Jggi ' 

BOTTLES. 

Per year, attests its excellence and great 
superiority over all other articles of the kind. 
The ladies universally pronounce the 
KATIIAIRON 
To be, by far, the finest and most agreeable 
article they ever used. It restores the Hair 
after it has fallen out ; invigorates and beau- 
tifies it, giving to it a rich glossy appearance, 
and imparts a delightful perfume, Sold by all 
dealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 
25 Cents per Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNKOOP& CO., Proprietors, 

63 LIB SRTY STREET, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers, also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
and in great variety. 0m. 



SANDS'- SARSJLPAJ&ILI14V, 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 
FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

AND FOR THE CURE OF 

Scrofula, Rheumatism, Stubborn Ulcers, Dys- 
pepsia, Sail Rheum, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases, CutoMeous Eruptions, 
Liver Complaint, Bronchitis, 
Go nsump tio n , Fema le 
Complaints, 
■Loss of Appetite, General Debility, <£c. 

TO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
of the humane and philanthropise of all ages. — 
Before the practice of medicine became a science, the 
sick were publicly exposed in the open air, and every 
passer-by named the remedy he considered most suit- 
able for the complaint. Wc possess at the present, 
day, through the agency of the press, a more reliable 
moee of conveying information to our suffering fel- 
low creatures. Those afflicted with Scrofula, Cuta- 
n eous or Eruptive Diseases, will find in the columns 
of almost every newspaper and periodical published 
eertificates and testimonials from those who hare 



been speedily cured of these dreadful complaints by 
the purifying and powerfully regenerative qualities 
of Sands' Sarsa pari 11a. 

A 8 T0N18U WO OUR E. 

Paterson, N. Y. 
Messrs A B. &, D. Sands: Gentlemen -.- Having 
witnessed the most beneficial effects from the use of 
yourSARSAPARILLA, it gives me pleasure to send 
you the following staiement in regard to mv son. !»• 
the Spring, he took a severe cold, and after eight 
weeks of severe suffering the disease settled in his 
left leg and foot, which swelled to the utmost. The 
swelling was lanced by his pkysician, and dishurged 
most profusely. After that, no less than eleven Ul- 
CTS formed on the leg and foot at one time. We had 
five difierent physicians, but none relieved him much; 
and the last winter found him so emaciated and low 
that he was unable to leave his bed, suffering the 
most excruciating pain. During this time the bone 
had become so much affected, that piece after piece 
came out, of which he has now more than -twenty- 
five preserved in a bottle, varying trom one half to 
(Hie and a half inches in length. We had given n\> 
iill hopes of his recovery, but at this time we were 
induced to try your SARSAP.VRILLA, and with its 
use his health ana appetite began immediately to im- 
prove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
dnzen bottles effected a perfect cure. 

With gratitude, 1 remain truly yours, 
DARIUS BALLARD. 
We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ballard, 
cheerfully subscribe to the facts of the above state- 
ment. 

H. & R. S. Htatt, 
Geo. T. Dean, 
A. M. Tkowerbkidok, 
C Eastwood. 

Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A.B. A 
D. SANDS, Druggists and Chemists, 100 Fulton St., 
corner of William, New York. 

Sold also by Druggists generally. 

Price $1 per bottle ; six bottles for $5. 1 ly 



AYER'S PILLS. 
4 new and singular. y successful remedy for the 
Xjl cure of all Bilious diseases — Costiveness, Indi- 
gestion, Jaundice, Dropsy, Rheumatism, Fevers, 
Gout, Hu nors, Nervousness, Irritability, Inflamma- 
tions, Headache, Pains in the Breast, Side, Back, and 
Limbs, Female Complaints, &c, &c. Indeed, very 
few are the diseases in which a Purgative Medicine 
is not motv or less required, and much sickness and 
suffering might be prevented, if a harmless but ef- 
fectual Ca thartic were more freely used. No person 
can feel well while a costive habit of body prevails; 
besides it soon generates serious and often fatal dis- 
eases, which might have been avoided by the timely 
and! judicious use of a good purgative, This is alike 
true of Colds, Feverish Symptoms, and Bilious de- 
rangements. They all tend to become or produce the 
deep seated and formidable distempers which load the 
hearses all over the land. Hence a reliable family 
physic is of the first importance to the public health, 
and this Pill has been perfected with consummate 
skill to meet that demand. An extensive trial of its 
virtues by Physicians, Professors, and Patients, has 
shown results surpassing any thing hitherto known 
of any medicine. (lures have been effected beyond 
belief, were they not substantiated by persons of such 
exalted position and characters to forbid the sus- 
picion of untruth. 

Among the many eminent gentlemen who have 
testified in favor of these Pills, we may mention : 

Dr. A. A. Hates, Analytical Chemist, of Boston, 
and State Assayer of Massachusetts, whose high pro- 
fessional character is endorsed by the 

Hon. Edward Everett, Senator of the U.S. 

Robert C. Winthrop, Ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives. 



m 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Abbott Lawhence, Minister Plen. to England. 

t John B. Fitzpatrick, Oath. Bishop of Boston. 

Also, Dr. J. R. Chilton, Practical Chemist, of New 
York City, endorsed by 

Hon. \V. L. Makuy, Secretary of Stale 

Wm. B. Astor, the richest man in America. 

S. Leland & Co., Propr's of the Metropolitan Ho- 
tel, and others. 

Did space permit, we could give many hundred cer- 
tificates, from all parts where the Pills have been 
used, but evidence even more convincing than the 
experience of eminent public men is found in their 
effects upon trial. 

Thete Pills, the result of long investigation and 
study, are offered to the public as the best and most 
complete which the present state of medical science 
can afford. They are compounded not of the drugs 
themselves, but of the medicinal Virtues only of Veg- 
etable remedies, extracted by chemical process in a 
state of purity, and combined together in such a man- 
ner as to insure the best results. This system of 
composition for medicines has been found in the Cher- 
ry Pectoral and Pills both, to produce a more efficient 
remedy than had hitherto been obtained by any pro- 
cess. The reason is perfectly obvious. While by 
the old mode of composition, every medicine is bur- 
dened with more or less of acrimonious and injurious 
qualities, by this each individual virtue only that is 
desired for the curative effect is present. All the 
inert and obnoxious qualities of each substance em- 
ployed are left behind, the curative virtues only being 
retained. Hence it is seii-evident the effects should 
prove as they have proved more purely remedial, and 
the Pills a surer, more powerful antidote to disease 
than any other medicine known to the world. 

As it is frequently expedient that my medicine 
should be taken under the counsel of an attending 
Physician, and as he could not properly judge of a 
remedy without knowing its composition, I have sup- 
plied the accurate Formulae by which both my Pec- 
toral and Pills are made to the whole body of Practi- 
tioners in the United States and British American 
Provinces. If, however, there should be any one who 
has not received them, they will be promptly forward- 
ed by mail to his address. 

Of all the Patent Medicines that are offered, hov 
few would be taken if their composition was known. | 
Their life consists in their mystery. I have no mys- 
teries. 

The composition of my preparations is laid open to 
all men, aud all who are competent to judge on the 
subject freely acknowledge their convictions of their 
intrinsic merits. The Cherry Pectoral was pro- 
nounced by scientific men to be a wonderful medicine 
before its effects were known. Many eminent Phy- 
sicians have declared the same thing of my Pills, and 
even more'cnnlidently, and are willing to certify that 
their anticipations were more than realized by their 
effects upon trial. 

They operate by their powerful influence on the in- 
ternal viscera to purify the blood and stimulate it into 
healthy action— remove the obstructions of the stom- 
ach, bowels, liver, and other organs of the body, re- 
storing their irregular action to health, and by cor- 
recting, wherever they exist, such derangements as 
are the first origin of disease. 

Being sugar wrapped they are pleasant to take, and 
being purely vegetable, no harm can arise from their 
use in any quantity. 
For minute directions, see wrapper on the Box. 
PREPARED BY JAMES C. AYER. 
Practical and Analytical Chemist. 
LOWELL, MASS. 

Price 25 Cents per Box. Five Boxes for $1. 
SOLD BY 
P. F. Pescud and Williams & Haywood, Raleigh 
N. C.May, 1856. 5— y. 



GREEN SAND MARL OF NEW- JERSEY, 

rpHE NEW-JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
_L is now prepared to receive orders for this impor- 
tant Manure. For all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Mail is more than a substitute. Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annual Report to the Legislature 
ol New Jersey, says : 

" The value of these Marls is best seen in the rich 
aud highly cultivated distiict which has been im- 
proved (aim-oat made) by their use. But it may be 
interesting to examine the causes of their great value 
in agriculture, and to compare them with other fertil- 
izers. For example: The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as live per cent of the whole weight of 
the Marl ; a bushel, when dry, weighs eighty pounds ; 
and in the proportion mentioned, would contain four 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel of unleaclied wood ashes " 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found in the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

Price, delivered on board vessels at the wharves of 
the Company at Portland Heights, Raritain Bay, New- 
Jersey, tiexen Cents per Bushel. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sent free of 
postage. Orders for other fertilizers will 'receive 
prompt attention Address either of the undersigned. 
CHAS. SEARS, Pres. 
Riceville Post-Office, N.J. 
Geo W. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar St., N.Y. 

Tappay Townsend Treas., 
82 Nassau st., N.Y. 9— It. 

N. B— Those wishing Marl for Spring use should 
order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
Orders will be filled in rotation. 



NORTH CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE INSUR- 
ance Company, Raleigh, N. C. This Company 
insures the. lives of individuals for one year, a term of 
years, or for life, on the mutual .principle, the as- 
suredfor life participating in all the profits of the 
Company. For policies granted for the whole term 
of life, when the premium therefor amounts to $30, 
a note may be given for one half the amount of the 
premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
anty. 

The prompt manner in which all losses have been 
paid by this Company, together with low rates of 
premium, presentgreat inducements to such as art* 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to five 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within 90 days after, satisfactory 
proof is presented. 

DIRECTORS. 



Charles E. Johnson, 
Wm. D. Haywood, 
Jonh G. Williams, 
H W Husted, 
Wm. H. McKee, 
Charles B. Root, 



Wm. W. Holden, 
Wm. D. Cooke, 
R. II. Battle, 
Wm. H. Jones, 
P F. Pescud* 
Seaton Gales. 



OFFICERS. 

Dr. CnARLBS E. Johnson, President, 

William D. Haywood, Vice President, 

Richard H. Battle, Secrcta7 , y, 

William H. Jones, Treasurer, 

H. W. Husted, Attorney. 
Charles E. Johnson, M. D. ) Medical 
William H. McKee, M. D. > Board of 
Rich'd. B. Haywood, M. D. ) Consultation. 

w\w.H A o T l T d L en. \ Executive Com, 
Charles B. Root, \ mUtee - 

Communications should be addressed, (post paid) t* 
R. H. BATTLE, Secretory. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



95 



PIANOS, MELODEONS, AND MUSIC. 




PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



HORACE WATERS, 

No. 333 Broadway, Nkw York. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK PIANOS AND MELO- 
DEONS. 

rpHE LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE UNITED SKATER. 
X Pianos from five different Manufacturers, «f evert/ variety of style — from those in plain rosewood 
cases, for §200, to those of the most elegant finish, for $1000. No House in the Union can come in com- 
petition lor the number, varieiy, and celebrity of its instruments, nor the cMrtmely low prices at which they 
are sold.- 

HORACE WATERS' MODERN IMPROVED PIANOS, 
with or without iron frames, have, in their n ew scale and improved action, a power and compass of tone 
equalliing the grand, with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Press and first music mas- 
ters have°justly pronounced them equal if not superior to any other make. They are guaranteed to stand 
the action of every climate. 

HORACE WATERS' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable qual- 
ity— sole agent for the sale of S. D. & H. W. Smith's celebrated Melodeons — can also lurnish Melodeons ol 
all other makers. Prices from $45 to $125 ; for two seis of reeds, $150 ; two banks of Keys, $200; Organ 
pedal bass me ledeons, 275 and $300. 

MUSIC— One ot the largest and Sest catalogues of Music now published ; sold at greatly reduced prices. 
Music sent to wherever ordered, post piid. Personal attention paid to all orders received by Mail. Se- 
condhand Pianos taken in exchange for new. Catalogues sent by mail. Great inducements offered bo 
agents to sell the above. A liberal discount todeilers, teachers, seminaries and clergymen. 

Each Instrume.it guaranteed to give satisfaction, or purchase money refunded. SECOND HAND PI- 
ANOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly in store ; prices from 30 to $140. 



TESTIMONIALS FROM PROFESSORS, AND OPINIONS OF TEE PRESS. 



Says ''The Christian Intelligencer" "The Horace 
Waters Pianos, for elegance of construction, superior 
depth and sweetness of tone, were pronounced by 
competent judges at the urystal Palace t" be in all 
respects masterpieces of Mechanical skill. Having 
inspected a large number of the Horace vv aters' Pi- 
anos, we can speak of their merits, from personal 
knowledge as being of the very best quality." 

Nothing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in any departmentthan the Piano-Forte manu- 
factured by Horace Waters, of this city. — Uhuich- 
mun. , 

Tbe following is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "The finest among the many pianos at the 
Crystnl'Palace are those placed there by Horace Wa- 
ters, whose instruments are always popular" 

The following^ we take from the "Christian Advo- 
cate" Memphis Tenn. : "The Horace Waters' Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
terial. From all we can learn of this establishment — 
said to be the largest in the United States — we have 
no douht that buyers can do as well, peihaps better, 
at this time than any other house in the Union." 

"Mr. Waters bis been long established and is favo- 
rably known. We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
usually charged for articles in his line." — Jacksonian 
N.J 

"Your instruments are a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos.and on honr to the skillful m nu- 
facturer. There is no doubt but they will be appre- 
ciated by the public and all admirers of true merit. — 
Otcar Comtttant. 



"I take great pleasure m pronouncing them instru- 
ments ol a super'or quality both in tone and touch. 

August Goclle." 

For power of tone, depth of bass, and brilliancy of 
treble, together with accuracy of touch, they are eqnni 
to any make I am acquainted with, and 1 cordially re- 
commend them to those wishing to purchase. — V. C. 
Taylor. 

"Our friends will find at, Mr. Waters' store the very 
best assortment of music and of pianos to be found in 
the United States, and we urge our southern and 
western friends to give hiin a call whenever they go 
to New York.'' — Graham's Magazine. 

"We consider them worthy of special attention, 
from tha resonant and exceedingly musical tone which 
Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining." — N. Y.JIu- 
sical World and Times. 

There is one which, for beauty of finish and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of tone, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the kindVwe have ever seen. It is 
from the establishment of Horace Waters. Being 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the action of the climate, and of standing 
a longtime in tune. — Savannah Georgian, Savannah, 
Ga. 

Says the "Evening Mirror," "They (the Horace 
Waters' Pianos) are very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comparison 
with any other manufacturer in the country, as re- 
gards their outward elegance, and quality ol tone and 
power. 



96 



l'HE CABOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



COOKE'S HEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

NOW READY FOR DELIVERY. 



gjHaagM gwMM B MB — 1— |j 



| 

fl^IIIS Large and Beautiful MAP" of North Carolina is now ready for delivery. It is one of the best 
JL engraved maps that his ever been pub Ished of tiny State in the Union, aud is sold at the low price o 
Eight Dollars. 

No Maps will be sold except by subscrlpfim. Agvnts will be found in most of the counties of the State, o 
persons desiring a copy of the Map can send tfaeir names directly to '' Win. D. Cooke, Raleigh, N. C." 

A C, E N T 4 W A N T E b . 

A number of counties in the Stale are yet unengaged. Persons wishing i.o canvass for the Map will b* 
furnished with the terms, &c, upon application to the undersigned. 

A "ants are al3o wanted for S ju'h Carolina and Virginia. The Map includes Virginia as far north a* 
Richmond, and South Carolina as fur south as the junction of the Copgaree and Wateree rivers. 

T E b I T R S . 

Editors in this Slate, who, having advertised the Map for six months, are entitled to a copy_ will please 
communicate the fact to the undersigned, that their copies may be forwarded by first opportn 

W. I). COOKE, . 

Raleigh, N. 0. 



Report of Professors Emmons and Mitchell, to the North Carolina State Ag. Soc», on 

COOKE'S NEW M'AP OF NORTH CAROLINA- 

I have had frequent opportunities of testing the correctness of Mr Cooke's new Map of North Carolina., 
aud parts of the adjoining States. This Map is worthy of special notice : 1st, from the fact that it embraces 
those parts of Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee which are of immediate interest to the citizens of this 
State. 2d, that the eastern part of the State is compiled from data obtained through the determinations of 
the Coast Survey. 3d, it contains an entirely new feature in Its profile extending along the line of the Rail- 
road survey from Goldsboro' to Asheville,.vvh;>.h exhibits the heights of many interesting points, as well 
throuo-h the central and western p-vrts of tlwsjwuite lying east of the mountains as amongst the Mountains 
themselves. 

In addition to the foregoing it may b.* justly said that Mr. Cooke has taken unwearied pains to correct the 
geography of the different counties, and to insert the prevalent names of places, those for ins.ance which 
have come into use since new lines r.f travel have been established. It is in facta New Map, and the only man 
which can be relied upon for accuracy in its details. It moreover merits commendation for the ai tistical skill 
displayed in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct. 

' ERENKZER EMMONS, State Geologist. 

In the encomium passed by Prof. Emmons, upon .Mr. Cooke's new Map, I fully concur. The particular* 
mentioned by him are of first rate importance aud interest. Most of the maps of the State, heretofore pub- 
lished, have furnished few, if any, indications of the position of any point within our own limits, with regard 
to the States, north, south, or west of us. This evil has now a remedy. In noticing the map, the very ef- 
ficient and important aid, in its construction, so fully afforded by Prof. A. D. Rache, Superintendent of the 
United States Coast Survey, and by Col. Gwynn, having the management of the Survey of a railroad, car- 
ried over the Rlue Ridge into the valley of the French Broad, should not be passed in silence Only the por- 
tion of the map representing the eastern part of the State has been submitted to my inspection, but to this 1 
presume, the rest will be made to correspond. K. MITCHELL. 

University of N. C, October 23, 185f>. y 



JOHN N. GORDON, 

Grocer and Commission Merchant and Dealer 

in Metals. 

14:th Street, near the Exchange Hotel,- 

RICHMOND, VA. 

M»y, 185«. a.-tt 



WANTED, by a young lady residing at th« 
North, a situation as Teacher, at the South, 
in either a family or public school. She is qualified 
to teach the common and higher English branches, 
Music, and Drawing. Credentials given if required. 
If in a family, she would prefer one of religious prin- 
ciples. Address the Editor of the " Carolina Culti- 
vator." feb. 18— tf. 




MmM to igrtrultttre, lortimlfitre, anit t\)t Iferljatrir Slrte. 

WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher- 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, N. C, JUNE, 1857. 



NO. 4 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

TEEMS. 

I Copy in advance $1 00 

6 Copies " '. 5 00 

10 " " 8 00 

13 " " 10 00 

20 , " " ;.. 15 00 

Subscriptions may begin with any number; but 
when not otherwise directed, the back numbers of 
the current volume will be sent. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

Oue square 12 lines, one month, $1;00 

Each subsequentiusertion, 75 

34' page oue year, 16.00 

U „ •" 30,00 

One page " 50,00 



§pe|IteeoB. 



On the Selection, Change, Prepa- 
ration and Sowing of Wheat 
Seed- 

In the cultivation of wheat, the first object 
is to obtain clean, dry seed, of large or small 
flinty or soft, white or dark grain, according 
to the soil and climate in which it is intended 
to grow, newly threshed, if possible, even if 
one or more years old, and steep it in some li. 
quid that has the power of destroying the spores 
of parasitical fungi, whi'ch, although invisible 
to the naked eye, may still be present in suffi- 
rient quantities to produce "black-ball," or 
"smut," in the succeeding crop.' 

In respect to the age of the seed, Theophras- 



tus says, and after him Pliny, it is best when a 
year old ; if kept two years, it is not so good, 
if three years old, it is worse, and if older than 
that, it will not grow. This opinion appears to 
have prevailed from the days of the Romans in 
Spain and Italy down to the present time, and 
the same practice is sedulously adhered to by 
the farmers in those countries, as well as in 
Spanish America, whenever attention is paid to 
this species of culture, who aver that old wheat 
seed is not so liable to mildew or blight as new; 
whereas, on the other hand, it has been con- 
jectured that their success may be owing to 
early sowing, inasmuch as new wheat cannot 
conveniently be obtained in season, and conse- 
quently has to be sown late. 

•'For seed," continues Pliny, "you should 
choose the fullest ears, having the fullest berry 
and set them apart in the barn, and by no 
means admit those ears f Wtffflfi not well Mled 
throughout, as in such gra^hjthere is dangc* 
of producing like ears." Brrrlet it be renicm. 
bered that this rule was intended to apply to 
the Roman Empire, where wheat was almost 
invariably sown in the fall, and where the soil 
was naturally fertile, or otherwise made rich. 
On the contrary, many of the farmers of Eu- 
rope choose the smallest and leanest grains for 
their poor land, acting on the premises that a 
large plump berry contains a sufficiont amount 
of elementary matter to jend forth more "til- 
lers," than an indifferent or meagre soil caa 
maintain, which, in the end, must starve or die. 



08 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



It is better, they say, in this case, that smal 
seeds should be sown, in order that they bring 
fewer tillers, which can be well fed and sus- 
tained. Whatever mode, however, may be 
adopted, whether by liming, brining, or other- 
wise soaking or preparing the seed, it is cf 
much consequence, and the first point to be 
gained is to get good roots to the plants ; for, 
although the ground may be poor, the larger 
and fairer the grains strike their roots, the 
greater the depth or compass they will draw 
their nourishment. 

There is also believed to be great benefits de- 
rived from changing seed, not only from one 
climate to another, but to a different soil. For 
instance, it is a noted fact that the further 
north wheat can be maae to grow, the shorter 
is the period of time in which it comes to ma- 
turity. It has also been observed, when wheat 
is grown in the extreme north, if used as seed 
in a southern country, it gives its first product 
speedily, ripening in a much shorter time, al- 
though, in sowing the seed of that product the 
second year, it loses this quality. Advantage 
has been taken of this circumstance in Sweden, 
in annually bringing their wheat-seed from 
Torneo, at the north of the Gulf of Bothnia 
almost within the arctic circle, and sowing it in 
lands so much exposed to the cold that ordina- 
ry wheat, from the shortness of the season 
scarcely has time to ripen. By these means, 
the lands in that couutry, which were formerly 
eo utterly barren, are now rendered fruitful. — 
Again, the wheat brought from near the shores 
the Mediterranean, to many parts of the United 
States, not only succeeds well, but possesses 
the property the first year of ripening some days 
earlier than the ordinary sorts, and thereby 
Often escapes injury from the ravages of insects 
or the rust, besides the advantage to be gained 
fioTnan early majfcfit. But whether this change 
Is produced wholly from the difference of cli- 
mate, or from a deviation in the character of the 
soil, is at present unknown. From numerous 
experiments made in England, within the last 
hundred years, it would appear that "plants, 
like animals, affect to be nourished by a variety 
of food," which would tend to show that it is 
not so much the change of climate that occasions 
these alterations, as in the change of soil. A 
Case is recorded of aijfarm in England, on which 
One field had a clay "bottom, another a loam, a 
third a gravel, and the fourth a chalk. Thes e 



# 



gave the occupant the opportunity of changing 
the seed of his wheat every year, who confined 
himself onlv two two sorts, the "Red Lammas" 
and the "Pirks." When he sowed his Lam- 
mas on the clayey soil one year, the next he 
sowed the seed of the product of the 
same seed on gravel or chalk, which, though 
not truly the proper soils for this variety of 
wheat, yet it proved no impediment to its 
growth, as he seldom failed to obtain a good 
crop. In a similar manner, he used the Pirk 
wheat, a variety which grew well in any of the 
four soils. 

In reference to the change of wheat from 
one climate to another, there are numerous 
facts on record in connection with which ther e 
appear to have been some phenomena, that 
were as inexplainable as they were opposite in 
their effects. As instances, it may be stated 
that one of the companions of Columbus, 3t>2 
years ago, made the first attempt to cultivate 
wheat in America, whose experiment was' at- 
tended with the most satisfactory result. The 
seed was introduced directly from the west of 
Spain, without any intermediate acclimatisa- 
tion, to the settlement of Isabella, on the north 
side of St. Domingo, in latitude about 19° 58 
N. "On the 30th of March, 1494," says the 
historian, "a husbandman brought to Colum. 
bus ears of wheat which had been sown in the 
latter part of January." Wheat has also been 
brought from England, and sown in various 
parts of the West ladies, both with and with- 
out success, particnlarly in the Bahamas, Anti- 
gua, and Barbadoes ; but, as failure to an equal 
extent was the result of experiments with wheat 
the growth of warmer climates, as Sicily, Poo- 
nah, tc, and as the temperature of the cycle 
wheat varies little from the mean temperature 
of the cooler months in the West Indies, I 
should be inclined to look for some other cause 
of failure than the mere abruptness of intro- 
duction. It may be asked, why the experiment 
of 1494, made with the wheat introduced di- 
rectly from Spain, should have succeeded so 
fully, while "Talavera" wheat, the produce of 
the same part of Spain, and "Poonah" wheat, 
the produce of the elevated, but hot district in 
India, adjoining Bombay, should have wholly 
or partially failed in 1840? The "Victoria'' 
wheat produced from Caracus seed, sown in 
England, retained its native properties unalter- 
ed by the change of climate, and succeeded in 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



99 



the West Indies, as well as that introduced di 
rectly from the region adjacent to La Victoria 
and San Mateo. Again, Humboldt, in the 
fourth volume of his "Personal Narrative," 
says that "the finest harvests of Egypt and the 
kingdom of Algiers, and those of the valleys of 
Aragua and the interior of the island of Cuba, 
sufficiently prove that the augmentation of heat 
is not prejudicial to the harvest of wheat, unless 
it is attended with an excess of moisture or 
drought. To this circumstance, no doubt, we 
must attribute the apparent anomalies expe- 
rienced in wheat-culture in the torrid zone. — 
We are astonished, says the same author, to sec 
to the east of Havana, in the famous district 
of Quatro Villas (the wheat region) this limit 
descends almost to the level of the ocean . 
while, to the west of Havana, on the slope of 
the mountains of Mexico and Xalapa, at a height 
of 4,812 feet above the level of the sea, the 
luxuriance of vegetation is such that wheat 
does not form ears. 

It may here be remarked, that experiments 
like the preceding are valuable as far as they 
go, but they should be received with caution, 
as many other circumstances should be taken 
into consideration before they can be adopted 
as conclusive. If, in addition to the particulars 
referred to above, chemical analysis of the soils 
on which the wheat was cultivate;], as well as 
of the manures employed, had been given; if 
the nature and yidd of previous cr&ps had 
been stated ; and, if the mean temperature and 
extremes of heat and cold in each month of th e 
year had bten recorded, together with the 
amount of rain and snow, sunshine and shade, 
force of the wind, and the occurrence of early 
and late frosts, we would then have had ele- 
ments by which to judge of the accuracy of 
these results. 

Wheat in this country, as well as in some 
parts of Europe, is subject to the "black -ban, 1 ' 
or "smut." It is no guarantee against this in- 
truder to employ seed which may have been 
entirely free from it during its growth. For 
the spores of the fungus which produces it, for 
aught we know, may be lurking about in the 
barns or stacks, or even in the air itself, and 
thus be brought into contact with the seed em- 
ployed. When the wheat is in the green e/H* 
the smutty ones may be discovered as they 
stand, but they are more readily observed 
when nearer maturity, by rubbing the diseased 



heads, when a black powder will fly out, emit- 
ting a disagreeable smell. This disease in wheat 
sometimes happen^ only on one side of the ear, 
while the other parts appear to remain perfectly 
sound. A case is on record in which the west 
sides of the ears of a whole field were affected 
with smut, while their opposite sides were free 
throughout. '"Smutty grains." says Tull, "wiiJ 
not grow, for they turn to a black powder ; 
but, when some of these are in a crop, then, to 
be sure, many of the rest are infected, and the 
disease will show itself, if the year wherein it is 
planted prove a wet one.'' 

The following are a few of the most reliable 
modes that are employed in Europe in getting 
rid of this troublesome pest: Metzger, of Ger- 
many, after atrial of 22 years, found omy one 
single injured ear in all his crops, by mixing the 
seed with soap suds or slacked-lime. The 
wheat was prepared three days before it was 
sown, or until it began to germinate. He says . 
"If sown earlier after mixing with the lime, it 
will be liable to smut." 

Morton, in his "Cyclopedia of Agriculture,'' 
a recent English publication, considered as the 
highest authority, says : "The old agri cultural 
pharmacopoeia gave chamher-lye and caustic 
lime as the giand recipe for the destruction of 
the black-ball, and sometimes washing with 
salt and water was recommended. Both plans 
might mitigate the evil, but neither of them 
ever prevented it. Fortunately, sulphate of cop- 
per (blue stone, or blue vitriol) was thought of, 
and there can be but one opinion as to the per- 
fect efficacy, when properly applied." The 
quantity generally used in pickling new wheat 
is 1 1-2 pounds of blue-stone, dissolved in 2 gal- 
lons of hot water, which is sufficient to prepare 
S bushels, the liquid being allowed to cool be. 
fore sprinkling it on the wheat. There is little 
risk of injuring the seed by an overdose, as half 
a pound of blue-stone has been applied to a 
bushel without injury to the seed. Old wheat 
can also be pickled with perfect safety 
with blue stone — :i thing that never can 
be done without great danger, when ehi-n _ 
ber lye, or salt and water and dine, are em. 
ployed. The quantity of blue stone for old 
dry wheat never need exceed 1 1-2 pounds to 
each 8 bushels, but 2 1-2 or 3 gallons of water 
are necessary for saturating the seed. 

The mode of pickling wheat with blue-stone 
is exceedingly simple, and this of itself is a 



100 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



great recommendation in its favor, even al- 
though it were not more efficacious than the' 
older methods of pickling ; but, when simplici- 
ty and efficacy are united, there is no excuse 
for any farmer who may still obstinately stick 
to imperfect and obsolete practices. All that is 
necessary, in pickling with blue stone, is to dis- 
solve it in hot water in the propwrtions before 
stated ; then spread out the wheat about six 
inches thick, on a stone floor, sprinkle the pick- 
le equally over it, and mix thoroughly with 
shovels until the wheat has acquired a uniform 
degree of dampness. It will be reacby for sow- 
ing in the course of two or three hours, but it 
is better to have the pickling done a day before 
sowing. Many farmers pickle the whole of 
their seed wheat at once, and let it lie for years 
before sowing, not only without injury, but with 
evident advantage ; the blue-stone thus appear- 
ing to possess the power of defending the germ 
against atmospheric influences, while, at the 
same time, rats and mice will not touch wheat 
so pickled, unless greatly pinched for food. 

According to Cato, cold wet land should be 
sown early with fall or winter wheat, and war- 
mer or drier ground reserved to be sown late, 
which is confirmed by Palladius, who says, in 
his calendar for September : "In this month, 
in wet, barren and cold ground, and in places 
shaded from the sun, wheat should be sown in 
clear, serene weather, about the time of the 
equinox, in order that the roots may have time 
to grow strong before winter sets in." And 
Columella cites as an old saying, proverbial 
among the Roman farmers : "Early sowing of- 
ten deceive — late, never,"' which leads us to in- 
fer that, such places as are naturally cold 
should be sown first, and those which are warm 
and dry, last. These expressions, let it be re- 
membered, are purely Southern, and apply to 
the warmer parts of Italy and Spain, but would 
not answer for the Middle and Northern por- 
tions of the United States. 

In Italy, they sow their wheat on heavy and 
strong lands in September and October, which, 
as well as November and December, are drier 
than January and Feb'y ; therefore, such lands 
may be expected to work better, as the cast- 
ing of the seed into a warm, and dry bed, espe. 
ciallyif the ground be cold, is of great conse. 
quence, whatever weather may afterwards oc- 
cur. Nor are the Italians less judicious in sow. 
ing their drier lands in January and February 



when they are naturally watered by warm and 
copious rains. 

In the middle and colder parts of the United 
States, where the land is cold, stiff and strong 
wheat is found to do best when sown late in 
August or early in September, which enables 
the roots to get a good start and better resist 
the winter's cold ; but if the ground be warm, 
dry and rich, the time of sowing may be pro- 
longed fully a month. 

Summer or spring wheats may be cultivated 
only in those districts where the whiter varie- 
ties will not bear exposure to hard frost and 
long-remaining snow ; or where it will not 
thrive on account of too little summer'^ 
warmth. In those regions in which winter 
wheat will thrive, the summer varieties only 
prosper where there is frequent and sufficient 
rain ; in dry and hot climates and- seasons, they 
will not succeed. They require the same kind3 
of soil as winter wheat, but more manure, or 
at least, a larger quantity of humus, or vegata. 
ble mould. They mast be sown as early as 
practicable in the Spring, in order "that they 
maj r have time to tiller before the heat of sum- 
mer ; they must also be sown thicker than 
winter wheat, as the produce is universally lesa 
and they are more likely to smut and rust. 

As to the quantity of wheat which may be 
sown to the acre, it should vary according to 
the quality of the ground, the nature of the 
climate, the period of sowing, the variety cul- 
tivated, and the mode of committing the seed 
to the earth. Therefore the proportion of seed 
that is necessary must depend upon the above 
named circumstance's and local experience. As 
a general rule, when sown broadcast on good 
land, in the fall, the quantity will not vary far 
from 2 bushels to the acre ; but when the sow- 
ing takes place very early in the Spring, the 
quantity may even be increased to three bush- 
els. Where the "drill," or "dibble" system of 
culture is practiced, considerably less seed may 



iffice. 



D. J. B. 



Chilblains. — To cure chilblains, simply 
bathe the parts affected in the liquor in which 
potatoes have been boiled, at as high a tempe- 
rature ascan be borne. On the first appear- 
ance of the ailment, indicated by inflammation 
and irritation, this bath affords almost imme- 
diate relief. In the more advanced stages, re- 
petition prevents breaking out, followed by a 
certain cure ; and an occasional adoption will 
operate against a return, even during the se- 
verest frost. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



101 



On the Manufacture of Salt- 

BY WM. C. DESNIS, OF KEY WEST, FLORIDA. 

As far as my knowledge extends, there is no 
great agricultural country but ours where 
common boiled salt, either from sea or spring 
water, is generally or even considerably used 
for culinary purposes. In Holland, they re- 
dissolve two or more kinds of solar-evaporated 
salt, one of which is "French bay salt," in sea 
water ; and this incorporated pickle is carefully 
purified in various ways, and then rc-crystal- 
rzed, before it is considered fit for use. From 
the use of this salt, numerous writers ascribe 
the superiority of Dutch Herring, over those 
of their neighbors. Even in Poland, which has 
the most extensive # salt mines in the world, 
French bay salt is generally employed, not 
.only in preserving provisions but, what ap- 
pears more singular, as a manure for their 
wheat lands. 

In all countries where the French bay salt 
is known, its superior quality is acknowledged. 
Some years ago, the commissioners of supplies 
of the army and navy of Great Britain employ- 
ed Dr. Henry, of Oxford, to examine different 
kinds of salt, with the view of improving their 
own domestic article, so that it could be safely 
used for salting provisions for those services ; 
but, in an essay which he wrote on the subject 
he failed to suggest any remedy, ascribing the 
superiority of solar evaporated salt principally 
to the greater hardness of its crystals made in 
that way over those made by boiling. There 
is without doubt, much truth in this; but Dr. 
Watson, of England, who wrote about the 
tame time, probably discovered the chief cause 
of the superiority of solar salt, liis idea 
was that, by the slow process of evaporating 
brines by the heat of the sun. the chemical af- 
finities of each particular kind of salt, which 
might be contained in those brines, had time 
to act ; and they re-deposit themselves dis- 
tinctly and separately, one kind of salt not be- 
ing compelled, as it were, to mix with another, 
as it must necessarily do in the rapid process 
of boiling down brines and crystalizing the 
salt in kettles. So far was he convinced of 
this, that he urged the use of coarss canvas on 
an extensive scale, which was to be dipped in 
the brine, and then exposed to the sun and 
wind to hasten the evaporation. Yet, as far as 
I can obtain information, nothing has been done 



in England to improve the salt made there, so 
as to invalidate the truth of some remarks 
made in Ree's Cyclopedia, just after the close 
of the general war in Europe, in 1815, on the 
subject of French bay salt. The writer says : 
"The English and Dutch have often striven 
hard, in time of war, to do without the French 
salt, and to that end have endeavored to take 
salt from the Spaniards and Portuguese; but 
there is a disagreeable sharpness and acidness 
natural to this salt, which renders it very unfit 
for salting. flesh, fish, &c. To remove this, 
they boil it with sea-water, and a little French 
salt, which they procure by the aid of neutral 
nations, and which, not only softens it, but in- 
creases its quantity by one-third. But it would 
seem that their refining does not succeed to 
their wish, by the eagerness with which they 
return to the salt of Brittany as soon as any 
treaty has opened the commerce." The same 
writer goes on to say, that the French govern- 
ment makes enormous sums out of the salt 
works of that country. Nearly all European 
nations, in a great measure, strive to be inde- 
pendent of others for their salt. Great Britain 
exports much more than she imports, besides 
making the great quantity which is there con- 
sumed yearly in the arts, and for manure. — 
Salt is manufactured at various places in that 
country ; but the great bulk of it is made 
near Liverpool, on the opposite side of the river 
Mersey, by dissolving the impure rock-salt 
from the mines of Cheshire, in sea-water, 
which brine is boiled down and crystalised by 
a very rapid process, that leaves the salt both 
impure and very light, only weighing 52 
pounds to the bushel ; while good solar salt 
weighs from 70 to 75 pounds, a difference of 
more than 80 pounds. This Liverpool salt we 
import to an enormous amount; yet no other 
people than ours use it for salting provisions, 
except those living in Canada, or perhaps Aus- 
tralia. There is also a kind of salt made in En- 
gland and Scotland, which is tolerably pure, 
and is frequently used for domestic culinary 
purposes. This is the "cat salt." It is cryi- 
talised on stakes placed perpendicularly below 
the baskets in which the salt is put to drain 
when drawn from the boilers or kettles. Thus 
do they make a small quantity of salt, rather 
purer than the great bulk of it ; and every 
one who is acquainted with chemistry can see 
why this "cat salt" is much better and purer 



102 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



than that drawn from the kettles. Common 
salt Crystallizes much more rapidly than any 
other contained in the brine, when it is at the 
proper strength; consequently, alone, it would 
be apt to crystalise on the stakes, the impuri- 
ties of every kind having a chance to flow off, 
which is not the case when the salt is rapidly 
crystalized in boilers, as in the latter case 
it is necessarily incorporated, move or 
less, with the crystals of chloride of so- 
da, or common salt. In fact, the crystal iza- 
tion can be by no me;tns perfect, nor the crys- 
tals pure, where the progress is so much hur- 
ried, as is the case where bait is boiled. 

All the salt made in the United States, with 
few exceptions, is liable to the same objections, 
in a greater or less degree, to that which is 
made in Great Britain, as it is almost the uni- 
versal practice to evaporate the brine by boil- 
ing. But I am informed that solar heat is 
used to a limited extent for evaporating the 
brines at the salt-works in the State of New 
York, and, and likewise in many of the works 
in the great Salt Basin of the Kanawha liver. 
To effect this, shallow wooden pans, or tanks, 
are erected, well above the earth, in long lines, 
but of limited width, so that covers can be roll- 
ed on or off to protect the pickle from rains. 
It will be seen, when we come to the French 
method of making salt, that even this degree 
of tardiness in evaporation is of great use in 
purifying the brine, wherever it is practiced. 

The French method of salt-making varies, 
in many particulars, in different parts of that 
country ; but one principal is observed in all 
places : That is, to keep the brine, or pickle, 
moving slowly from one reservoir, or basin, to 
another, from the commencement of the ope- 
ration till it nearly reaches the point of satu- 
ration. This is effected on the salt marshes 
near the mouth of the Loire, by letting sea- 
water into large reservoirs, built for the pur- 
pose, at the time of high tides, by means of 
swing gates which close when the tide recedes. 
From these reservoirs, the water in them, being 
of sufficient height, is let into a series of smal- 
ler reservoirs and pans, to a depth of a foot, 
down as low as 4 inches, the latter being the 
usual depth of pickle when crystalized in pans. 
When these pans are "set," as they say, sea- 
water is let out of a large reservoir, whence it 
finds its way slowly into the whole series of 
smaller reservoirs and pans, care being taken 



that only a very shallow "charge" is let into 
the crystalizing pans, while the pickle is weaker 
than about 18 deg., Baume's hydrometer. To 
get brine into these pans, from a great reser- 
voir, in many works, it has to traverse from 3 
to 10 miles, which is effected bj*- its widening 
from reservoir to reservoir, and from pan to 
pan; the distance being likewise increased by 
long narrow passages. After (he first charge, 
no water is lei into the crystalizing pans weak- 
er than 18 (leg , and even the first charge, by the 
management indicated, is nearly up to that. — 
The crystalizing pans are last in the scries, and 
from the f;ct that, as the brine flows forward, 
that behind "pushes," as it were, that which 
is before it, forward, without mixing with it. 
As thesnn evaporates the ^atcrfrom the whole 
works, the water which is daily let in from the 
-ea to supply its loss, instead of mixing with 
the strengthened brine, forces it forward from 
reservoir to reservoir, until a part of it 
arrives at the last crystalizing pan in the 
seiies ; by which time, if the passages be of 
sufficient length, the pickle will be up to satu- 
ration, ready to deposit crystals of common 
salt. Great ingenuity is frequently shown by 
arranging even small works so that the pickle 
will flow a great distance bef< re it arrives where 
it is to be crystalized. 

The principle can be extended to suit the 
size and form of the works, from the fact stated 
that in feeding them from the great reservoir, 
the incoming water pushes the brine before it 
without mixing to much extent, git that the 
brine can be evaporated to the point of satura- 
tion, in the crystalising pans, in a much shor- 
ter time than if the water were let. in directly 
to all parts of the works to supply the daily loss 
by evaporation. For instance, take a series of 
twelve small reservoirs : Let itbesupposed that 
the water is let into all of them to the depth of 
6 inches. In one day, a quarter of an inch is 
evaporated out of each. Now, instead of let- 
ting the water into each one separately, to sup- 
j)]y this los<, we will suppsse that the whole 
twelve quartp.is (3 inches) be let into No 1 ; it 
does not mix, but pushes forward 2 3-4 inches 
of water into No 2, which has had the advan- 
tage of one day's evaporation. From No. 2, 
there is 2 1-2 inches of brine of like strength 
pushed forward into No. 3 ; and, so on, till we 
arrive at No. 12, into which only a quarter of 
an inch of brine has been pushed of the same 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



strength. Again there is a quarter of an inch 
evaporated out of each, on the second day ; and 
again, on the morning of the third day, we will 
say, there is another three inches of water let 
into No. ], and the loss supplied to each as on 
the day before ; but it will be seen from what 
has been said that, except No. 1 and No. 2., 
perhaps all the rest have had their loss supplied 
by brine which has had three days evaporation. 
This same system being preserved, on the twen- 
ty-second day, No. 12 would be up to the point 
of saturation, and six days more would be 
ready to rake ; and before the end of 40 days, 
even in so shoit a series as this, full half of 
these reservoirs, or pans, could be raked, which 
makes this French plan of vast importance in a 
climate so variable as this; for, frequently, a 
very good yield of salt can in this manner be 
secured, when not a crystal would be found if 
the Spanish and Portuguese me; bod were adopt- 
ed. To feed each par. directly from sea-water, 
it would take full ninety d;iys to perfect the de- 
posit, ready for raking, when it might then all 
be lust for rains, becau-e they all come at once, 
and if a large one, it might take three months 
more to rake it. By the French plan, the whole 
deposit does not take place at once ; but at the 
end (jf ninety day?, quite a large quantity would 
be saved. Furthermore, this plan is of still 
more value, by its depositing all impurities by 
themselves. Sea-water, by Baume's Hydrome- 
ter, is from 4 to 5 degrees ; and as soon as it is 
strengthened up to 6 deg., it begins to deposit 
lime, which finally assumes the form of marl, 
and afterwards, under certain circumstances 
solidifies into rock. After the water gets 
stronger, if it be kept in slow motion, thesede- 
pesits gradually become much greater to which 
are now added sulphurated hydrogen, bromine, 
and probably iodine. When it gets as high as 
12 deg., it begins to deposit sulphate of lime in 
crystals, and the quantity of sulphurated hydro- 
gen is increased, and the bromine is so freely 
deposited that every substance in contact with 
the brine is stained a deep-red ; but, after the 
pickle is evap< rated up to 18 or 20 degrees, it 
appears to deposit nothing more till it gets up 
to 25 deg., when the brine is in a state, of satu- 
ration with chloride of so:la, (common 
salt,) and then it begins to crystalize, and in 
about six days more, in good weather, it depos- 
its a layer of crystals, which are sufficiently 
hard, or, as it is termed, "ripe" to rake. The 



"sharpness or ferocity" of the Spani.-h and Por- 
tuguese salt (Cadiz and St. TJbes) is cosily ac* 
counted for by the manner in which it is made. 
The sea-water is let directly into the large pans, 
where the salt is ultimately crystal ized ; and, 
before the brine is evaporated to 25 deg., the 
bottoms of the pans are covered 2 or 3 in- 
ches deep with impurities, and in this bed of 
filth the common salt crystalizes. But when it 
is raked, instead of the transparent white crys- 
tals of pure salt, we see them stained a reddish 
brown, and the taste alone indic.-tes that they 
are highly charged with both bromine and io- 
dine, besides other im purines. Much of this 
saltcanno: be used in les"s than a year after it 
has been raked ; but it never loses that disa- 
greeable "sharpness and ferocity." The same 
remarks apply to the salt made in the Azores, 
or Western Islands. 

So valuable is French salt considered, that 
the same principle of manufacture is applied in 
the south of Germany, as near as their climate 
will admit. In connection with an extended 
surface, arranged after the manner above de- 
scribed, they have enormous tanks with move- 
able covers, into which they gather the strength- 
ened pickle when they fear rain, and there se- 
cure it until good weather, when it is spread 
again till it is up to the point of saturation, or 
nearly so, when it is secured in these tanks to 
await being crystalized, which, instead of being 
done in ground pans, is usually performed in 
large lead boilers ; or more frequently, what is 
much better, they pump up the hot saturated 
pickle into small tanks placed around the top of 
a frame some 20 to 30 feet high, and of conve- 
nient dimensions, on the ground. From this 
hang ropes perpendicularky, some fi inches 
apart, on which small streams of this brine are 
conducted from the small tanks, and the crys- 
tals form rapidly on them — in fact, so rapidly, 
as stated by Dr. Ure^that the same work, ifli 
proper weather, can be done in this way in 24 
hours which would take three or four days by 
boiling in kettles, besides making the salt much 
purer. When these ropes are sufficiently load- 
ed with salt, it is knocked off to fall on the floor 
beneath, when it is ready to store or for mar- 
ket. 

One might think this a wasteful mode of crys- 
talizingsalt; but, from some experiments I have 
made, I am satisfied that, with proper care, a» 
little is lost as by any other process. Further- 



104 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



more, I believe that in this climate, (Key West,) 
it will not be necessary to heat the saturated 
piekle at all to crystalize salt in great perfec- 
tion. Hence there can be no doubt that salt 
can be made principally if not wholly, by solar 
heat, anywhere in the United States south of 
New Jersey, in suitable places on Jhe sea- 
board. In the south of Germany and in mai.y 
parts of France, they do not depend entirely on 
evaporating the pickle by the system above de- 
scribed, on the ground, but increase it, espe- 
cially while the brine is yet weak, by arrang- 
ing bundles of fcggots perpendicularly in frames 
which are frequently from 20 to 30 feet high, 
and 50 by 100 or more feet on the ground. The 
krine is repeatedly pumped up to the top of this 
frame, and let down in showers through the 
faggots. Any one must see that evaporation is 
very much increased by presenting so great a 
surface to the wind and sun. 

I have been thus minute in setting forth the 
high value placed on stlar-evaporated salt, man- 
ufactured after a particular manner on the con- 
tinent of Europe, and, likewise, for the purpose 
of showing the great difficulties and expense 
many nations there seem to think it to their in- 
terest to encounter in order to obtain an article 
of this sort. 

I will now add some of my own personal ex- 
perience in the way of salt-making in . this re- 
gion : In 1886, there was a salt company form- 
ed on this island. Wooden pans, like those for- 
merly used at Cape Cod and New Bedford, 
were erected to a considerable extent. I be- 
lieve there were put up at the time about 3,000 
feet, linear measures, of these works, which 
were 16 feet wide, and had covers to roll on and 
eff, to protect the pickle from the rain. Of the 
natural ponds on the island only very small por- 
tions were improved, and this solely for the 
purpose of strengthening the sea-water before 
it was pumped in the wooden works ; but no 
Httempt was made to make salt in ground pans. 
Although they made four or five times as much 
salt in these wooden tanks, in a given time, as 
could be made in a like amount of works, in 
New Bedford or Cape Cod, from the fact that 
they could generally evaporate the pickle to 
saturation before pumping it up ; yet they 
•could hardly be said to be successful. The 
salt which they made was very pure, as they 
adopted the plan of having the pickle traverse 
a considerable distance before pumping it into 



the works where it was crystalized ; and it ac- 
quired a very high reputation for salting beef 
and fish ; but the crystals were too fine for 
pork. In 1846, these wooden works were 
nearly all destroyed by the great hurricane of 
that year, after which this company sold out to 
a private individual, who re-erected some part 
of the works in wood, out of the debris of the 
storm, and turned his attention to making 
ground pans, for the purpose of crystalising 
suit in them. He did but little in this way ; 
yet he was quite successful, in 1847 — '4$, 
making over 70,000 buthels per annum with 4 
or 5 hands on the place. In 1849-'50, he made 
less ; but, considering the limited amount of 
improvements, he had a fair yield ; having 
raked about 50 000 bushels in these last two 
years. In 1861, the works came into my pos- 
session, but as I had onl}' commenced the bus- 
iness, and the season being very short, I raked 
only about 20,000 bushels out of the ground 
pans, besides some 15,000 bushels produced in 
the covered works. This was done with the av- 
erage labor of only six hands. The year 1852 
was very wet and the crop small , and in '53, 
more rain fell than was ever before recorded. 
In the mean time, I gave my chief attention to 
improvements, and last year, (1854,) I made 
full 70,000 bushels, although about 20 inches 
more rain fell than the recorded average for 
nineteen years. Each month of the salt sea- 
son, had its due share of this excess, which 
was from February to August, inclusive. To 
make that quantity, required the average labor 
of eight hands for the year, to perforin every- 
thing connected with it, in the way of secur- 
ing and delivering for market. The present 
year, 1855, has been a very singular one for 
this climate, there having been scarcely a week 
from February to the end of September, with- 
out some rain ; and, in addition, the winds 
have been continually both cold and damp yet, 
from the nature of my improvements, on these 
occasions, in the course of the season, there 
was on the works almost an unlimited amount 
of pickle up to saturation, or nearly so. ^This 
pickle I could have saved, and afterwards crys- 
talized on ropes, after the German plan, had I 
had the tanks finished, which are now well ad- 
vanced. I should here state, th~c there, has 
been a very singular increase of rain on this 
island for the last five j'ears, including 1850 up 
to the present time. In this period, the ave- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



105 



rage has been something over 50 inches of rain 
per annum, while the record of the preceding 
nineteen years gives an average of only 311-2 
inches. The Patent Office Report for 1853 
gives the average of fourteen of those years at 
31 4-5 inches. From this, the expectation is 
but reasonable that the yearly average must 
hereafter agree, or nearly so, with the record of 
the longest period ; for it is known that those 
who made this record are noted for their accu- 
racy. Yet, it is proved that salt can be made 
here in ground pans without the aid of cov- 
ered tanks, during the years of the 
heaviest fall of rain to which the island is ever 
subject, provided the weather is otherwise fa- 
vorable. In 1854, about 52 inches of rain fell, 
and, as before stated, a full proportion in the 
salt season ; and the weather was otherwise 
hot and dry. I am informed that there has 
been a like increase in the fall of rain for the 
five years in Turks Island and in the Bahamas, 
which I presume accounts partially, at least, 
for the scarcity of salt in those islands for the 
last two years, notwithstanding the great accu- 
mulation of the article there in former years. 
This scarcity makes it a part of wisdom and 
economy, in this country, to increase in every 
possible way the supply of the better kinds of 
salt. 

To aid in this purpose, I will give a brief de- 
scription of the plans which I have adopted 
here to make the most of these local advanta- 
ges ; and, when these plans are all perfected, 
I have no doubt that the business will be ren- 
dered reasonably safe and successful, even du- 
ring the wettest seasons which we have on 
these Keys ; and when such years happen as I 
am informed 1842-3 were, and again, those of 
1847~'48, the only limit to the yield of salt 
would be in the limit of the labor at com- 
mand to rake and secure it. There are other 
Keys on this reef, which I presume have like 
advantages with this, and when wc consider the 
mildness and healthfulness of the climate, es- 
pecially for a certain class of invalids, it would 
seem that these advantages are worthy of being 
appreciated. 

Key West is almost four miles long, and 
nearly one broad ; and from the north-eastern 
end, through the centre of it, for some two and 
a half miles, there arc series of natural ponds 
which are fronr one to two feet lower than me- 



dium high tides. These ponds were conne«itcd 
together, originally, but separated from the sea 
by a ridge, over which the water never flowed, 
except in times of very high tides. From this 
situation, even before the ponds were improved, 
salt was frequently made, nalurally, by the 
high tides of early winter flowing into them, 
the water in them being sufficiently evapora- 
ted, before return of the next high tides in the 
following July and August. Thus, as I have 
been informed, were many cargoes raked by 
the crews of vessels, and taken away: Out- 
side of thislow ridge, which shuts out the low 
tides from the ponds, I have inclosed a large 
bay with very shallow water, which contains 
some 100 or 159 acres ; by connecting two 
points of land by a substantial dam. In this 
is fixed a swing-gate, such as is,used in Turk's 
Island and the Bahamas, which enables me to 
shut in the sea-water from the Gulf stream, at 
high tide. This arrangement is such that, by a 
short canal through the ridge, I can convey 
water at pleasure to every part of the natural 
ponds, which, by means of more than 20 miles 
of embankments, are made into a series of res- 
ervoirs that contain in full the principles here- 
in laid down. Out of the bay, at a point fur- 
thest from the swing-gate, where the evapora- 
tion is sure to be the greatest, the canal is dug 
which lets the salt-water into the highest part, 
whence it flows from one into another, for- 
vvavd and backward, till it arrives at the 
last and lowest one in the series, by 
which time the pickle has traversed about 
14 miles. In good weather, the water is not 
only purified, but is up to the point of satura- 
tion, or nearly so. At any rate, it is in a fit 
state to be pumped up by wind-mills into the 
crystalising pans, which in this case are built 
on a level from 12 inches to 3 feet higher than 
the reservoirs. These have bottoms prepared 
with sand and marl, which become quite hard, 
enabling us to keep the salt clean while raking 
it. These pans are also enclosed with stone 
and mail walls, and vary in size from 50 feet 
square to an acre or more. They are likewise 
arranged so that the pickle flows from the 
highest to the lowest, through, the whole se- 
ries, which still further purifies the water and 
hastens the erystalizing atom. It is really as- 
tonishing to witness the amount of impurities 
which are thus deposited from the sea-water. 
In some of the reservoirs, at the end of the sea- 



106 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



son, there are nearly inches of the half-float- 
ing deposits of one summer. 

I do not pump any but perfectly saturated 
pickle into the covered wooden pans, of which 
I have' some 2,500 feet in length. The salt 
from these is very heavy and pure, being in- 
valuable for salting beef and fish, but the 
coarse salt from the ground pans is better for 
salting pork. Fishermen, here, and in the vi- 
cinity, will use for their purpose, none but the 
finer kind of salt made in covered works ; and 
I haye been informed that fish in the Havana 
market salted with it, even when the) are dry 
suited, command a higher price than those 
cured with any other kind. 

I have from 300 to 400 acres of surface now 
in the series of reservoirs, and, by further im- 
provements, I can more than double that 
amount. Of crystalising pans, I have from 50 
lo 60 acres, amply .sufficient for the present 
surface of reservoirs ; and I have room to in- 
crease to any necessary extent. The tanks 
which I am building are 50 by 100 feet on the 
ground, and 10 feet deep, 5 feet of which is 
dug down into the solid rock, but even this 
part of them will be lined with concrete, made 
of hydraulic cement, sand, and broken stona.— 
They are to be covered by movable roofs, 20 b}^ 
25 feet, so constructed as to roll on and off 
from each side to the centre. These tanks, 
with ropes arranged as before described, to crys- 
talise the pickle on, will render a fair yield 
certain, e7en in a wet season ; and I think 
salt, crystalized in this manner, out of brine 
previously purified in the reservoirs, will be 
even better than that made wholly in the pans. 

From pers«n:d observations of the use of Key 
West salt, [ am convinced that no other, ex- 
cept, perhaps, the very best Turks Island, is so 
well fitted for salting provisions of all kinds. 
I say the very best Turks Island, for in a great 
number of the works there, and in the Baha- 
mas, the salt is sold under the same general 
name, and where the}' have applied the puri- 
fying system, too, but to a very limited extent; 
and at many of the works salt is made' after 
the plan adopted in Spain. It would seem 
that many brines have a disagreeable taste, 
which no practical method can remedy, and 
that on the whole, that made from sea-water 
is usually better than that which is made 
from springs. Furthermore, it is very proba- 
ble that there is a great difference in sea-water 



from divers localities. This supposition is in a 
measure confirmed by the salt made everywhere 
from the Gulf stream, as it is better than that 
made in Spain, Portugal, the Azores, &c, all 
of which produce an article that has a sharp- 
ness of taste, which is never present in the 
other kind, made from the great ocean cur- 
rent; but even this kind varies much in quali- 
ty by the pains taken in purifying the pickle. 
It is only during the time of raking salt from 
ground pans, and somotimes for a month or 
more, when the demand is brisk, to deliver it, 
that many hands can be profitably employed 
at the salt works here. Even in favorable 
years, a full force is not needed, after all im- 
provements are made, for more than six to eight 
months. Consequently, some other business 
should be connected with salt-making on these 
Ke3's, the culture of Sisal hemp, for instance,- 
in order to render it more profitable. During 
the rest of the year, only a few hands are re- 
quired. 

The Bepulsion of the Yellow Bug 
from Pumpkin Vines, &c- 

Messrs. Tucker & Son — The class of Ye;:eta- 
bles liable to the attack of the yellow bug, 
though not staples, are yet important. ' The 
pumpkin, as ordinarily cultivated by the far- 
mer, in the corn-field, is valuable in connection 
with the fall feeding of beef and pork, and the 
production of milk. It is the more valuable to 
the farmer because, when cultivated in connec- 
tion with corn, it is produced so cheaply. The 
winter squash is a valuable item in the stores 
of the family. The cucumber in July and Au- 
gust, and melons of all sorts in August and 
September, become cheap luxuries wherever 
there is a light soil and a sufficiency of heat to 
ripen them. The greatest obstacle often to their 
production is the attack of the yellow bug. — ■ 
And yet his repulsion is readily and cheaply 
accomplished. 

MODES OF REPULSION. 

1. Cover- the hill, just as the plant begins to 
appear, with thin bats of cotton or flax tow, se- 
curing them against the wind by earth placed 
on the edge. The rising plants will lift up this 
covering. It may be removed altogether when 
the plants make the fourth leaf. Such a cov- 
ering excludes a portion of the light and air 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



197 



from the plant, while, on the other hand, it 
secures it from harsh winds and light pests. 
On a small scale in a private garden, I used 
this mode with great success in my ' oyhood. 

2, Mlllinet covered boxes. — These are made 
about 12 or 15 inches square, and about 6 or 8 
high, of tli in boards, the top being covered with 
Millinet, put on with carpet tacks. A light 
brace ought to be let into the top of the box, 
across one course, to prevent the box from 
working out of shape, before the covering is 
put on. This box is also a protection against 
wind and. light pests, though, by shutting off a 
portion of light, it hinders the growth some- 
what in fine weather. Even without the ad- 
dition of the millinet this box is usually a pro- 
tection against the bug. 

3. Dirt mounds.— In light, sandy soils, and 
for field or market garden use, this mode is 
much more ready and cheap than the pieced 
ing. Prepare yourself, first making a mould- 
ing frame. This is done by taking good pine 
boards about 8 inches wide, sawed into four 
pieces so as to make a beveling box about one 
foot square at the bottom, and fifteen inches at 
the top. A brace should be let in and nailed 
firmly across one of the corners, the whole 
thing being made like the box in No. 2 above, 
except that it is made beveling and much 
stronger. 

Place this box around your hill of melons or 
cucumbers. Then let the earth be firmly bank- 
ed around the outside up to the top of the box. 
Then strike the box a light blow on one side to 
loosen it a little, when it may be lifted out, lea- 
ving a firm, sloping bank around your hill.— 
Two men should always work together in mak- 
ing them, standing on opposite sides. I used 
such banks many years in a market garden. — 
They may be made probably for one-half-cent 
a piece. "When properly made they will stand 
a heavy rain uninjured. The second time of 
working among your plants they may be re- 
moved readily with the hoe. Occasionally the 
bugs will get into these earth boxes ; but, all 
things considered, I prefer them to an)' mode I 
have ever used. They, too, like board boxes, 
protect the young plant from the cold winds. 

4. Tomatoes sown among and around 
your vine plants. — This plan has often 
been recommended. I have not tried, but 
certaiuly think very favorably of it. It is 
easy, near the close of the summer, to save to- 



mato seeds chenply and in large quantities. — 
Less perfect fruits may be selected than those 
used for your main crop. In dropping your 
melon or other seeds, drop a few tomato seeds 
with them, and a circle around them. Then 
cover all up. The tomatoes will spring up as 
soon as the vines, and gain height faster. — 
When your vines are out of the way of the 
bugs, pull up your tomato plants carefully, and 
throw them away. 

In preparing your tomato seed for use, first 
soak them a few hours, and then mix them 
with fifteen or twenty times their amount of 
wood or coal ashes sifted. Stir them well to- 
gether. In the use of this compound you will 
be able to sow your tomato seed more speedily 
evenly, and economically, than you could if 
trying to sow them alone. 

It is sometimes recommended to bring for- 
ward your tomatos for this purpose in a hot 
bed, then transplant them to your cucumber 
and other hills, but this method will be quite 
too expensive for the farmer and market gar- 
dener. 

5. Mixtures of fresh wood ashes, plaster, 
snvff, flour, the latter being used to produce 
the adhesion of the other things, are often 
used, and with more or less good effect. When 
the proportion of ashes is too large they some- 
times burn the plant. Such mixtures are, at 
best, but an imperfect protection of the plant, 
at least they have been so in my experience. — 
They also need renewal after heavy rains. — 
One imperfection attending their use is the al- 
most impossibility of applying them to the 
lower side of the leaf of the plant, where often 
the bug works the most fatally. 

The application of a cheap wash with a sy- 
ringe — a wash having a permanent and offen- 
sive odor and taste, but one not acrid, might 
be useful. Of what such a wash should bo 
constituted, experience alone can determine. 
Many things highly offensive to one species of 
animal are not so to another. 

In conclusion, my experience throws me 
back on the millinet covered box, for the mar- 
ket garden, as being the cheapest and surest 
modes of defence. C. E. Goodrich, Utiea, 
1857. 



Friendship: — The sigh that rises at the 
thought of a friend, may be almost as genial as 
his voice. 'Tis a breath that seems rather to 
come from him than from ourselves. — Milton. 



108 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



Forage Plants- 

Among the fornge products more rccentl)' in- 
troduced, and one which would seem to de- 
serve special notice, is the "Chinese sugar- 
cane," (sorg/tum saccliaratum,) a new grami- 
neous plant, of Chinese origin, but more re- 
centty from France, by the way of Natal, in 
South Africa. Since its introduction into this 
country, it has proved itself well adapted to 
our geographical range of Indian corn. It is 
of easy cultivation, being similar to that of 
maize or broom-corn ; and, if the seeds are 
planted in May, in the Middle States, or stiil 
earlier at the South, two crops of fodder can 
be grown in a season from the same roots, irre- 
spective of drought — the first one in June or 
July, to be cut before the panicles appear, 
which would be green and succulent, like 
young Indian corn, and the other, a month or 
two later, when or before the seed is fully ma- 
tured. The amount of fodder which it will 
produce to the acre, with ordinary cultivation, 
may be safely estimated at seven tons, when 
green, or at least two tons per acre, when thor- 
oughly cured. The stalks, when nearly mature, 
are filled with a rich saccharine juice, which 
may be used for dyeing wool or silk a perma- 
nent red or pink ; and the entire plant is de- 
voured with avidity, either in a green or a dry 
state, by horses cattle, sheep and swine. 

Consideied in an utilitarian point of view, 
this plant, perhaps, has stronger claims on the 
American agriculturist than any other product 
that has been brought to this country since 
the introduction of cotton or whe;st. Aside 
from other economical uses, its value, for feed- 
ing to animals, alone, in every section of the 
Union where it will thrive, cannot be surpass- 
ed by any other crop, as a greater amount of 
nutritious fodder cannot be obtained so cheap, 
on a given space, within so short a period of 
time. 

When Cato was asked what was the best 
system of farming, he thrice answered, "bene 
pascere" ; which is to be translated, "to graze 
well," or to procure food for cattle — having had 
in view the connection between the feeding of 
stock and the production of manure. Admit- 
ting the above axiom to be true, what more 
economical, sure and feasible mode can be adopt- 
ed to restore and maintain the fertility of the 
exhausted lands of this country than to ex- 



tend the culture of this plant for the rearing 
and support of a larger number of cattle-, or 
other animals, and enriching these lands with 
the manure ? Without wishing to present the 
question in an extravagant light, it may be 
stated that this crop is susceptible of being 
cultivated, within the territory of the United 
States, to an sxtent equal to that of Indian 
corn, sa} r 25,000,000 acres per annum ; and, 
estimating the average yield of dry or cured 
fodder to the acre at two tons, the yearly 
amount produced would be 50,000,000 tons, 
which, to keep within bounds, would be worth 
at least $500,000,000, besides the profits de- 
rived from the animals in milk, flesh, labor, 
and wool. 

In addition to what is given above and in 
other parts of this volume, respecting the 
growth and culture of this plant, it may be 
stated that it will resist the effects of conside- 
rable frost without injury, after the panicles 
appear, and that those who wish to save th* 
seeds for planting should not cultivate it in the 
vicinity of Dourah corn, Chocolate corn, nor 
broom-corn, as it hybridises or mixes freely 
with those plants, which would render the seeds 
of the product unfit for use. 

The German Millet, (Panicum germanicum,) 
another annual forage plant, has been intro- 
duced from France, which has proved very 
productive, is quick in growth, resists drought, 
and even flourishes well on dry soil. — Patent 
Office Reports. 

Putting down Butter. 

When butter is designed for keeping a num- 
ber of months, it is of the highest degree of 
importance that it should be worked free from 
all remains of butter-milk. Pure butter is an 
oil which will keep equally as well as lard or 
tallow. Butter-milk, on the contraiy, contains 
casein, a nitiogeneous compound, which de- 
cays very soon when in contact with air. Were 
it possible to remove every particle of the but- 
ter-milk, and all traces of impuiities or foreign 
substances, no salt would be required, nor 
would it be necessary to pack butter away from 
the air. 

SALTING. 

In salting butter the salt itself should be. of 
the purest kind, and it should be so thorough- 
ly worked in, that every particle of the remain- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



109 



ing butter-miik be left in direct contact with a 
particle of salt. A very simple method of pu- 
rifying salt for butter or cheese is, to add a 
pint of boiling water to four or five pounds of 
salt ; stir them well now and then for an hour 
or more ; drain off the water, and hang the 
undissolved salt in a bag to drain and dry. The 
drainings may be used for salting animals, or 
putting upon hay. In this process the water 
dissolves out the bitter, disagreeable portions 
of the salt — the chlorides of magnesium and 
calcium — which more soluble than pure salt. 
A little care of this kind is a thousand times 
remunerated in the sweeter taste and better 
quality, both of butter and cheese. 

The amount of salt to be added to butter 
depends upon its freedom from casein — that is, 
upon the amount of working and washing it 
has received — and upon the length of time i; 
is to be kept; and also upon the manner of 
packing and the climate or decree of heat to 
which it is to be subjected. If butter is thor- 
oughly freed from casein and packed in vessels 
nearly air-tight, with the salt well worked in, 
and when not to be subjected to high temper- 
ature in warm climates, it will keep well with 
less than half an ounce of salt to the pound. 
Where none of these conditions are met, one 
and-a-half ounces, or, even more, are required. 

Many of the best butter-makers recommend 
to add one-half of the salt,, and let it stand 24 
hours ; then work over again and add the other 
half. This process removes more of the water, 
and, of consequence, more of the casein. To 
secure uniformity in adding the salt, spread the 
butter in a thin sheet, sprinkle a little salt 'all 
over the surface, roll it together, and repeat the 
process, till all is added. 

PACKING. 

For home use, stone ware vessels are un- 
doubtedly the best. For transportation to dis- 
tant markets, « ooden vessels must be used. — 
These should always be made of perfectly sea- 
soned timber, and be water-tight. There is so 
much danger of "flavor" from the wood, that 
we have recommended heating the inside 
of the butter-tubs nearly to a charring, and 
then soaking them in a strong brine for a few 
hours or days. The heating can be done by 
placing them over a small coal furnace, or by 
kindling a fAre of shavings on the inside. No 
harm will be done if the entire inside is char- 
red. The aromatic sap of the wood will, by 



this means, be destroyed, and the tubs will be 
all the more durable. After burning, the in- 
side should of course be scraped entirely clean. 
The importance of this recommendation will bo 
appreciated when we state, that one-fourth to 
one-half of all the butter carried to market 
in this country is more or less changed in 
flavor by the packing tubs. In putting down 
the butter, let it be thoroughly pressed to- 
gether to free it from the confined air, and 
then let its surface be kept as much as possi- 
ble from access of air. If the tubs or firkins 
can be headed up, so much the better. 

We have kept butter in a tub unchanged for 
an entiie year, by covering it with a strong 
brine, and laying a cloth over it. — N. York 
Times. 

What are th?- best Substitutes for 
Guano 

In consequence of the very considerable in- 
crease lately made in the price of Peruvian 
guano, the above question is being very freely 
and frequently canvassed by British Farmers. 

The opinion seems to be very generally en- 
tertained that one of the best substitutes for 
this unrivalled fertilizer, so far at least as tur- 
nips and some other root and green crops are 
concerned, is common ground bones, prepared 
in such a way as to hasten the solution of the 
phosphates therein contained. Tn order to 
judge of the comparative value of these fertili- 
zing properties mainly to the phosphates and 
the ammonia which they contain. The best 
Peruvian Guano contains about 82 per cent, of 
phosphates, and 16 of ammonia. Ground bones 
contain about GO per cent, of phosphates, 
(sheep bones 70, horse bones 67, ox bones 58 
1-2, calf bones 54, swine bones 62, fish bones 
55, according to Sprengel,) and 9 per cent, of 
ammonia, provided the bones were fresh and 
unboiled. So far then, as the per centage of 
phosphates and guano is concerned, there is no 
fertilizer in the market that can claim an equal- 
ity with bones, and for crops which, like tur- 
nips, do not require a large amount of ammo- 
nia but do require large supplies of phosphates, 
bones are more than equal to guano: 

The great objection to the use of bones is 
based on the ground that' the phosphates con- 
tained in them are not in a soluble state, and 



110 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



slowly dissolve, and that, consequently, they 
are not so speedy in their action as is often de- 
sirable. In one case this slow solubility of 
bones may be accounted as an advantage, as it 
would be better that lands laid down to mea- 
dow or pasture for a term of years, should ob- 
tain the benefit of a dressing of bones or phos- 
phates gradually, than all at once the first year. 
But for most purposes, it were better to have 
them more speedily tvailable: and to effect this 
object, bones have been verv extensively treated 
with sulphuric acid, to convert the slowly solu- 
ble into the speedily soluble phos bates. The 
inconveniences and frauds and disappoint- 
ments incident to the use of super-phosplvdes, 
have turned the attention of agriculturists to 
other methods of rendering bones soluble, a" d 
it his been ascertained that the cheapest and 
most reliable mode of treating hones, so as to 
derive from, them the fullest advantage, is to 
mix them, in the ground state, with half rotted 
manure ; the acids resulting from the fermen- 
tation and putrefaction, combining to make the 
phosphates more readily soluble. Another and 
easier plan consists in placing the ground bones 
in a heap, saturating them with urine or fluid 
from tanks, and covering the whole up closely 
with sand, earth, clay, or muck. In a few 
weeks the mass becomes quite soft. A ton of 
bones dissolved in this way, is thought much 
cheaper at $40 in England, than most of super- 
phosphates at $30. A good authority has said 
that this is the cheapest way in which bones 
can be dissolved. 

H I » «■». 

Syrups. 

Although these preparations are so little 
used in England, there is no reason why they 
should not become a regular article in the house- 
keeper's store room ; they are easy to prepare, 
siid are very agreeable to the palate, also eco- 
nomical, as they supercede the use of ardent 
spirits aud wine. On the Continent it is a com- 
mon practice to drinlc simple syiup (which is 
called eau sucree but which we term capillaire,) 
diluted with water to the taste of the drinker. 

Capillaire is made thus : — Dissolve about 
two pounds of the best refined while sugar in 
one pint of water ; boil the mixture for five or 
ten minutes, then strain it through lawn, or a 
hair sieve ; when cold it is fit for use. 

Syrup of Cloves. — Proceed in the same way 
as for making capillaire, but wilh the sugar 



add thirty to forty cloves that have been bro- 
ken or ground. 

All the syrups of spices, as cinnamon, nut- 
meg, ginger, &c, can be made in the same way. 

Syrups of Fruit. — These are prepared in a 
similar manner to capillaire, substitutiug the 
juices of the fruit in place of the water; in 
this way it is very easy to make syrup of or- 
anges. Before the oranges are squeezed, to 
express their juice, each orange should be well 
rubbed or grated with the lump sugar — by so 
doing the? fine flavor of the rind is preserved. 
All these syrups are drank by diluting them 
with water. About a wine glassful of s rupto 
a tumbler of water will be found to make a 
pleasant draught. 

Syrup of Coffee. — Take about an ounce of 
the finest coffee, ground, and a pint of cold wa- 
ter ; allow them to stand together for twelve 
hours or more, then strain, and add one pound 
and a half of sugar ; boil for one or two min- 
utes, not longer, and again strain. 

Syrup of Tea. — One pint of water, two 
pounds of sugar, an ounce of black tea ; boil 
together for five, minutes or rather less, and 
then strain. A wineglassful to half a pint of 
cold water makes very good cold tea. 

To Nentra he the Acid, or Sourness in Frvit 
Pies and Puddings. — As the fruit season now 
advances, it is well worthy of notice that a 
large quantity of the free acid which exists in 
rhubarb, gooseberries, currants, and other 
fruits, may be judiciously corrected by the use 
of a small quantity of carbonate of soda, with- 
out in the least affecting their flavor, so long 
as too much soda is not added. To an ordina- 
ry sized pie or pudding, as much soda may be 
added as piled up will cover a shilling, or even 
twice such a quantity, if the fruit is very sour. 
If this litt'ehint is attended to, many a stom- 
•ich-ach-j will be prevented, and a vast quan- 
tity of sugar saved ; because when the acid is 
neutralized by the soda, it will not require so 
much sugar to render the sour sweet. 

Septimus Piesse. 



Measuring Hay. — The editor of the New 
Jersey Farmer gives his rule, for measuring hay. 
lie formerly weighed his hay — but repeat- 
ed trials laughthim that this was unnecessary. 
Take a mow which has lain through the win- 
ter, and ascertain its amount in cubic feet, 
(multiplying its width by its depth, and that 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Ill 



product by its length,) and then divide b}' 700, 
and the quotient gives the number of tons. — 
The upper third takes 800 feet to the ton ; the 
lower 600 feet, making the mean 700 feet. If 
the mow is only five or six feet deep, however, 
it takes an average of 800 feet to the ton. 



From the New England Farmer. 

Seed Potatoes- 



.A few words in relation to potato raising. I 
was somewhat amused, while reading your 
valuable paper on the subject of potato raising. 
I see the writer's opinion is, that planting seed 
ends would produce small potatoes, which in 
my opinion is a sad mistake. I have farmed it 
for twenty four years, and have in all cases 
planted seed ends. I began in this way for 
the reason that I was short for potatoes, and 
found (or experience that it was altogether the 
best way. I would not have } 7 ou think that I 
have not tried any other way, for I nave for 
experiment planted them whole, and have cut 
them, anil I have in no case had better potatoes 
than when I planted seed ends. I always get 
the largest potatoes; I do not say but I have 
had as many or more in number, by planting 
in a different way, but not so much by measure. 
I always put into each hill one seed, unless 
they are very small, and then I put two, but 
that is seldom ; and I seldom have more than 
three stalks in a hill, and sometimes but one, 
and I find as many potatoes in such a hill as in 
any. In my opinion, it is a very great mistake 
that seed ends produce the most stalks ; it 
never has been so in any case where I have 
planted ends. 

I will give an instar.ee which occurred when 
I first commenced farming ; it may seem sim- 
ple to the reader. I had a piece of land that I 
wanted to plant in potatoes ; it being sward 
land, and more than I wanted for my own use, 
I told my father if he would help me plant it, 
he might have one-half of the piece for his 
own use ; lie accepting the offer, helped to plow 
it, and, and according to contract planted one 
half of it; by the way, he was to have his 
choice in the halves, " He being one of the old 
fashioned farmers, who put into each hill two 
or three potatoes, of tenor three than two, and 
called that a small amount of seed. I planted 
seed ends, as I always hare done. The field 
being some ways from the house, I drew my 



seed into the field, and tipped them up on the 
ground, and something which I do not now re- 
member prevented me from planting them for 
two days or more. The seed ends became dry 
almost liks a chip ; my father says to me, 
"your seed ends will not come up, they are so 
dry they cannot grow." I told him I would 
risk it, and accordingly I planted them; they 
came up sa soon as his, but not more than 
half the number of stalks in a hill. The old 
gentleman would say every now and then, that 
he would have the most potatoes, because 
there were more tops to his than mine ; this 
being the first of my farming, I began to think 
he would have the best crop ; but when we 
came to dig them, he turned his tune, he hav- 
ing two potatoes to my one in number, but in 
measure I had almost two to his on.e. \ have 
always planted the same way, that is, I plant- 
ed seed ends, not because / lacked for seed, but 
because I lacked for seed, but because I think 
it is the best way on the part of economy and 
profit. The practice of putting on fifteen o r 
twenty bushels to the acre is altogether an er- 
ror. It is a two-fold loss ; in the first place, it 
is a waste of seed, which is worth something 
to give to cattle, and in the next place, there is 
a loss in your crops, as } r our potatoes are not 
as targe, ;md not as saleable. 

I do not wish to be understood that there is 
no ether way of planting to get large potatoes . 
I think that to cut the potato lengthways, and 
put one piece in a hill, will produce about the 
same potatoes, but there is more waste of seed 
in this way. w. a. 

North Hartland, Vt., Feb. 7, 1857. 



To Protect Dried Fruits. — If fruit is put 
jnto good linen or cotton bags, and tied up 
tightly immediately atter drying, and baked a 
couple of times during theseason.br putting 
the bags on a board in thn oven moderately 
warm, keeping them in a dark closet in the 
meantime, the worms will not disturb them. — 
Another excellent way to protect them from 
worms, is to procure empty liquor barrels and 
pack them in, after drying in the fall, and cov- 
er them up tight, or put them in other barrels^ 
and add a little whiskey or brandy as you fill 
them up. — Country Oentlsman. 

■♦•-♦-♦♦» 

Women commisserate the brave, and men 
the beautiful. — ./Etop. 



112 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Back Furrowing 

Editors of the Homestead :— Agreeable to the 
request of several of your correspondents, I 
give yon for publication in your columns the 
scientific principles upon which back furrows 
can be laid on a level with the remaining fur- 
rows of the land. 

These principles were imparted to me by Jo- 
seph Samuel, of New York, an Englishman, at 
the time in the employ of Messrs. Buggies, 
Nourse, Mason & Co., of Boston, Massachu- 
setts. By. these gentlemen, I was informed 
that Mr. Samuel probably understood the sci- 
entific principles of plowing better than any 
other plowman in the United States. 

These principles consist not in turning the 
first two furrows shallow, but in turning them 
deep on the land side (7 inches at least) and 
shallow at the point of the wing leaving just 
thickness enoug'i at the point of the wing to 
operate as a hinge upon which the furrow is to 
turn. 

It will readily be seen that the shape of the 
first two furrows must be but half the depth, 
say three and a half inches deep and as wide as 
the plow turns. 

And now as to the operation of the principles, 
the first two futrows being triangular in shape, 
and the next two being thin and wide, will lap 
into the fust, so as to be as high as the first, the 
next two or third furrow being of full depth, and 
turned into a shallow furrow, will be as high as 
the first, and then the rest of the furrows may 
be plowed full depth wilhout further reference 
to the first. I suppos? that the principles can 
be better applied to the lap furrow than to the 
flat yet, if any one will g-ive them a fair trial 
on a flat furrow they will be seen that it can be 
done after sufficient experience. 

In the foregoing I have given all the princi- 
ples in my possession and any plowman can in a 
single hour, upon a smooth piece of land, have 
as much experience as I have had. 

After the fancy plowmen of the State have 
put these principles into operation, I wish there 
might be an expression from those who expect 
to compete at our next annual State Fair as to 
whether they would wish the alteration, for I 
do not know of any State where the old method 
of going round a land, is now in practice, except 
it be the State of "Camden and Ambuy," where 
a day laborer would be likely to lie down ir. the 



furrow at the sight of such plowing as I saw last 
fall. — Homestead. T. L. Hart. 

Went Cornwall, May 11. 



Hard Cement- 

The following cement has been used with 
great success in covering terraces,- lining basins, 
soldering stones, &c, and everywhere resists 
the filtration of water. It is so hard that it 
scratches iron. It is formed of ninety-threo 
parts of well burnt brick, and seven parts of 
litharge, made plastic with limeed oil. The 
brick and litharge are pulverized ; the latter 
must always be reduced to a very fine powder ; 
they are mixed together, and enough of linseed 
oil added. It is then applied in the manner of 
plaster, the body that is to be covered being 
always previously wetted with a sponge. This 
precaution is indispensable, otherwise the oil 
would filter through the body, and prevent the 
mastic from acquiring the desired degree of 
hardiness. When it is extended over a large 
surface, it sometimes happens to have flaws in 
it, which must be filled up with a fresh quan. 
tily of the cement. In three or four days it 
becomes firm. 



To Make Turtle S< up Without Turtle. — 
Take the head of a kid, lamb or calf, that has 
been carefully cleaned. If they are young, 
the skin should be taken off, but the hair re- 
moved by scald ng in hot ley water. Put one 
of these into a pot of cold water early in the 
morning, and start it to boiling. Tie in a clean 
cloth a teaspoonful of allspice and ten cloves, 
and drop into the pot. Cut into small pieces 
one carrot and two medium sized turnips, and 
drop in. Keep the pot boiling continually, 
and as the water evaporates, fill up with boil- 
ing water. When the head is done so well 
that the bones part easily from the flesh, take 
it out into a tray, pick the bones carefully out, 
and chop the meat fine. Strain the liquid 
through a colander, and turn the chopped meat 
back into the liquid; now salt and pepper to 
taste, and thicken with flour that has been 
parched to a deep coffee color ; stir it frequent- 
ly, that it does not burn, and just before it is 
taken off, add one gill of good tomato, or any 
other catsup, and a half-pint of pure home- 
made wine, (such as every housekeeper 
should make.) Now serve up on the table, 
and if any of your sea shore readers, can tell 
this from the finny turtle, I will give up that I 
have any knowledge of housekeeping. — Car. 
Cotton Planter and. Soil. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



IIS 




THE CAROLINA jWATOR. 

RALEIGH, JUNE, 1857 
The Crops. 



We are happy to be able to record the cheer- 
ing promise of more abundant crops of corn 
than we had been led to anticipate. From va- 
rious quarters the accounts we receive are 
highly favorable and encouraging. There is of 
eourse some uncertainty still, but the remain, 
ing part of the season must be very disastrous, 
to reduce the result below a good average 
standard. We rejoice in the prospect, not on- 
ly for the sake of the buying public, but be- 
cause the great agricultural interests of the 
country cannot be sustained by occasional and 
artificial stimulation. A healthy tone in the 
market is what the farmers mostly need. 



The reason of this is, that when butter evapo- 
rates, it produces cold ; the porous pot drawa 
up the water, which in warm weather quickly 
evaporates from the sides, and thus cools it 
and as no warm air can now get at the butter* 
it becomes firm and cool in the hottest day. 



Cheap Better-Cooler.— A writer in the 
Scientific American says : * ' Procure a large, 
new flower-pot of a sufficient size to cover the 
butter-plate, and also a •aucer large enough 
for the flower-pot to rest in upside down ; place 
a trivet or meat-stand (such as is sent to the 
oven when a joint is baked) in the saucer, and 
put on this trivet the plate of butter ; now fill 
the saucer with water, and turn the flower- 
pot over the butter, so that its bottom edge 
will be below the water. The hole in the 
flower-pot must be fitted with a cork ; the 
butter will then be in what we may call an air- 
tight chamber. Let the whole of the outside 
of the flower-pot be then thoroughly drenched 
with water, and place it in as cool a spot as 
you cau. If this be done over night, the but- 
ter will be as ' firm as a rock ' at breakfast 
time ; or, if placed there in the morning, the 
putter will be quite hard for use at tea hour. 
Vou 3, No. 4— B. 



Exchanges- 

" Dickens' Household Words. — We are ia 
tho regular receipt of this interesting monthly, 
and can heartily recommend it to our readers. 
The materials are generally original, light, racy 
and animated, and the variety is admirably sus- 
tained. 

Godey's Ladies' Book comes quite regular- 
ly, and is always elegant in execution as well 
as interesting in its contents. Feminine read- 
ers will always find it a treasure indeed. 

Peterson's Magazine is another of the same 
class, and caters in a cheaper form to the same 
delicate tastes. 

" Frank Leslie's Gazette of Fashion and the 
Beau Monde," is an elegant publication, devo- 
ted to the "dress circle." It enjoys a vast pop- 
ularity, and eminently deserves it. 

Putnah's Magazine is quite punctual, not- 
withstanding our opinion of its course, fre- 
quently expressed. We are not so sensitive 
to its errors, as to be blind to its merits, but we 
cannot regard it as a safe periodical for South- 
ern circulation. 

The Eclectic is always full of the cream of 
current literature. It is highly instructive, of- 
ten entertaining and always elevated in tone 
and style above the common standard. 

Home Made Beer. — Take one gill of good 
hop-yeast, two teaspoonfuls of brown sugar, 
half a teaspoonful of soda. do. of acid, eight 
drops of the essence of sassafras, the same of 
wintergreen, and four of the essense of spruce;, 
beat it well together, then pour on two qua«t» 
of cold water, and you will have a good, heal- 
thy, cheap drink, for sick or well folks. The 
way I make my yeast ; boil a handful of hops 
in two quarts of water half an hour, strain off 
the water, and stir in the flour while hot, add 
one tablespoonful of brown sugar, and a table- 
spbolful of ginger, and when milk-warm, addia 
pint of good yeast. 



114 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



3g& 




uritntliitraL 



The Strawberry. 

Among all berries, by universal consent, the 
Strawberry is ranked first — being more delici- 
ous and wholesome than all others. The name 
is supposed to have originated from a common 
practice of laying straw between the plants to 
keep the fruit clean. However this may be, 
from whatever circumstance the name may 
have aris«n, there are few that will not agree 
that, 

"A dish of strawberries smothered in cream," 

is a delicacy not to be surpassed. 

The Strawberry is supposed by some to be 
a native of temperate climates, but we are not 
sure that this is entirely correct. Three spe- 
cies have been found growing wild in the Un- 
ited States — one in Ohio, one in Virginia, and 
another common alike in the Southern, Mid- 
dle and Northern States. In Great Britain, 
two species have been found indigenous to the 
soil ; and in most countries, and in nearly 
every variety of climate, it is known and es- 
teemed. 

These wild berries, however, will not com- 
pare in any respect with those which have 
been improved by the process of hybrideya- 
tion. No piant which has a place in our gar- 
dens owe more to the care and skill of man 
than this. To instance, Hovey's Seedling, — 
which is admitted to be the finest in the coun- 
try, whether the size of the berry, or the pro- 
ductiveness of the plant be considered — was 
produced entirely by this process ; owing all 
ts celebrity thus, to the fostering care of the 
Messrs. Hovey, of Boston. ' Mr. McEvoy also, 



of Cincinnati, has by the same process, produ- 
ced a number of fine plants, among which is 
McEvoy's Superior, which, after several years 
experiment, we are satisfied, deserves its name, 
being indeed superior. Another, called Prin- 
cess Alice Maude, is equal, we think, to either 
of the above mentioned ; and to those who 
wish to cultivate large berries of fine flavour, 
we particularly recommend these three to be 
mainly cultivated. In order to prolong the 
season, there is another Strawberry, which 
ripens some two weeks earlier than the above, 
called the Large Early Scarlet, which should 
be planted also, and while there arc many 
other varieties, some good and many worthless 
these are all that any person need care to 
have. Amateurs, may select a few other vari- 
eties, as Black Prince, Myatt's British Queen, 
and Elton. 

The plants are propagated from tho runners, 
which are always taken to form new plantations. 
The Strawberry runner is very well known to 
all persons who have cultivated the plant ; but 
to such as have not, we can only describe it, as 
a string shooting off from the plant, from six to 
sixteen inches, on the end of which a bunch of 
leaves is soon formed. This falls down upon the 
earth, and very soon becomes rooted in the soil. 
Sometimes from this, another string shoots out, 
and soon forms another sett of leaves and roots, 
and in very wet seasons, as many as three or 
four runneis will thus be formed. Where this 
is the case, however, good cultivators take only 
that runner which is nearest to the plant, and 
reject all the others. These runners begin to 
dcvelope themselves about the time that the 
plant begins to bloom, and is stout enough to 
bear transplantation by the 1st of August. If 
a good stand of plants is obtained at that time, 
they will produce a pretty fair crop of berries 
the next year. 

In removing these runners, the first step is'to 
cut the string which joints them to the parent 
plant, and then ihe runner is to be taken up with 
a trowel or small spade, and not dragged up with 
the hand. Very much depends on this. Pull- 
ing them with the hand is very likely to injure 
the roots most seriouslv, and it is all important 
that the roots be disturbed as little as possible. 
To this end, a good share of earth must be taken 
up with the plant, and this care will ensure a 
rich reward in an early crop from the plants 
transplanted. 



4 

w. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Hi 



The soil best adapted to the culture of the 
Strawberry, is deep rich loam. Deep and rich 
it must be, if large berries and plentiful crops 
are desired ; and nothing less than this will sa- 
tisfy any one who pretends to cultivate .Straw- 
berries. When the soil is not naturally deep 
and rich, trenching and manuring is the appro- 
priate remed}', and must by no means be neglect- 
ed. The manure must not be fresh and green 
as in that event it will bring a plentiful crop of 
weeds', and for the Strawberry, the desideratum 
is, to keep it clear of weeds. If the manure is 
old and well rotted, having gone through a fer- 
mentation, the seeds of weeds, for the most part 
will have been destroyed, and there will be lit- 
tle trouble. 

The soil having been thus enriched where it 
was poor, it is then to be broken very deep with 
a spade, the clods well mashed and broken, 
and with the hoe and rake made as fine as prac- 
ticable. 

In laying off the ground for new plantations, 
some persons make beds three or four feet wide 
leaving narrow alleys between the beds, — but 
the best mode, in our opinion, is to lay it off in 
rows, leaving from two and a half to three feet 
spaces between the rows, and checking the 
land across about fifteen inches apart in the 
rows where the runners are to be plant- 
ed. . This will give sufficient room for the 
plants to grow, and also for peisons to walk 
along to clean about the plants, and to gather 
the fiuit. 

The plants having been removed as directed, 
if it can be done, put them in the earth with 
the soil sticking to the roots; but where this 
cannot be done, as where they are brought from 
a distance, the runners are to be planted pretty 
much as cabbage plants are, using a trowel, or 
something of the kind, to open the holes into 
which the roots are to be put. The roots should 
be well put into the earth, but not deep enough 
to cover the bud, which ought to be just resting 
upon the top of the soil. The subsequent growth 
and success of the plant depends in no small 
measure upon the treatment which it receives 
at this period — a remark by the way, which is 
equally applicable to all transplanting. If 
tiie weather is dry when the runner is plant- 
ed, then dip the roots in a tolerable thick mud 
before planting, and then water them until they 
grow off. 

Here, then, we have the plantaiion made lar- 

e 



ger, according to the wishes and desh es of the 
cultivator., The nest and most important direc- 
tion which we have to give is, to keep the plan- 
tation entirely clear ef weeds and grasses. This 
is absolutely indispensable, and ought not 
be neglected. So important is it in our judg- 
ment, that we advise, without hesitation, that 
unless the plants are to be thus cared for, that 
no attempt be made to raise them at all. It 
will occur, then, to every one, that the ground 
selected for the Strawberry plantation, ought 
not to be foul, but such as has been carefully 
prepared with special reference to destroying the 
weeds, and then it must be bept clean, by the 
liberal and constant use of the hoe. This is the 
chief cultivation required for the Strawberry, 
and for the want of it, many persons fail to 
make a crop. Where the weeds are allowed to 
grow, the plants become spindling and weak, 
and will bear but few berries, if any at alJ.— 
This direction, be it remembered, is to be observ- 
ed with respect to all plantations, whether new 
or old. At all times they must be kept clear of 
weeds. 

About the first of November, the Strawberry 
plants are to be covered, not as some persons 
suppose, to protect them from the winter's cold, 
but for other purposes, which will presently 
more fully appear. To prepare for this, our cus- 
tom has always been to haul, during the summer 
a quantity of "pine tags,' ; and throw them into 
the st ible, and then pat it altogether in a pile, 
to produce fermentation, so as to have the ma- 
nure well rotted. At the proper period, (that 
before mentioned,) we take an asparagus fork, 
or a three-pronged hoe, and stir the ground well 
just around the plants, making the soil fine and 
light,— and then put on the manure as before 
directed. This manure is placod on the plant, 
which is covered with it to the depth of one or 
two inches. The rains and snows of winter 
will dissolve the manure, and sink all its ferti- 
lizing qualities into the soil to feed and nourish 
the plant, and at the advent of the spring, there 
wilt be nothing on the surface but the "pine 
tags 1 ' which were mixed with the manure. — 
These are to be allowed to remain, to serve as 
a protection against sand when the benies ripen. 
Some persons are silly enough to remove this 
litter from about the plants, and, as a conse- 
quence, when the fruit is ripe, it falls on the 
earth, and every shower of rain covers it with 
dirt find sand, and renders it totally unfit for the 



116 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



table, whereas, the litter would have preserved 
the fruit from contact with the soil, and kept it 
clean and nice. Wheat or oat straw might be 
used, were it not for the fact that it is almost 
sure to rot completely during the winter, and so 
fails to answer the purposes specified ; and, be- 
sides, when it does begin to rot, it has a musty 
smell, which it imparts to the fruit, whereas the 
"pine tags " are tough and do not rot easily ; — 
and being washed perfectly clean during winter, 
in no wise affect the fruit. Saw dust, spent, tan- 
bark, and other things are sometimes used, but 
nothing, we believe, answers the purpose so well 
as " pine tags." 

At the same time that the soil about the pkyits 
is stirred, we are accustomed to manure the 
alley between, and also to spade them very 
deep, and use them to make some crop which 
will be entirely out of the way enrly in the 
spring. A crop of spinach or lettuce may 
thus be raised in the Strawberry planta- 
tion without the slightest detriment to the 
plants. 

The plantation is now done for until the spring, 
and then commences again the process of remov- 
ing the weeds. With this difference, however, 
that until the fruit season is over, the hoe cannot 
be used to remove the weeds, but they must be 
taken away by the hand. And for the obvi- 
ous reason, that if the hoe be used, the soil 
will become mixed with the litter, and so 
the good to be obtained from that will be 
lost. 

As soon as the plants begin to blossom, let wa- 
ter be given them freel3 r ; as was directed in our 
article in the May No. of the Southern Planter, 
at p. 318. 

Persons who rear Strawberries for market, 
will find it to their interest to leave long stems 
to each berry, instead of plucking them fchort, as 
is commonly done. Two points are gaiifcd by this 
The berries are less likely to get mashed and 
bruised, because the stems will serve as a pro- 
tection ; and socondly, they are prepared for the 
table with far less trouble. 

About the time that the plants begin to bloom 
runners begin to develope themselves, and 
they should be removed as fast as they come 
throughout the year, as they operate upon 
the plant as suckers do on fruit trees, — take 
away sap and so impair its fruitfulness. They 
should, therefore, always be removed except 
where they are wanted to use in making new 
plantations. 



Every Strawberry plantation requires to be 
renewed once in five years from the time that 
it first comes into bearing ; and in order that a 
supply of fruit may be kept up, the new plan- 
tation should be made during the third year. — ■ 
The fact that this renewal is requisite, is gener- 
ally conceded, indeed we may say universally, 
but the why is not so well known, and in our 
judgment a vast deal of twaddle and nonsense 
has been wiitten and printed in this connection. 
Volumes have been written about male and fe- 
male plants, stamanates, pistallates, and hermo- 
phedites, without casting much light on the sub- 
ject, whereas the explanation of the difficulty is 
to be found in a simple fact, which s familiar 
to all, or with which all may acquaint themsel- 
ves with vary little trouble. When the runner 
is fir.-t planted, the roots by which it feeds are 
fibrous roots, clinging to a sort of neck, and are 
all of a, light color; the second year this neck 
elongates, and changes its color, becoming quite 
dark, as do also its fibrous 'oots to which we have 
already alluded, and they cease to perform the 
functions which they performed originally, and 
a new set of roots are found just above the for- 
mer, Avhich also change as the others did, and 
so the third year another set of roots are formed, 
which pass through like stages ; and tke fourth 
year, these fibrous roots ar ; found growing al- 
most on the surface of the soil, where they can- 
not obtain that sustenance from the soil which 
the plant requires. Of course, then, the plant 
becomes partially or totally barren, and may as 
well be removed immediately. This simple 
statement, which any of our readers can verify, 
by examining the plants in their gardens, gives 
the real solution of the fact which everybody 
has observed, that the plants in a few years be- 
come barren, and it may serve to direct all in 
purchasing plants, and prevent the imposition 
sometimes attempted, of selling plants two or 
three years old as new plants. If any of the 
roots are dark, the purchaser may be sure the 
plant is a year old, if no more. 

The simplest, cheapest and best method ot 
making new Strawberry plantations, is that) 
which we have adopted for many y»ars, and 
which we recommend to all. ' It will be recol- 
lected that we directed, that between each row 
of Strawberry plants, an alley be left two and 
a half or three feet wide; and that we suggest- 
ed its use for the rearing of some early crop. 
If this space is kept well manur«d and raked; 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



year by year, it will be in capital condition for 
making the new plantation. In the third year 
take the runners from the old plants and set 
them out in the middle of these alleys, and by 
the next year, when the old plantation is be- 
coming worthless, these will begin to bear, and 
then the old plantations may be spaded up, and 
there will be no interruption in the crop of 
Strawberries ; and this process may be repeat- 
ed from time to time indefinitely. 

There is an infallible rule by which persons 
buying Strawberry plants may ascertain whe- 
ther they are good or otherwise. Take the 
plant and examine the aeck — by which, we 
mean that portion of the plant to which the 
roots are attached, and if it is found to be small 
and puny, the plant is worthless, and should be 
rejected ■ whereas, if it is found to be large and 
full, the plant is good and may be safeiy select- 
ed. If that neck be cut open with a knife, 
there will be found inside the embryo blossoms 
from which the future fruit is formed ; and if 
they are large, healthy looking embryos, they 
will produce fine, large berries ; whereas, on 
the other hand, if they are small and weak, 
the berries will be small and indifferent. The 
Strawberry is, in this respect, like hyacinths, 
and no person need be taken in who will have 
his eyes open. 

Thus far our observations have been direct- 
ed to those who cultivate only a few Strawber- 
ries for family use ; and we would now address 
a word to those who cultivate them for market. 
Let a level piece of land, near a running stream 
or where water can be procured easily, be se- 
lected as the place for the extensive plantation. 
As the chief expense consists in keeping the 
land clean, the cultivator should take care to 
have his land well prepared before planting. — 
To effect this, sow a crop of rye in the fall of 
the year, whieh, in the spring of the ensuing 
year, say about the first of May, will be suffici- 
ently grown to be turned under with the plow. 
Sow, immediately, a crop of peas, which are to 
be also turned under in the fall of that year, 
say about September. This will have the dou- 
ble effect of cleaning the land of all weeds, <fcc, 
and of enriching the soil sufficiently to produce 
a crop of Strawberries. The land being thus 
ready, let the directions for planting, heretofore 
given, be pursued. 

In conclusion, we would urge all persons to 
cultivate this delicious crop, especially persons 



living in the vicinage of our cities. It always 
commands good prices, and since the introduc- 
tion of the custom of putting up fruits and ve- 
getables in self-sealing cans, Strawberries may. 
be profitably cultivated now by persons living 
in remote rural districts. Put up in these cans 
they command a ready sale, at remunerative 
prices, and many of our farmers might swell 
their annual revenues by giving more attention 
in this direction. 



Transplanting Evergreens- 

Eds. Country Gent — I have noticed of late 
several inquiries in regard to the best time for 
transplanting evergreens, and would say to al 
persons who can delay it, that May is a much 
better month than any other in the year ; and 
that June is preferable to March or April. An 
evergreen should never be moved until the sap 
beo-ins to ascend, and the buds are swelled and a 
little broken, if we desire the best time for trans- 
planting. When they are moved early the 
wood often shrinks in the drying winds of early 
spring, and the winter clothing falls, and it is 
quite impossible ever to make a handsome tree 
of them again. The reason of it is that the sap 
does not flow as early in this class of trees as in 
most others. I seldom lose an evergreen trans- 
planted the last of May or the first of June. R. 
Lindslev. West Meriden Gt. 

Messrs. Editors — The oft-repeated inquiry in 
regard to the best time and mode of transplant- 
ing evergreens, which is often answered by giv- 
ing directions to transplant in winter, with balls 
of irozen earth attached to their roots, leads me 
to infer that some less troublesome and expensive 
yet successful mode, is what is wanted by alarge 
portion of your readers. When trees have to 
be moved ten or fifteen miles, as i» often the 
case with the balsam and other evergreens re- 
commended by you in the last Country Gentle- 
man, the idea of moving trees, especially those 
of any considerable size, with large balls of earth, 
is sufficient to scare away all the pleasant 
thoughts associated with their beautiful appear- 
ance. If the o'd adage be true, that "what has 
been done can be done again," then balsams may 
be transplanted without balls of frozen earth. I 
have in my yard five balsam firs, taken from a 
swamp seven years ago, which grew in a crift 
soil at the mouth of a small creek emptying into 



118 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR 



the swamp. The trees, from three to ten feel 
high, weie taken up soon after the frost was out 
of the ground, and before they commenced grow- 
ing. They were pulled up by three men, 
without digging about their roots. As the ground 
was very soft and moist, nearly all the roots, 
both large and small, were uninjured. Under a 
covering of wet hay, they were carried ten miles 
in a wagon, being out of the ground two days- 
Holes were prepared large enough to receive 
their roots in a natural position, and a quantity 
of muck, similar to the soil in which they grew, 
placed in the bottom of each hole designed for 
the largest trees. The result was that the large 
trees all lived, and some of them grew five or 
six inches the first summer, while three small 
trees from thrae to five feet high, died, which 
were planted without muck about their roots. 
I have used swamp muck in transplanting va- 
rious kinds of trees, at different times, with 
good success. — Country Gentleman.. E. S. H. 
Cobb, Hamlinton Pa. 



« — ♦ «»» 



The Fuschia Plant. 

Mr. Shepard, the accomplished conservator 
of the Botanical Gardens at Liverpool, is the 
authority for the following anecdote respecting 
the introduction of that elegant flowery shrub 
the Fuschia, into the green houses of Europe. 
Old Mr. Lee, a well known Nurseryman and 
Florist, at Greenwich, near London, about fifty 
y,ears ago, was one day showing his variegated 
treasures to a person who suddenly turned and 
said "Well, you have notin yourwhole collec- 
tion so pretty a flower as one I saw to clay in a 
window at Wappmg !" "Indeed, and what 
was this Phoenix like?" "Why, the plant was 
beaut ful, and the flowers hung down like tas- 
sels from the drooping branches, their color was 
the deepest crimson, and in the centre, a fold of 
lich purple." 

Particular inquiries were made as to the ex- 
act whereabouts, and Mr. Lee posted off to the 
place, where he discovered the object of his pur- 
suit, and immediately pronounced it a new 
plant. He saw and admired. 

Entering the humble dwelling, he said "my 
good woman, this is a nice plant of yours, I 
should like to buy it." 

"Ah, Sir ! I couldn't sell it for no money ; it 
•was brought me from foreign parts by my hus- 



band who has gone again, and I must keep it 
for his sake." 

"But I must have it," 
"No, Sir, I can't spare it." 
"Here," emptying his pockets, "here is gold, 
silver and copper," (his stock amounting to 
more than eight guineas.) 

"Well a day, sure this is a pile o' money." 
"Tis yours, a»d the plant is mine, my good 
woman. I'll give you one of the first young 
ones I reai 1 to keep for your husband's sake, f 
will, indeed." 

The bargain was struck, a coach called, in 
which old Mr. Lee and his apparently dearly 
purchased flower was deposited. On returning 
home, his first work was to strip off and de- 
stroy every blossom and bud ; the plant was di 
vided into small cuttings which were forced into 
bark beds and hot beds and again subdivided. — 
Every effort was employed to multiply the plant. 
Mr. Lee became the delighted possessor of 300 
fuschias, all giving promise of fine blossom. — 
The two which first expanded were placed in 
his window. A lady came in, " why Mr. Lee> 
my dear Mr. Lee, where did you get this charm- 
ing flower 2" 

"Tis a new thing, my lady, pretty, is it not V* 
"Pretty 2 'tis lovely ! Its price?" 
"A guinea, your ladyship" — and one erf the 
two plants that evening stood in beauty on her 
ladyship's table in her boudoir. 

"My dear Charlotte! where did you get that 
elegant flower '?" 

"Oh, 'tis a new thing. I saw it at old Mr. 
Lee's ; pretty, is it not 2" 

"Pretty 2 'tis beautiful ; what did it cost ? 
"Only a guinea and there was another left." 
The visitor's horse trotted off to the suburb, 
and a third beauteous plant graced the spot 
from whence the first had been taken. The se- 
cond guinea was paid and the fu-ehia adorned 
another drawing room of fashion. This scene 
was repeated as new calls were made, by the 
persons attracted by the beauty of the plant. — 
Two p 7 ants, graceful and bursting into flower, 
were constantly seen on the same spot H» 
gladdened the faithful sailor's wife with the 
promised flower and before the season closed 
nearly 300 guineas jingled in his purse, the pro- 
duce of a single shrub from the windowat Wap- 
ping, as a reward of old Mr. Lee's taste, skill 
and decision. 



- 






THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



119 



Manuring Fruit Trees- 

The Dutch, who are admirable gardeners, 
had in ihe great exhibition an instrument call- 
ed an "earth borer," for manuring fruit tress 
without digging the ground. A circle of holes 
is bored around the tree at two feet distance 
from the tree, and a foot from each other. Ta 
king the tree at a foot diameter at the surface 
of the soil, the circle will be five feet in diam- 
eter and fifteen in circumference ; and if the 
holes are three inches diameter and a foot 
apart — fifteen inencs, there will be aoout 
twelve holes ; more or less according to the 
diameter of the tree. They are eighteen inch- 
es deep (where there is enough depth of soil) 
and slanting towards the centre ; are filled 
with liquid manure, diluted mm-e or less in 
dry weather, and stronger as the weathefr is 
wetter. For the time of application, Dr. Lind- 
ley tells us in the Gardener's Chronicle, Feb. 
21, 1852, — "For fruit the proper time for us- 
ing liquid manure is when the fruit is begin- 
ning to swell, and has acquired, by means of 
its own surface, a power of suction capable 
of opposing that of the leaves. xlt that time 
liquid manure may be applied freely, and con 
tinued from time to time as long as the fruit 
is growing. But at the first sign of ripening, 
or even earlier, it should be wholly withheld. 
If liquid manure is applied to a plant when 
the flowers are growing, ihe vigor which it 
communicates to them must also be communi- 
cated to the leaves, but when leaves are grow- 
ing unusually fast there is sometimes a danger 
that they may rob the branches of the sap re- 
quired for the nutrition of the fruit; and, if 
that happens, the latter falls off. And we all 
know that, when ripening has once begun, 
even water spoils the quality of fruit, although 
it augments the size, as is sufficiently shown 
by the strawberries prepared for the London 
market by irrigation ; great additional size is 
obtained, but it is at the expense of flavor, and 
any injury which mere water may produce 
will certainly not be diminished by water hold- 
ing ammoniacal and saline substances in solu- 
tion." I am net aware that this information 
has made its way into our orchards, find- 
ing no allusion to it in any of our books on 
orchard management, nor at our agricultural 
meetings. The time is just coming for put- 
ting it to the test, and it remains with the fruit 



growers to see what profit they can make of it. 
They need, in these times, all they can get, 
and this method has the recommendation of 
requiring little outlay, of any kind. — Marh- 
Lane Express. 



How to Raise Onions. 

I have seen several inquiries in the New 
England Farmer how to raise onions — and not 
to raise maggots and sullions — and have them 
bottom ; now I will tell you how I manage. I 
I sow them on the same ground year after year ; 
I think it the best way. I never plow for on- 
ions, but spade the ground about three inches 
deep, and rake in the manure ; I use manure 
that is two years old, at , least, and very fine. 
I put on a very good coating yearly ; I sow the 
seed in the old of the moon, and soak them 
twelve hours or more, before sowing, in strong 
brine ; the maggot that eats the onion is in 
the seed, and the brine kills it. I cover the 
seed about one inch deep, and then I press 
the earth as hard as I can, by laying a board 
on the row and jumping on it. The earth 
must be rolled to get good onions. As soon 
as they begin to peep out of the ground, I sow 
on a good coating of ashes, and repeat it as of- 
ten as once in eight or ten days, until they be- 
gin to bottom, when I weed them. I don't 
break the earth much until they begin to bot- 
tom ; then I hoe the earth from the onions, and 
as they bottom, they lay almost on the sur- 
face ; three inches is near enough for them to 
stand. In this way I never failed to raize good 
onions. C. Brown. 

Goshen, Hampshire Co., Mass. 



Grape Vines.- N. T. T. in the New England 
Farmer, says : I have learned a short lesson 
from experience. If I leave my grape vines 
covered up late in the spring they are liable to 
be killed by the wet. A warm day or two 
seems to have the effect to disorganize the in- 
ternal structure of the vine. I now take them 
up as soon as the snow is fairly off" the ground. 
No subsequent cold can injure them. 
i » w 

Shade. — How delightful it is in these warm 
days to have a beautiful shade to ruminate in. 
Then we would advise all to transplant such 
trees as will make a beautiful shade about their 
premises next fall. 



120 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Pfoallanefltts. 



Southern Corn. 

It is but a few years since farmers commenc 
ed the planting of corn for fodder for cows. Now 
it is rare to find a farm in this neighborhood 
where more or less of this important forage is 
not cultivated. For cows in milk it is highly 
advantageous to add a considerable quantity of 
green succulent food to their pasture diet, du- 
ring the hot, dry month of August. 

Some farmers plant fodder corn near to the 
pasture, and cut and. throw over the fence to the 
animals several times in a day. Some plant at 
a distance from the field, and cut and haul to 
the pasture or barn. In the modern barns, where 
the cattle eat from one side of the floor way, it 
is very little work to drive through the barn and 
distribute the load. We think it better where 
there are proper conveniences, to feed the corn 
to the cows in the barn. All then have a fair 
ehance. There is no hooking or trampling the 
eora. It will be found that it is alike desirable 
that animals, as well as their intelligent owners, 
should take their food in a quiet way. 

When it is considered how large a proportion 
«f fodder corn is wanted, and what a number of 
tons to the acre is a good crop, economy would 
seem to direct that it be planted quite near to 
the barn. Perhaps no other crop should take 
precedence of it in convenient proximity, as it 
probably is the heaviest of any cultivated. 

It is not the best policy to plant this corn on 
poor soil. The cost of seed, and labor, and per- 
haps manure, may be the same for two pieces of 
corn, and four times as much be cut from one as 
the other, because one was rich, strong soil, and 
the other barren and unproductive. 

It is very important that this corn be planted 
at suitable intervals, from the middle of May to 
the first of July, to afford only enough for the 
stock that it may be eaten while it is fresh and 
tender. If the whole supply should be planted 
all atone time, much of it will become too old 
to be relished by the cattle ; the strength of the 
plant will be absorbed imo tough stalks, which 
almost defy mastication, and become a com- 
plete waste. 

The manure should be applied very liberally. 
By this means the crop will .be heevy and pala- 



table. Sowing in drills is commonly practiced, 
but broadcast on land that is quite free from 
weeds is usually successful. 

For cuiting up the corn, the bush scythe, as 
now so well made, is the best tool. It does the 
work better, perhaps, than those would believe 
who have tried other contrivances. 

The Souihern white flat or yellow corn is bet- 
ter than our Northern, as it grows larger. Somo 
persons sow sweet corn, and say the cattle pre- 
fer it, thinking it sweeter and more nutritious. 
We have never tried it, and cannot say whether 
it is so or not. 

«♦♦-♦-•■•«. 

Liqum Manure. — Few of us are so situat- 
ed that we can with convenience make use of 
liquid manure in the field on a large scale, yet 
the use of it in gardens is most valuable, and 
when once tried will never be abandoned. The 
most convenient way to apply it is by the wa- 
tering pot, either with or without the rose. In 
any dishing barnyard where manure lies, there 
may usually be enough liquid manure obtained, 
by sinking a half barrel in a convenient spot 
for it to run into, and from which it can lie dip- 
ped ; but this in a dry season is unserviceable ; 
hence a hogshead sunk and covered, above 
which the manure can be piled, and which 
would take the wash of the yard, and which be- 
ing furnished with a pump can be easily emptied 
of its contents, or the liquor pumped up to flow 
over the heap, is better. The fresh water may 
be emptied into the vat or hogshead in a dry 
time, and by causing it thus to flow once or 
twice through the well laid and compact heap 
above it, not only wi'l one be provided with a 
most convenient and powerful manure, but if in 
this way, the manure heap is kept moist, its de- 
composition will progress rapidly, and scarcely 
a particle of value will be lost. Barnyards in 
which are manure heaps, where it is possible, 
should all be provided with large vats 
to prevent the possibility of any wash 
from the yard, and if these are covered and 
made to receive all sorts of refuse mat- 
ter, they wiil be found a very important addition 
to the manure making and saving apparatus of 
the farm. A barrel sunk in a convenient spot 
near where it will be used, will be found very 
good to make guano water — which should be 
applied very dilute — the more dilute the better, 
in genera], though occasionally a crop needs an 
application that will be equal to from one pound 






THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



121 



to one and a half pounds to the square rod. — 
This may be applied to any garden vegetables 
with profit, and the results we will warrant 
will be satisfactory, if too much guano is not 
used. 



Keeipes- 

A correspondent of the Country Gentleman, 
writing from Maryland, gives the following re- 
cipes which certainly have the appearance of 
being correct and useful : — 
Curry Powders. — Curcuma, one-half pound, 
Powdered Ginger, one ounce, Black Pepper, 
two ounces, Cummen Seeds, four ounces, Car- 
damon Seeds, four drachms, Powdered Mace, 
four drachms, Cayenne Pepper, one ounce. — 
Mix all together in a very fine powder. 

Extract of Celery. — Celery Seeds, one-half 
ounce, Brandy, four ounces. Digest for two 
weeks and filter. 

Extract of Rennet. — Fresh Rennet, twelve 
ounces, Fine Salt, two ounces, Proof Spirit, 
two ounces, White Wine, one quart. Digest 
for twenty-four hours and strain. A quart of 
milk, requires two or three teaspoonfuls. 

Burning Fluid. — Alcohol, three gallons 
Camphine, one gallon, Gum Camphor, one 
ounce. Dissolve the camphor in the aleohob 
and then mix. 

Water Proof for Boots. Rosin, four 

drachms, Lard, one ounce. Mix and melt the ra 
together over a slow fire. 

Black Varnish for Leather — Gum Shellac, 
one ounce, Gum Juniper, one ounce, Lamp 
Black, one ounce, Rosin, one ounce, Venice 
Turpentine, one-half ounce, Spirits of Wine, 
one pound. Mix it and let it stand in a warm 
place for a few days. 



A Good Yeast- 
One of the best articles of its kind that has 
ever fallen under our observation was recently 
handed us for examination, by a lady whose 
reputation as a domestic economist is deserv- 
edly high wherever she is known. The re- 
cipe for its manufacture — kindly furnished us 
by the same fair hand — is as follows : — 

" Take half a dozen common sized potatoes, 
boil, peel, and strain them through a common 
sieve — first adding half a pint of warm water, 
then sufficient wheat flour, sifted, to make the 



whole into a thin batter ; with this mix two 
tablespoonfuls of ordinary bakers' yeast. If 
prepared at night it will be fit for use in the 
morning." It is said that any quantity may 
be used for cakes, bre*d, &o, as it does not 
communicate the usual bitter taste, which at- 
tends the excessive use of other articles of 
yeast. 
<w — ■ ■ —————— — — a 

Table of Contents. 

A good yeast, 121 

Back Furrowing, 112 

Chilblains, ICO 

Forage Plants, 108 

Grap» Vines, 119 

Hard Cement, \\<i 

How to raise Onions, 118 

Liquid Manure, 129 

Measuring; Hay, 110 

Manuring Fruit Trees, 119 

On the Manufacture of Salt, 101 

On the selection, change preparation, and sowing 

Wheat seed, 97 

Putting down Butter, 10S 

Recipes, 121 

Syrups, no 

Seed Potatoes 11 j 

Southern Corn, 120 

The repulsion of the j-ellow bug from Punkmg 

Vines, Ac, 106 

To protect Dried Fruits, Ill 

To make turtle soup without turtle, 112 

The Strawberry i]4 

Transplanting Evergreens, 117 

TheFuschia Plant 18 

What are the best substitutes for Guano 109 

— mmmmmm —■— — — m m 

4,000 Acres of Land for Sale- 

THIS Land lies in Chesterfield District, S.C., im- 
mediately on the Pee Dee river, and the Cheravv 
and Darlington Railroad, and by the latterpart of the 
present year, will be within a few hours ride of the ci- 
ty of Charleston. There are about l,3u0 acres of trie- 
land cleared, which 

PRODUCES FINELY 
without manure of any kind. The balance is dense- 
ly covered with a heavy growth of Whit* Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Dogwood. Hickory, Cotton. Walnut, Poplar, 
&c, with a 

CANE BRAKE 
extending near over the en ire Tract. About 200 
acres of the Tmct lie in the Sand Hills, which for 
Health and Fine Springs of water, is 

PROBABLY UNSURPASSED 
by any of this State. The Tract will be uivided to 
suit purchasers. For particulars address 

E.B.C. CASH, 

Cheraw, S. C. 
June 1857. 

"Learn of the Mole to plough." — Pope. 

WYCHE'S CULTIVATING PLOW, (PATENT- 
ED 8th of January, 1856)— called the Mole; 
Plow; with vertical cutters near tbe edge of a horizon- 
tal share, for dividing the furrow slice, and a curved 
cutter on the rear of the share for turning the whole 
in towards the plow, or as far on the < pposite side of 
the share as may be desired. Adaptc d to siding, list- 
ing, breaking turfy or hard land, subsoiling, and 
many other purposes. Is light, cheap, and strong; 
and supposed to be the most perfect pulverizer in use. 
For license to sell, with directions for manufactur- 
ing, address. W. E. WYCHE, 

Brookville, Granville Co., N. O. . 
June 16, 1856. 0— ti. 



123 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



north: CA OLINA I . STT i UTION 

FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB AND T.:E BLIND, 

RALEIGH, N. C— SESSION OF 1857-'aS. 

Board of Directors. 
WILLIAM H. McKEE, M. D., President. 



S. H. Youxg, 
Jxo. C. Palmer, 
Vv. VV. Vass, 



A.M. Lewis, 

Q. BuSlifcE. 

D. G. Fowls. 



Officers of tlit Institution. 

WM. D. COOlvE, A. M., Principal. 

JAMES A. YY'ADDELL, M. D., Vice-Principal. 

Teachers in the L>. & J). Department. 
Gio. E. Ketcham, I Chas. M. Crow, 



Teachers in the Blind Department. 

J. A. Waddell, M.D. | Mrs. S. C. Waimjell, 

Miss M. E. Cookb. 

Iffes. L.E. Grow, Matron. \ Mrs. E. Littls, House!;';-. 
S. Little, Steward. 
The next session of this Institution will commence 
on the first Monday of September. Any intelligent 
and healthy white resident of the State, between the 
ages of 8 and L'Q, whether Deaf and Dumb or Blind, 
may, if the means of education are wanting, be ad- 
mitted to the school free of charge. The terms fur 
others may be learned from the Principal. Such pu- 
pils as are capable of decided improvement, are not 
only instructed in the ordinary branches of a com- 
mon education, but receive such accomplishments as 
may best tit them for success in life. Music, draw- 
ing;, needle-work, bead-work, and suitable handi- 
craft arts will form a considerable part of the course 
through which they pass. Careful attention will be 
paid to their religious, moral, and physical improve- 
ment, add .every effort will be made, not only to ren- 
der them comfortable, but to promote their highest 
■welfare. Pupils should by all means enter earh r in 
September. Eor any information in legardto the 
Institution, address, 

WILLIAM P. COOKE, Principal, 

Raleigh, N. C. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY 

AT THE ANNEAL MEETING OF THE North 
Carolina Mutual Insurance Company, held on 
the Uth inst. the following persons were elected Di- 
rectors and Officers for the ensuing vear : 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY. 
T. H. Selby, President. - 
II. D. Turner, Vice President. 
II. S. Smith, Sec if and Treas. 
John H. Bryan, Attorney. 
T.lI.S^by,e.rojficio. ) 

John R. Williams, J- Executive Committee. 
C. W. D. Hutchins, ) 

This Company has been in successful operation for 
more than 7 years, and continues to take risks upoi 
all classes of property in the State, (except Steam 
Mills and Turpentine Distilleries,) upon favorable 
terms. Its Policies now cover property amounting 
to §4,500,000, a large portion of which is in Country 
risks; and its present, capital is nearly Seven Hun- 
dred Thousand Dollars, in bonds properly secured. 

The average cost ot Insurance upon the plan of this 
Company has been less than one third of one per 
ceut. per annum, on all grades of property embraced 
in its operations. 

All communications in reference to insurance 
should be addressed to the Secretary, post paid. 
H. S. 'SMITH, Sec'i/. 



PREMIUM THRESHING MACHINES. 

The Sorth Carolina State Fair, held at Baleiqh t 
au-arded the First Premiiiho for our celebrated 
Threshing Machine. 

rpHIS Machine has been fully tested in this State 
I and Virginia, and approved by all who have used it 
on account of its simplicity of construction, utility, and 
durability. We have no hesitation in saying they are 
the best Threshers now in use. They are economical 
in cost, simple in construction, and less liable to get 
out of working order. We also make a Huh Uorse 
Power, which is adapted to either four or six horses. 
This Power is all that a planter can desire to do the 
power-work on a plantation: it is very simple in its 
construction, celebrated for its strength, and not 
easily got out of repair; and, from the same quantity 
of power, can do more work than any other now in 
use. 

It is unnecessary for us to particularize further as 
to the advantages of our Thresher aud Power, but 
respect full} - solicit the atteution of all, to call and ex- 
amine for themselves at our manufactory, where they 
can be seen in full operation ; and any recommenda- 
tion that may be wanted will be given, from planters, 
and others of this city, who have used them for the 
last four years. 

All orders promptly attended to. 

Repairing done at short notice, on application, at 
our manufactory, on Washington St., opposite Jar- 
ratt's Hotel, Petersburg, Ya. 

J. W. DAVIDSON & BRO. 

Ap., 1857— 3m 



ISN'T IT SO ! 

; USE ARTHUR'S Celebrated 
Self-Sealing Cans and Jars, and 
you will have fresh fruit all the 

FRESH FRUIT year at Summer prices. 

I Full directions for putting up all 
kinds of Fruit and Tomatoes, ac- 
'companj' these cans and jars 
l They are made of Tin, Glass, 
Queens' Ware, and Fire and Acid 
proof Stone Ware. The sizes are 
from pints to gallons. These cans 
aud jars are entirely open at the 
tops, and nest, to secure economy 
in transportation. \ 

.For sale by Storekeepers 
throughout the United States. 

Descriptive circulars sent on ap- 
plication. U3f" Orders from the 
trade solicited. 

Be sure to ask for "Arthur's.' 
It has stood the.test of tw'o seasons, 
having been used by hundreds o 
thousands of families, hotel and 
boarding-house keepers 
i We are now making them for 
the million. 

SWEETMEATS. ARTHUR, BURNAM, &. 
GILROY, 
Manufacturers under the Patent, 
N. E. cor. Tenth and George Sts.. 
PHILADELPHIA. 



IN WINTER 



BETTER 



THAN 



A CHANCE EOR THE MILLION. 

THE subscribers are desirous of securing an Agent, 
either male or female, in every town aud couutv 
of the Union, to engage in a light and pleasant busi- 
ness, by which they can make, with ordinary energy, 
from Soto §10 per day. Every information will be 
given by addressing with stamp, to pay return letter 
S. A. DEWEY & CO., 
Ap., 1837— 8w Box 151, Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



128 



H. D. TURNER, 

GENEEAL BOOK AGEIJT, 

M. 1 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, X. C, 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COURT REPORTS OF NO. CA., 

Hew for sale, in quantities or by retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising Greek, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Books; School 
Books ; B I a n k 
Books ; Juve- 
nile and 

Toy 
B oo k s ; 
Miscellaneous 
Works; with all the 
New Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a large assortment of Station- 
ary and Fancy Articles. 

OCHOOL BOOKS.-AU the different kinds o. 
kj Primers, Spelling Books, Reading Books, Gram- 
mars, Arithmetics, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &c.; also Works on Astronomy, Alge- 
bra, Chemistry, Philosophy, Mathematics, Surveying, 
Geometry, Botany, Book-keeping, Rhetoric, Mensu- 
ration, Trigonometry, Geology, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery, Farming, Gardening, Medicine, Theology, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, &c, &c. He has always on 
hand the Standard English Law Reporter and Digests, 
and every Tteatise on Particular subjects; together 
with the rarious State Reports and Digests, and a 
general assortment of Law Books of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS.— Ledgers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, Cash, and Letter Books, ReeeiDt and Bill 
Books, Memorandum, Bank and Pass Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing Books. 

o , RELI GIOU3 BOOKS.-Family, Pocket, and 
School Bibles, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
Books, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.-Piano Music, Music 
Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND FANCY ARTICLES.— 
Consisting of Foolscap and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Post and Drawing Paper. Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tracing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Quills, Wafers, Sealingwax, Pocket Books, Albums ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red Inks ; Prints, Gold and Silver ever-pointed Pen- 
cils, Seals, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Scrap-Books, Visiting Cards, Card Cases, Gold and 
Silver Paper, Inkstands, Slate and Slate Pencils, Lead 
Pencils, Bristol and Ivory Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Battledores, Rules, India Rubber, Carmine Saucers, 
Newman's, Reeves's, and American Water Col- 
ors, &,c. 

N. B— BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
forms, with neatness and dispatch. 

XT GARDEN-SEEDS.— To be had at the North 
Carolina Bookstore. Garden-Seeds, warranted lresl\ 
and good, crop of 1855, selected from the most ap- 
proved Seedsmen and Gardeners in the Northern 
Country. 

February, 1857. tf 



© 
m 

CD 

'A* 
© 

© 

© 

© 

© 
> 
© 

o 
08 



TWENTY-FIVE WITNESSES ; 

OK, THE 

Forger Convicted- 

J*OHN S. DYE IS THE AUTHOR, 

Who has had 10 years experieu'e as a Banker 
and Publisher, and Author of A series of Le -tares 
at the Broadway Tabernacle when, Ibr'lS sueces- 
siee nights, over 

l-W 50,000 PEOPLE ^o 
greeted him with Rounds of Applause while he 
exhibited the manner hi which Counterfeiters ex- 
ecute their Fiau.is, and the Surest and SIk rtert 
Means of Delectjrife tiwm ! Tile Jianle Kott &,- 
gravers all say that he is the greatest Judge of Pa- 
l : er Money living 

GREATEST DISCOVERY oi The Present 
Century for 

Delecting Counterfeit Eank Notes. 

Describing every Genuine Bill in existence, and 
exhibiting at a large glance every Counterfeit in 
Circulation. Arranged so admirably, that Ref- 
erence is easy and Detection Instantaneous. 

£5" No ..ndex to exnmine ! Fo pases to hunt 
up ! But so simplified and arranged, that the 
Merchant, Baker and Business Man can see all 
at a Glance. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN. 
Thus each may read the same in his own Na- 
tive Tongue. 

MOST PERFECT BANK NOTE LIST 
PUBLISHED, also a List of All the Pii-vaU 
Bankers in America. A complete summary of 
the Finance of Europe and America will be pub- 
lished in eadh edition, together with all the impor- 
tant News of the Day. Also 

A SERIES OF TALES 
from an old Manuscript found in the East. It fur 
nishes the most complete History of 

ORIENTAL LIFE 
describing the most perplexing positions in which 
the Ladies and Gentlemen of that Country have 
been so otten found. These Stories will continue 
throughout the whole y-ar, and will prove the 
most entertaining ever offered to the Public. 

JKT" Furnished weekly to Subscribers only, at 
$1 a year. All letter.- must be addrassed to 
JOHN S. DYE, Brokes, 

Publisher and Proprietor, 
70 Wall Street, New York. 



FARMER'S KALL 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

The subscriber is geneial agent for the sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Fanning utensils, Field 
seeds, Fertilizers, &c- &c Almost all the articles 
brought to the late Fair arc kept on sale and are 
offered at manufacturers prices with no cost oi trans- 
portation, as they were brought free by the Railroad. 

There is also a new fire proof Ware House on the 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are stored. 
The following arc some of the articles bt ought to the 
late Fair: Horse Powers, Wheat Fans, Corn Drills, 
Field Rollers, Cum and Cob Crushers. Harrows, Cul- 
tivators, and Plows of every size and description. 
JAMES M. TOWLES. 



Book Binding' 
JOHN II. DcCARTERET & SON. 

RAREICH, N. C. 

ARE still carrying on the BOOK BINDING busi- 
ness in all its branches at the old stand over 
"Turner's N. C. Bookstore." 



124 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Wyclie's Cultivating Plow. 

PATENTED 26TH FEBRUARY, 1856. (THE 
Bladcd Plow,) awarded §20 premium at the last 
N. C. State Fair ; with cutting blades in the place of 
a moldboard; cuts, divides aud turns over the soil; 
depositing the finer parts in the furrow, and turning 
over the turf, clods, &c, on the surface. Is cheap, 
light, and lasting, and easy to both driver and team. 
Admirably adapted to almost any purpose for which 
the plow is used. 
For license to sell, with further information, address 
W. E. WYC11E. 
Brookville, Granville Co. N. C. 
June 16, 1856. 5-tf. 

J. H. Gooch, Oxford, N. C, solicits orders for the 
above plows. 

DOCTOR HOOFLAND'S 

CELEBRATED 

G E 11 MAN B IT T E . S . 

PREPARED BY 

Dr. C. M. JACKSON, Piiilad'a. Pa. 

WILL EFFECTUALLY CURE 

LIVER COMP'T, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or Nervovs Debility, Disease of the 
Kidneys, and all diseases arising from a Disordered 
Dicer or Stomach. 
Such 
as Constipa- 
tion, Inward Piles, 
Fulness or Blood to the 
Head, Acidity of the stomach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Disgust for food, 
Fullness or Weight in the Stomach, Sour Eruc- 
tations, Sinking or Fluttering at the pit oi the sto- 
mach. Swimming of the Head, Hurried and diffi- 
cult Breathing, Filtering at the Heart, Choaking 
or suffocating sensations when in a lying pos- 
ture. Dimness of vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight, Fever and Dull Pain in the 
Head, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
Vellownrssot the skin and eyes, 
Pain in the Side, Back, Chest, 
Limbs, &c , Sudden flush- 
es ol He.it, Burning hi 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil, 
and great de- 
pression of 
Spirits, 
The proprietor in calling ihe attention of the pub- 
lic to ifus preparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in its virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for which it is recommended. 

It is no new untried article but one that has stood 
the test of a ten years' trial before the American peo- 
ple, and us reputation and sale is unrivaled hy any si- 
milar preparations extant. The testimony in its fa- 
vor given by the most prominent and well known 
Physicians and individuals in all parts of the 'coun- 
try is immense, and a careful perusal of the Almanac 
published annually by the proprietor, and to be had 
gratis of any of his agents, cannot but satisfy the most 
skeptical that this remedy is really deserving the great 
celebrity it has obtained. 

Principal Office and Manufactory No. 9G Arch St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM N. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING EFFECTS FROM THE GER- 
MAN BITTER6. 
Certificate of Dr. W. SMITH, of Pine Hill, Rich- 
mond Co., W. C, March 4, 1854. 
Dr. C. M. Jackson, Philadelphia— Dear Sir,— I 
have been a subject of Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for the last five years. Such was my condition for 12 
months that the physicians and all who saw me said 
I must die. While in this condition, I was carried to 
the watering places in Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, but was not benefitted by any water to 
which I was taken. While on my way home, I stop- 
ped a week at Rutherlordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina to try the effect of some Chalybeate water 
in that place. About the last ot the week, I went in- 
to a drug store to get some medicine for my child and 
myself. There were several of the village physici- 
ans in the store, and one of them seemed to take some 
interes; in my case, and after asking me some ques- 
tions, said he had been a dyspeptic, and had been 
greatly benetitttd by the use of " Dr. Hoofland's Ger- 
man Bitters," prepared by you, and he insisted that I 
should try the Bitters He also called -the next day 
atmy room, and insisted so much that I would try 
them, that I asked him to get me one bottle. He did 
it, and 1 commenced taking it as directed, and I do 
say I was inoie benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine I had ever taken. 

After reaching home, one of my neighbors came to 
ine for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic) 
and I gave him nearly all the Bitters 1 had left; which 
effected much good in his case. He has often called 
on me for more of the same kind of medicine, saying 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he had 
taker , but I have not been able to get any more tor 
him or myself since ; wilj you, therefore, please ship 
me a dozen or more as soon as possible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W, SMITH, M. D. 



GREAT CURE OF PILES. 

Certificate of W.J. AT WOOD, Huntsville, ladhn 
Co.,K C, Nov. 1,1853. 

Dr. C. M. Jacks* n--Dear Sir,— Allow me to ex- 
press to you my sincere thanks for your discovery ot 
a medicine, which, to say the least oi it, has effected 
a cure that all other medicines that I have taken have 
entirely failed to do. "Hoofland's German Bitters," 
have cured me of the most stubborn and aggravated 
case of the Piles that, perhaps, evor fell to the lot ot 
man. My case is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all my ftinds and relations, as I had tried every- 
thing recommended, and nothing did me any good 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, for 
the benefit of the afflicted, as you may think proper. 
Trulv yours, 

Vvm. T. AT WOOD. 

These Bitters are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great advantage over every mineral preparation, as 
They never prostrate, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem. . JO 

Price 75c per bottte. Sold by Druggists and btore- 
keepers in evrry town and village in the United 
States and Canadas. and by „jL>i rt ™ 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

November 1856. Raleigh . 

WARRENTON FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

THE 30th session of this school will commence on , 
the 3d of January next, prepared to give thorough 
instructruction in all the branches o^ female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
time oi entrance. 

Terms per Session : . 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in rooms, 
English tuition, 
Music on Piano, Guitar, Melodeon, with use 

of instrument, each 
Oil Painting, . 

Persons wishing further information, will please 
apply to GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 

December, 1855. 



$60 00 
12 50 

23 00 
15 00 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



125 



GRENOBLE HOSK. 

THIS superior hose, manufactured from the finest 
of HEMP, is adanted and especially recom- 
mended for the use of Fire Engines, Mills, Manufac- 
tories, Ships, Steamboats, Railroads, Hotels, Gardon 
uses, &c. Its advantages over other Hose are its 
extreme lightness and cheapness. It will stand as 
much pressure as Leather Hose, and has proved to be 
as durable ; and all the care it needs alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air. 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
inches in diameter, in lengths from 100 to 200 feet, 
by CHARLES LENZMANN, 

54 Cedar st., New York. 
Sole Agent for the United Stntes. 

Certificates of its superior qualities Irom the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navy Yards; irom Ai- 
red Carson, Esq., Chief Engineer of the New York 
Fire Department ; James Smith, Esq , New York, 
and L. Button, Esq., Waterford, Fire Engine Build- 
fers, and from some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &c, can be otamined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb 18— 6m 

LYOH'S KATHAIRON 

Has now become the standard preparation 
for the HATR. Its immense sale, nearly 
1 ,00 0,000 
BOTTLES 

Per year, attests its excellence and great 
superiority over all other articles of the kind. 
The ladies universally pronounce the 
KATHAIRON 
To be, by far, the finest and most agreeable 
article they ever used. It restores the Hair 
after it has fallen out; invigorates and beau- 
tifies it, giving to it a rich glossy appearance, 
and imparts a delightful perfume, Sold by all 
dealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 
25 Cents per Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNKOOP & CO., Proprietors, 

63 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers, also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
and in great variety. 6m. 



SANDS' SAIfcSAPARILf^V, 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 
FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

AND FOR THE CURE OF 

Scrofula, Rheumatism, Stuloorn Ulcers, Dys- 
pasia, Salt Rheum, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases, Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Liver Complaint, Bronchitis, 
Consumption, Female 
Complaints, 
Loss of Appetite, General Debility, df-c. 

TO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
of the humane and philanthrophic of all ages. — 
Before the practice of medicine became a science, the 
sick were publicly exposed in the open air, and every 
passer-by named the remedy he considered most suit- 
able for the complaint. Wc possess at the present, 
day, through the agency of the press, a more reliable 
moee of conveying information to onr suffering fel- 
low creatures. Those afflicted with Scrofula, Cuta- 
neous or Eruptive Diseases, will find in the columns 
of almost eveiy newspaper and periodical published 
•ertificateg and testimonials from those who have 



been speedily cured of these dreadful complaints by 
the purifying' and powerfully regenerative qualities 
of Sands' Sarsaparilla. 

astonishing cure. 

Pateuson, N. Y. 

Messrs. A B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen -.—Having 
witnessed the most beneficial effects irom the use of 
your SARSAPARILLA, it gives me pleasure to send 
you the following statement in reg.ird to my son. In 
the Spring, he took a severe cold, and after eight 
weeks of severe suffering the disease settled in his 
left leg and foot, which swelled to the utmost. The 
swelling was lanced by his phvsician, and disharged 
most profusely. After that, bo less than eleven Ul- 
cers formed on the leg and toot at one time. We h;id 
five different physicians, but none relieved him much; 
and the last winter found him so emaciated and low 
that he was unable to leave his bed, suffering the 
most excruciating pain. During this time the bone 
had become so much affected, that piece after piece 
came out, of which he has now more than twenty- 
five preserved in a bottle, varying troru one half to 
one and a half inches in length. We had given np 
all hopes of his recoverv, but at this time we were 
induced to try your SARSAPARILLA, and with its 
use his health and appetite began immediately to im- 
prove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
dozeu bottles effected a perfect cure. 

With gratitude, I remain truly yours, 
DARIUS BALLARD. 

We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ballard, 
cheerfully subscribe to the facts of the above state- 
ment. 

H. & R. S. Hyatt, 
Geo. T. Dean, 
A. M. Thowerbiudoe, 
C. Eastwood. 

Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A.B. . 
D. SANDS, Druggists and Chemists, lOo Fulton St, 
corner of William, New York. 

Sold also by Druggists generally. 

Price $1 per bottle ; six bottles for 85; 1 ly 



A YEK'S PILLS 

FOR ALL TH ^ PURPOSES OFA 

FAMILY PHYSIC. 

There has long existed a public demand for an ef- 
lective purgative Pill which could be relied on as suro 
and perfectly safe in its operation. This has been 
prepared to meet that demand, and an extensive trial 
of its virtues has conclusively shown with what suc- 
cess it accomplishes the purposes designed. It is easy 
to make a physical JPiU, but not so easy to make the 
oestof all PiiU — one which should have none of the 
objections, but all the advantages of every other. This 
has been attempted here, and with whit success we 
would respectfully submit to the public decision. It 
has been unfortunate for the patient hitherto that al- 
most every purgative medicine is acrimonious and ir- 
ritating to the bowels. This is not. Many of them 
produce so much griping pain and revulsion in the 
system as to more thao counterbalance the good to 
he derived from them. These JPUl» produce no irrita- 
tion or pain, unless it arrises fromprevious'existing ob- 
struction or derangement in the bowels. Being pure- 
ly vegetable, no harm can arise from their use in any 
quantity ; but it is better thai any medicine should be 
taken judiciously. Minute directions for their use in 
the several diseases to which they are applicable are 
given on the box. Among the complaints which 
have been speedily cured by them we may mention 
Liver Complaint, in its various forms of Jaundice, In- 
digestion, Langor and Loss of Appetite, Listlessness, 
Irritability, Billious Headache, Bilious Fever, Fever 
and Ague, Pain in the side and Loins, for in truth. all 



126 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



these are but the consequence of diseased action of 
the liver. As an aperient, they afford prompt and 
sure relief in Costiveness, Files, Colic, Dysentery, Hu- 
mors, Scrofula and Scurvey, Colds, with soreness of 
the body. Ulcers and impurity of the blood ; in short 
any and every case where a purgative is required. 

They have also produced some singularly success- 
ful cures in Rheumatism, Gout, Dropsey, Gravel. Ery- 
sipelas. Palpitation of the Heart, Pains in the Back, 
Stomneh and Side. They should be freely taken in 
the Spring of the year to purify the blood and prepare 
the system tor the change of seasons. An occasional 
dose stimulates the stomach into healthy action, and 
restores the appetite and vigor. They purify the blood 
and by their stimulant action on the circulatory sys- 
tem, renovate the strength of the body, and restore the 
wasted or diseased energies of the whole organist. 
Hence an occasional dose is advantageous even though 
no serious derangement exists ; but unnecessary dos- 
ing should never be carried .too far, as. every purgative 
medicine reduces the strength, when taken to excess. 
The thousand e ises in which a physic is requited can- 
not be enumerated here, but they suggest themselves 
to the reason of (.-very body ; and it is confidently be- 
lieved this pill will answer a better purpose than any 
thing which has hitherto been available to mankind. 
When their virtues are once known the public will no 
longer doubt what remedy to employ when in need ol 
a cathartic medicine. 

Being sugar wrapped they are pleasant to take, and 
being purely vegetable, no harm can arise from their 
use in any quantify. 

For minute directions, see the wrapper on the box. 

PREPARED BY 

DR. JAMES 0. AYER, 

Practical and Analytical Chemist, Lowell, Mass. — 

Price 25 cts. per box. Five boxes for $1 



GREEN SAND MARL OF FEW-JERSEY, 
rpllE NEW-JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
| is now prepared to receive orders for this impor- 
tant Manure. For all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Marl is more than a substitute. Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annual Report to the Legislature 
ol New Jersey, says : 

" The value of these Marls is best seen in the rich 
and highly cultivated district which has been im- 
proved (almost made) by their use. But it may be 
interesting- to examine the causes of their great value 
in agriculture, and to compare them with other fertil- 
izers. For example: The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as rive per cent of the whole weight of 
the Marl ; a bushel, when dry, weighs eighty pounds ; 
and in the proportion mentioned, would contain four 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel of v nleached wood ashes " 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found in the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

Price, delivered onboard vessels at the wharves of 
the Company at Portland Heights, Raritain Bay, New- 
Jersey, Seven Cents per Bm\el. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sent_/re« of 
posture. Orders for other fertilizers will receive 
prompt attention Address either of the undersigned. 
C1IAS. SEARS, Pics". 
Ricevilie Post-Office, N. J. 
Geo W. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar st., N. Y. 

Tappay Townsend Treas., 
82 Nassau St., N.Y. 9— lv. 

N. B. — Those wishing Marl for Spring use should 
order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
Orders will be filled in rotation. 



AYE ITS 

CHERRY PECTORAL. 

FOR THE RAPID CURE OF 

COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESS, 

BRONCHITIS, WHOOPING-COUGH, CROUP, 

A S T H M A AND CONS U M P T I N. 

This remedy has won for itself such notoriety fir its 
cures of every variety of Pulmonary disease, that it 
is entirely unm ecssary to recount the evidences ofits 
v : uues in any community whore it has been employed 
So wide is th™ field of its usefulness, and so numerous 
the eases of its cures, that almost every section of the 
country abounds in persons publicly known, who 
have, been restored from a arming and even desperate 
diseases of the lungs by its use. When once tried its 
supe ionty over every other medicine of its kind ie too 
apparent to fscape observation, and where its virtues 
are known, the public no longer hesitate what antidote 
to employ for the distressing and danseVotta "flections 
of the pulmonary organs which are incident to our 
climate. And not only in formidable attacks upon 
the lungs, but for the milder varieties ofColds, Coughs 
Hoarseness &c., and for children it is the pleasantest 
and safest m<--dieine that caa be obtained. 

As it has long been in constant use throughout this 
section, we need not do more than assure the people 
its quality is kept up to the best that it ever lias been 
and that the genuine article is sold by — 

P. F. Pescud and Williams & riaywood, Raleigh 
N. C, June, lt-57. 4 y. 



-VJORTII CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE INSUR- 
JlN ance Company, Raleigh, N. C. 'this Company 
insures the lives of individuals for one year, a term of 
years, or for life, on the mutual pkincifli-, the as- 
suredfor life participating in all the profits of the 
Company. For policies granted for the whole term 
of life, when the premium therefor amounts to $80, 
a note may be given for one half the amount of the 
premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
anty. 

The prompt manner in which all losses have been 
paid by this Company, together with low rates of 
premium, present great inducements to such as are 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to five 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within 'jO days after satisfactory 
proof is presented. 

DIRECTORS. 



Charles E. Johnson, 
Wsi, D. Hat wood, 
Jonh G.Williams, 
ii w. husted, 
Wm. H. McKee, 
Charles B. Root, 



Wm. W. Holden, 
Wm. D. Cooke, 
R.H. Battle, 
Wm. II. Jones, 
P F. Pescud' 
Seaton Gales. 



OFFICERS. 

Dr. Charles E. Johnson, President, 

William D. Haywood, ]'lee President, 

Richard H. Battle, Secretary, 

William H. Jones, Treasurer, 

H. W. Hustfd, Attorney. 
Charles E. Ji hwok, M. D. ) Medical 
William H. McKbe, M. D. V Board of 
Rich'd. B. Haywood, M. D. ) Consultation. 

R. H. Battle, j ™ *■ n 

W. W. Holden, [ Executive Com- 

Charles 13. Root, j mitUe - 

Communications should be addressed, (post paid) t» 
K. H. BATTLE, Secretary. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



12, 



PIANOS, MELODEONS, AND MUSIC. 




PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



HORACE WATERS, 

No. 333 Broadway, New York. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK PIANOS AND MELO- 

DEONS. 

THE LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE UNITED S PATER. 
Pianos from five different Manufacturers, of every variety of style — from those in plain rosewood 
rases, f>.>r $200, to those of the most elegant finish, lor $1000; No House in the Union can come hi com- 
petition ior the number, varieiy, and celebrity of its instruments, nor the extremely low juices at which they 
ae sold. 

HORACE WATERS' MODERN IMPROVED PIANOS. 
with or without iron frames, have, in their new scale and improved action, a power and compass of tone 
equalising the grand, with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Pre-s and first music mas- 
ters have justly pronounced them equal if not superior to any other make. They are guaranteed to stand 
the action of every climate. 

HORACE WATERS' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable qual- 
ity—sole agent for the sale of S. O. & H. W. Smith's celebrated Melodeons — can also furnish Melodeons of 
all other makers. Prices from $45 to $125; for two seis of reeds, $150 ■. two banks of Keys, §200; Organ- 
pedal bass meledeons,275 and $300. 

MUSIC — One ot the largest and best catalogues of Music now published ; sold at greatly reduced prices. 
Music sent to wherever ordered, post paid. Personal attention paid to all orders received by Mail. Se- 
cond hand Pianos taken in exchange for new. Catalogues sent by mail. Great inducements offered to 
agents to sell the above. A liberal discount todeilers, teachers, seminaries and clergymen. 

Each Instrument guaranteed to give satisfaction, or purchase money refunded. SECOND HAND PI- 
ANOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly in store ; prices from 30 k> $140. 



TESTIMONIALS FSOM P&0EESS0RS, AND OPINIONS OF THE PEESS. 



Says *The- Christian Intelligencer" ''The Horace 
Waters Pianos, for elegance 'of construction, superior 
depth and sweetness of tone, were proi oanced by 
competent judges at the crystal Palace t" be in all 
respects masterpieces of Mechanical skill. Having 
inspected a large number of the Horace Waters' Pi- 
anos, we can speak of their merits, from personal 
knowledge as being of the very best quality." 

Nothing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in any department than the Piano-Forte manu- 
factured by Horace Waters, of this city. — Church- 
man. • 

The following is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "The finest among the many pianos at the 
Crystal^Palace are those placed there by Horace Wa- 
ters, whose instruments are always popular." 

The following we take from the "Christian Advo- 
cate" MemphisTeni]. : "The Horace Waters' Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
terial. From all we can learn of this establishment — 
said to be the largest in the United States— we have 
no doubt that buyers can do as well, perhaps better, 
at this time than any other house in the Union." 

"Mr. Wajers has been long established and is favo- 
rably known. We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
usually charged for articles in his line." — Juclsoniau 
N.J. 

"Your instruments are a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos.and on honor to the skillful manu- 
facturer. There is no doubt but they wid be appre- 
ciated by the public and all admirers of true naerit. — 
Otair Coin-itlant. 



"I take great pleasure in pronouncing them instru- 
ments oi a superior quality both in tone and touch. 
August Uockfe.'' 

For power of tone, depth of bass, and brilliancy of 
treble, together with accuracy of touch, they are equal 
to any make I am acquaihted with, and I cordially re- 
commend ihem to tho*e wishing to purchase. — Y. ('. 
Taylor. 

"Our friend? will find at Mr. Waters' store the very 
best assortment of music and of pianos to be found in 
the United States, and we uige our southern and 
western friends to give him a call whenever they go 
to New York." — Graliaan's. Magazine. 

"We consider them worthy of special attention, 
from th* resonant and exceedingly musiea) tone which 
Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining.'' — N. Y.Mv- 
xival World and. Times. 

There is one which, for beauty of finish and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of tono, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the kind we have ever seen. It is 
from the establishment ot Horace Wafers'. Being 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the action of the climate, and of stand 
a long time in tune. — Savannah Georgian, Savannah, 
Ga. 

Says the "Evening Mirror," "They (the Horace 
Waters' Pianos; are. very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comparison 
with any other manufacturer in the country, as re- 
gards their outward elegance, and quality of tone and 
power. 



128 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



COOKE'S NEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, 



NOW READY FOR DELIVERY. 



THIS Large and Beautiful MAP of North Carolina is now ready for delivery. It is one of the best 
engraved maps that h is ever been published of any State in the Union, and is sold at the low price Of 

Eight Dollars. 
No Maps will he. sold except b.y subscription,. Agents will be f.mnd in most of the counties of the State, o 
ersons desirino- a copy of the Map can send their names directly to "Win. D. Cooke, Raleigh, N. C." 



persons 



AGENTS WANTED 



A number of counties in the State are yet unengaged. Persons wishing to canvass for the Map will be 
furnished with the terms, &c, upon application to the undersigned. 

Agents are also wanted for South Carolina and Virginia. The Map includes Virginia as far north as 
Richmond, and South Carolina as far south as the junction of the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 

TO EDITORS. 

Editors in this State, who, having advertised the Map for six months, are entitled to a copy will pleasa 
•ommunicate the fact to the undersigned, that their copies may be forwarded by first opportunity 

W. D. COOKE, 

Raleigh, N. G. 



Report oi Professors Emmons and Mitchell, to the North Carolina State Ag. Soc, on 

COOKE'S NEW MAP OF NOHTH CAROLINA- 




the Coast Survey 3d, it contains an entirely new feature in its profile extending along the line of the Rail- 
road survey from Goldsboro' to Asheville, which exhibits the heights of many interesting points, as well 
through the central and western parts of the State lying east of the mountains as amongst the Mountains 

IiTaddition 'othe foregoing it may be justly said that Mr. Cooke has taken unwearied pains to correct th« 
c-eooraphv of the different counties, and to insert the prevalent names of places, those for ins.ance which 
h-ive come into use since new lines of travel have been established. It is in fact a New Map, and the only map 
which can be relied upon for accuracy in .its details. It moreover merits commendation for the ai tistical skiU 
^Unlnvprl in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct, 
display ea m us execuuoi , n g F j B EBENEZER EMMONS, State Geologist. 

In the encou-ium passed by Prof. Emmons, upon Mr. Cooke's new Map, I fully concur. The particulars 



ficieut and important aid, in its construction, so fully afforded by Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendent of the 
• ~ ' '■■ "-' "■— u- _:__*i '■''!"•>- a..— «•»■ "f •> railroad, car- 



or- 
is I 



presume, the rest will be made, to correspond. 
University of N. C, October 21, 1856. 



E. MITCHELL. 



JOHN JL GORDON, 

Grocer and Commission Merchant and Dealer 

id Metals, 

14tth Street, near the Exchange Hotel, 
RICHMOND, VA. 
May, 1851. 



S.-tt 



w 



ANTED, by a young lady residing at the i 
North, a situation as Tsacher, at the South, 
in either a family or public school. She is qualified 
to teach the common and higher English branches, 
Music, and Drawing. Credentials given if required. 
If in a family, she would prefer one of religious prin- 
ciples. Address the Editor of the " Carolina Cuiti- 
yator." feb. 18— tf. 




X- 




i^ 



SiSiMrSniSi SinlUtt, rail * »!»»'' 9 * 



WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher 




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One page 



Premium Essay on 
Horse, 



the Farm 



BY THEODORE BROWN, OF JEFFERSON CO., KY. 



The following Essay was awarded a premium 
of $40, offered by the Editors of the Louisville 
Journal, for the best upon the subject. The 
award was made by judges appointed by the 
Directors of the South-western Agricultural 
and Mechanical Association. It will repay a 
careful perusal. In no section of the Union 
are the principles of breeding better understood 
than in Kentucky, and in accordance with our 
views, of the absolute necessity to meet the 



NO- 5 

ixeesff*. 

requirements of the country in this department 
of Farm Economy, it is our determination to 
give special attention in our pages to the 
subject. 

To the ScuthmesUnv Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association. 
Heretofore it has been too much thought 
that the broken, down, refuse stock of the turf, 
the saddle, or the dray would still answer for 
the farm. It is now, however, believed that, 
though individuals of these several classes may 
I be suited for farm purposes, neither class as a 
whole, is competent to the efficient perfor- 
mance of all the duties of the farm horse. — 
Those duties are of a most diversified char- 
acter — every change^ in the seasons, every 
variation in the roads, or in the surface con^ 
stitution and condition of the soil calling into 
play different powers of the farm house Thus 
the wagon, with a light load, on a firm, well- 
graded road, requires in the horse wind and ac- 
tion and spirit combined with gentleness ;, 
while on muddy or hilly roads it would call for 
weight of carcass, tough, large muscles, true, 
steady pulling, and powers of" endurance. — 
Plowing, too, is no leas varied in its. demands, 
its heavy, constant, long-protracted work tax- 
ing the stronger powers, and the cultivation of 
the crops, particularly in July, imperatively 
demanding wind and strength both, and suffi- 
cient evenness of temper not to throw away 
either. And in all sorts of farm work there is. 



130 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



need of health and thrift in the animal to per- 
form it well and with j ustice to itself. 

What race in America "is sufficient for these 
things ?" The Conestoga is not, for wind and 
action are wofully deficient in this breed. The 
race horse, on the other hand, possesses suffi- 
cient wind and action, but generally lacks size 
and good temper, being restive, vicious, and 
unsafe till almost worn out with age and hard 
service. The Canadian and Morgan horses 
both combine excellent qualities, but too often 
lack size. A cross upon the Conestoga and 
race horse with the Morgan would doubtless 
produee a good race, but similar crosses on bet- 
ter draught horses than the Conestoga have al- 
ready been made known in England and France, 
and breeds gotten thought to be specially adapt- 
ed to the farm ; and it would therefore be a 
quicker way of getting what we want to im- 
port one or more of these breeds. And is it not 
the peculiar province of your apsociation to en- 
courage such importation by liberal premiums ? 
The breeds referred to are the Cleveland Bay 
and the Clydesdale of England and the Perche- 
ron or Norman dilligenee horse of France. 

"The Cleveland Bay is generally clean and 
well made in most of the parts, being very 
strong and active, answering perfectly for the 
team, coach and saddle. Theae are few hor- 
ses capable of greater or longer continued ex- 
ertion in any of these intentions than these." — 
Dr. Reese's New Encyclopedia. 

The Clydesdale is a valuable breed of cart 
horses, bred chiefly in the valley of the Clyde, 
hence their name. They are strong and hearty 
have a small head, are longer necked than the 
Suffolk, with deeper legs and lighter carcasses." 
— Farmer's Encyclopedia. 

Says Mr. Edward Harris, of Moorestown, N. 
J., who imported a pair of Norman horses : " I 
have been frequently questioned as to my rea- 
sons for selecting this horse in preference to the 
English draught horse of England, whenever 
brought to this country, must prove a failure ; 
he cannot move out of a walk, which is sajnng 
quite enough for him." (He probably refers to 
the heavy black horse, not to the breeds above 
described.) "The true Percheron or Norman 
Diligence horse, on the contrary, combines more 
strength with activity than any other horse I 
ever sat behind. All travellers, on entering 
France' are struck with the properties of these 
horses as displayed in drawing the ponderous 



machine called a dilligenee, by which they are 
conveyed through the kingdom at the rate fully 
equal to the average of stage travelling in this 
country. English horsemen confess that their 
road horses couid not hold out the same place 
before the same load. (Farm Enc.) 

One or all of these three varieties might an- 
swer, without crossing. But it might be ne- 
cessary to cross with the race-horse or with the 
Morgan, just as wind and action, or wind, ac- 
tion, and good temper seemed most needed. — 
Mr. Stephens, the distinguished author of 
" The Book of the Farm," thus describes a 
cross of this kind on the Clydesdale : " He is 
not a thorough-bred Clydesdale, having a dash 
of the coaching blood in him, a species of farm- 
horse very much in use on the Borders, and 
admired for their action and spirit. The geld- 
ing exhibits such a form as to constitute in my 
estimation, the very perfection of what a farm- 
horse should be. His head is small, bone clean 
eyes prominent, muzzle fine, and ears set on the 
crown of the head. His neck rises with a fine 
crest along the mane from the trunk, and ta- 
pers to the head, which is beautifully set on, 
and seems to be borne by the neck with ease. 
His limbs taper gradually from the body, and 
are broad and fiat: — all excellent points m the 
leg of a drought horse, giving it strength and 
action. The back of the fore-leg from the fet- 
lock-joint to the body is straight, indicating no 
weakness in the limb — a failing here causing 
the knee to knuckle, and rendering the horse 
unsafe in going down hill. The hind-legs, as 
well as the fore ones, stand directly under the , 
body, forming firm supports to it. The body is 
beautifully symmetrical. The shoulder slopes 
backward, the withers being light and thin. 
The sloped position of the shoulder affords a 
proper seat for the collar, and provides the 
muscles of the shoulder-blades so loug a lever 
as to cause them to throw the fore-legs for- 
ward in a walk or trot ; and with such a shoul- 
der a horse cannot stumble. The back is short, 
no longer than to give room to the saddle. 
The chest is deep, giving it capacity for the 
lungs to play in and room for the muscles re- 
quired in draught. Tbe top of the quarter is 
rounded, the flank deep, and the hind-quarter 
long. On looking on the side profile of the 
entire animal, the body seems made up of large 
quarters, joined together by a short, thick 
middle, suggesting the idea of strength ; and 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



131 



the limbs ank neck and head are so attached 
to the body as to appear light and useful. 

" In a well formed horse, I may remark, the 
line from the fetlocks to the elbow-joint is 
«qual to that from this joint to the top of the 
withers. In a low-shouldered, leggy horse, 
the first line is much longer than the last ; but, 
in the case of this horse, the body is rather 
deeper than the leg is long, realizing the de- 
sideratum in a farm horse of a thick middle, 
and short legs. The line across the ribs is, 
like the back, short, and the ribs are round. 
He is 16 hands. His walk is stately, and he 
can draw 3 tons on a level ground, including 
the weight of the wagon. He is a well known 
animal in Edinburg, and is generally admired. 
He is the property of Messrs. Howey & Co., 
the great carriers from Edinburg, into Eng- 
land."— (Farmer's Library, vol. 3, No. 10, 
pages 439—430.) 

]t would be useless repetition, to detail the 
points of the brood mare. From whichsoever 
of the breeds above recommended she should be 
selecte!, she should be a perfect specimen of 
that breed. As a general rule in breeding ani- 
mals of all kinds, when there is much difference 
in size, between the male and female, the latter 
should be the larger — because the foetus will 
probably be large, and require more capacity of 
womb than can be afforded by a small female. 
This is a point much insisted on by Lewis F. 
Allen and other scientific breeders. A case has 
occurred this season on the farm of the writer, 
demonstrating the error of the opposite practice. 
He had bred a fine blooded mare, about 15 hands 
high, to a large draft horse, and the foal come 
into the world with a crooked leg. True it has 
since become straight, but this might not al- 
ways be the case. The mare as well as the 
horse should be known to be of good families 
on both sides; otherwise the foal may inherit 
defects from remote ancestors. Duiing preg- 
nancy the mare should bo worked, or ridden 
gently, never put into a cart, and turned out for 
a month or two before delivery. About the 
time that event is expected, hogs, mules and 
colts must be carefully excluded from the lot — a 
neglect of this precaution may cost the life of 
the foal. The foal should be dropped during the 
grass season. The weather is then mild, and 
pasturage abundant and cheap. If worked 
while suckling, the mare should be fed well 
and not heated — and the colt must be suckled 



twice a day, besides being with the mother at 
meals and during th% night. This is a most 
convenient time for gentling the colt — and a 
little pains, now, greatly facilitates the breaking 
when grown. If the colt comes in the fall, it 
*hould run with the mother during the winter, 
on pasture of grain or grass if convenient, but, if 
not, on good clover or timothy hay, cut in the 
blossom state. Curing hay at this stage makes 
it sweeter, more nutritious and digestible. — 
John S. Skinner records experiments proving 
this conclusively. Grain enough must be sup- 
plied to keep both colt and dam in good order. 
Shelter them also from the north-west winds, 
and from rain and snow. This can be done 
cheaply with rails, forks, and straw. When a 
colt is weaned in the fall, it can be treated du- 
ring the winter, just as a mare and colt would 
be if together. Give a colt company for a 
while after weaning ; but be sure it is good com- 
pany. A breachy horse or colt should by no 
means be selected for this purpose ; it has a 
contageous habit more to be dreaded than the 
distemper — the disease being curable, the habit 
incurable. 

If the mother of the colt is breichy, she 
should be kept in a secure lot, and yoked, if ne- 
cessary, to keep her from jumping. A breachy 
animal is so annoying, corrupting and expensive 
on a farm, that unless uncommonly valuable, it 
should be gotten rid of. The growing colt 
should never be allowed to get thin, abundant 
nutritious food developing the bone as well as 
muscle of a young animal. '-'The ponies of 
Shetland, and the still more diminuiive steeds 
of China, when bred on rich English pastures, 
rapidly increase in size. The horses of Arabia 
do the same." — (Farmer's Encyclopedia — ar- 
ticle, Wild Horse." 

At three years of age the young horse, being 
strongly and properly geared, can be put to 
work in a wagon beside a gentle horse and in 
eharge of a careful, experienced driver. It 
should not be made to pull much at first, but 
merely to walk along gentle, and get accustomed 
to the wagon and gear. It can be taught to pull 
afterwards. As soon as it becomes chafed, or 
galled, it should be turned out till well. Be- 
sides the inhumanity of working a colt or even 
a grown horse with sore shoulders, it forms a 
habit of balking, and creates a sore knot ever 
afterwards in the way of the collar, and liable 
to gall whenever the work of the animal is at 



332 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 






all severe i. r protiacte'ft; At fur years of age 
the young horse can be put at almost any kind 
of wo k fur ■ hi' h it is sufficiently gentle, hut 
not kept at it long enough, if very laborious, to 
break down or be strained. The five year old 
need not be favored j and ihe six is in the prime 
of life if well broken 

Stable- should be kept clean and well littered 
and warm in winter. In sumrrief the horse 
keeps coo er and more corn fo table on pasture at 
night ; and n hen fed at noon at that season, an 
open shed is preferable to a stable, unless the 
latter is uncommonly well ventika ed. An ex- 
] erieiiced plowman recommends washing the 
body of the work horse in hut wea'her; he 
thinks it e ables the hose to endure the heat a 
great deal be: ter while at work. "There can 
be no doubt it contributes to the health of the 
animal. Th" same reasons urged in favor of 
thorough currying and rubbing w uld particu- 
larly commend thk practice and be very re- 
freshing; in hot weather, and altogether benefi- 
cial, unless done while the animal wa- perspi- 
ring too much; in this case it would close the 
po - e= of the skin and give cold; this result 
would also o cur, no doubt in cool chilly weath- 
er. Stephens parti; ulary v arns us against 
washing the horse higher than the knees in win- 
ter. "There is danger," he observes, "oi con- 
tracting inflamation of the bowels or cholic, in 
washing the bellies of horses in winter; and to 
treat mare- in foal — which they will be at this 
time of the year, in this way, is little short of 
madness." He recommends watering b fore 
meals and rubbing afterwards, as a preventive 
of colic; that plan allowing the food to settle 
some before the animal is put to active service. 
In summer, and also in the warm weather of 
spring and fall, horses at work shoulo be watered 
between meals. The} 7 are too often allowed to 
suffer for water during the busy season. A cis- 
tern, with a watering trough adjoining the sta- 
ble, gives great security for ihe regular water- 
ing of the animal, as well as of his cut or crushed 
food. 

Oats and rye straw cut up and mixed with 
bran or shorts has long been esteemed by farm- 
ers a nutritious, wholesome food, cheaper than 
gr.dn-feeding in the old way. 

"Manager Feeding." — A mode wherein the 
wasteful and expensive rack is superseded, and 
hay, instead of being fed separately, is cut up 
and mixed with the grain— has been much ap- 



proved in England. The reasons why it is bo 
cheaper and better than corn or oats and hi 
s-paia'ely, are very satisfactorily given 
Youatt, page 372, as follows: 

The system of manager feeding is becomii 
general among farmers. There are few hors 
that do not habitually waste a portion of th< 
hay, and, by some,, the greater partis pull 
d wn and trampled undeT foot, in order first 
cul the sweetest and best locks, and which cou 
not be done while the hay was enclosed in t 
raik. A good feeder will afterwards pick 
much of that which was thrown down ; b 
some of it must be soiled or rendered disgustir 
and in many cases one third of this division 
their food is wasted. Some of the oats and bea 
are very imperfectly chewed by all horses, aj 
scarcely at all by hungry and gree.ly ones. T. 
appearance of the dung will sufficiently evin 
this. The observation of this induced the ado 
tion of manager feeding, or of mixing a porti 
of the chaff with the corn and beans. By tfl 
means the animal is compelled to chew 1 
food ; he cannot, to any degree, waste the stra 
or hay; the chaff is too hard and sharp to 
swallowed without considerable masticatic 
and, while forced to grind that down, the oe 
and beans are ground with it, and yield rnt 
nourishment; the stomach is more slowly fii! 
ed, and therefore acts better on its contents, a 
is not s i likely to be overloaded ; and the i 
creased quality of saliva thrown out in t 
lengthened maceration of the food softens it, a! 
makes it more fit for digestion. 

But an improvement even upon the cut a! 
mixed food here recommended by Youatt, h 
been made since he wrote upon the subject, 
consists in crushing grain, shuck, cob, strs 
and hay, and thus, giving the economic adva 
tage he speaks of to still greater degree, (for 
does not mention the cob, now known to conta 
a considerable amount of nourishment,) and j 
ihe same time saving the horse the labor \ 
grinding down his food, leaving him the tirj 
thus saved for repose. The admixture of tj 
roughmss (chaff as he calls it) keeps the groui 
grain from cloying in the stomach, and the w 
ter a:'ded in mixing, supplies the place of V 
sa'iva furnished to slow feeding, for softeni 
the food and preparing it better for the dige 
live organs. Many farmers estimate- the advg 
tage in saving food by this mode of feeding | 
be as much as one half. — The machinery l 






THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



133 



ashing varies greatly in the quantity of power 
quired and work executed in a given time. 
nrie can be worked by hand, some by hoi so 
>wer, and some by steam. Sinclair's, costing 
35, can grind about five bushels an hour, with 
le horse and two men. (See Cultivator, Jan- 
,ry, 1852, page 56.) A. N. Wood & Co's 
stable steam engine, of eight horse-power, is 
sed hy J. A Humphreys. Esq., of Versailles, 
y., in preparing food with corn-crushers and 
,raw cutters for one hundred head of cattle and 
orses 

With one of Sinclair's screw propeller Out- 
ers he has cut up a four-horse wagon load of 
ats in twenty-two minutes, and with Pitt's 
ru her he has ground thirty bushels of corn in 
le ear per hoar. (See Cultivator, July, 1856, 
age 211.) On the same page is described a 
mnvenient "Cut-Feed Mixter, - ' intended to pre- 
sent the accumulation and freezing of water in 
he bottom of the box in the whuef. The box 
s a half-circle, and the lid another half-circle, 
he box containing the fe.d, and the lid the 
vhee', with three spokes or peddles, for mixing 
he food Afer the wafer is poured in upon the 
food, it requires but haT a minute to do ti.e 
jiuixi'ig completely * Boiling grain lor work 
horses is of very question able advantage. Ste- 
phens (page 547 F nines' Library; gives he 
jre.-ults of very careful experiments in feeding 
boiled food, iaw food, and buried food — die last 
probably equivalen to crushing. "The two 
first," says he, "gave results sq n early alike., 
(that it seems inexpedient to incur the expense 
of cooking food for horses. Bruised raw grain 
seems the most noii siting, and, in not requiring 
cooking, of course the most economical mode." 

Pumpkins, ca; rots, beets, turnips and poia 
itoes, cooked or raw, make a v ry agreeable am 
idition to t'e horse',-, tiill of fare. The two rir-t 
are probably the most wholesome and nutri- 
tious, and the first .and turnips the cheapest. 

Horses should be suited on e or twice a week. 
For mares in foal the salt must be free from 
blood. 

An essay on the farm horse would, in the 
estimation of many, be very incomplete without 
some mention of the merits of thf> mule, Jbr they 
regard this the best 'of all work-animals foi tin 
farm. 

Mules are smaller than horses, hut when from 
14j to 15g hands high, are capable o perform 
ing any of the ordi ary farm work ot the latter 



I i hey may not be equal to Lrj;e hor es for a sin- 
gle hard pull, but their powers of endti ance are 



wonde fill, and their ability to stand h t supe- 
rior greatly to that of horses possessed of as 
much strength. In the West Indie.--, an in the 
'm.'uthern States, they are employed and almost 
exclusively instead of h rs s. Their docility is 
U'reat'y superior to th . t of the race h, rse, the 
only breed of horses matches for t lem in the 
heat, of the July or Au-ust day. In heal h and 
thrift and hardihood they haveg<eatiy the ad- 
vantage over horses. "i hey are randy I nown 
to be sick, perhaps ne--er bjii d, except by acci- 
deiit, can often work a w ole winter on a farm 
without shoeing,, can b< j i .aimain d on les f nd 
and cheaper foqd — the proportion of h y to corn 
being much gi eater th n with hoses, a d he 
wbole amount of food no more tha t o thirds 
as gre.t — they suffer less, and recover move 
easily from neglect, and abuse, and . re s pro- 
verbial for lo gevity tha the question has been 
asked, "Did any body ev. r see a dead niu e V 
Some have been known to attain the age Hot- 
ted to, but so rarely attained by man, viz: 
three-score y .a:s and ten ; and many h tve been 
known to be valuable for work at from oO to 40 
yea<s of $ge, whereas it is a rare thi g for a 
horse to be worth a y thi g after 20 years. 
Theyar be!, er than hors :.s for cultivating era s, 
[heir feet bang smalb r, ad their step more 
straight and true, and ai-o requiring a shortet 
swingle-tee, they can be driven closer to the 
crop withoot [rseading on it or breaking it- do., n. 
Their mischievous propensities are pe haps 
greater; naturally than those of horses; but if 
they are brought up and treated properly, 
they are by no paeans troublesome. The writer 
owns a pair of mules which have been wo king 
on the farm fos about seven years and h ve 
never gotten into mischief, excej t when led 
ioto it ay breachy hor-es. Neither have these 
mules given any appreciable trouble by die 
s tuhbo'nness lor which they are thou ;ht to e 
re.earkabie. In his opi inn the stub -orntiess of 
theSnule results from ab se, and its itijsch'ef 
fern n gliirence on the part of t e fa iter, 
who-e low fe ces may rem t the horse as well 
as ih i mule to become breach. 

John S. Sk "nner, in his v Suable ess<y, 'The 
Ass and the Mule," sums up the comp -risv.n be- 
tween the In rse.'ind mrile, with theopinio-n that 
the horse is .(all things con id red) twice as ex- 
: ensive an animal for i.rm-worL 



134 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



In breeding mules for the farm, the best 
woik-mares should be selected. "There are 
three varieties of jacks, the heavy Spanish 
jack, with sloutchingears, answering to the call 
of the carthorse, another Spanish breed called 
the Andalusian, with ears shorter and erect, of 
tolerable size, plenty of bone, active and more 
spiritrd, answering to the huntpr, and the Ara- 
bian jack, with ears always erect, of a delicate 
form, fine limbs, and full of fire and spirit." 
See Skinner's Essay for a fuller description — 
Though judicious crosses might produce a bet- 
ter jack than either of the three now is, the An- 
dalusian is at present the best suited to the 
wants of the breeder for the farmer. 



From the New England Farmer. 

Items in Agriculture. 

SWEET POTATOES. 

Allinson, of New Jersey, sets the small tu- 
bers under glass, early ; after sprouting, places 
but one plant in a hill made flat or seucer form; 
after they begin to run, place drift sand around 
to prevent evaporation and retain heat. The 
urine of the cow contains the 14 ingredients 
found in the sweet potato, while the dung, ac- 
cording to Leibeg, contains but 5 of these. 

IRISH POTATOES. 

Knight, of the London Horticultural Society 
says that by taking off the flowers of this root 
as soon as they appear, the crop of the tubers 
or roots will be increased one-quarter. 

GRAPES. 

The roots of the vine will follow manure 
deeply buried, and are thereby retarded. Un- 
derbill, an extensive grower of the Isabella 
grape at Croton Point, buries his street manure 
very deep ; thus the full stimulus of heat does 
not reach their roots until late in the season, 
and thus the energies of the vine are not di- 
rected to the making of wood, but fruit. The 
first pushing of the vine being independent of 
the roots. 

SALT AND LIME. 

Pell, the extensive grower of apples in New 
York, says that he has found a composition of 
one part salt and two of shell lime a capital 
manure for almost every crop of fruit, grain or 
vegetables. 

PLUM WARTS, &G. 

The human stomach accommodates itself to 
\ irious articles of food ; a Greenlander would 



not starve if shut up to train oil alone ; but 
plants are not so accommodating, they are more 
restrictive. The peach tree, plum, &c, need 
the right elements in the soil for their perfect 
growth. It is likely that the excrescence upon 
the plum, the bitter rot in the apple, and the 
cracking of the fruit of the pear, result from 
the lack, or the exhausting of some consistent 
elements of food essential to healthful growth 
and perfect developement. 

SULPHATE OF IRON. 

Gris's method to restore vigor to sickly plants 
is to take 3 or 4 drams of sulphate of iron 
(green copperas) to a quart of water, to water 
roots, 1-4 of a dram for showering the leaves ; 
with one ounce of copperas we prepare 16 quts. 
of the solution for application to the leaves. -~- 
The French physicians have used iron as a re- 
medy for chlorosis in man. Scoria or black- 1 
smith's cinders have been used around the pearl 
tree with marked success. Probably the effect 
of hanging old horse shoes upon the limbs of ! 
trees for the prevention of insects, has result- I 
ed from the gradual mingling of the oxide of 
iron with the soil of the roots. 

GUANO. 

A heaped tea-spoon full of Peruvian to one 
gallon of soft water for pot plants in a growing 
state. A barrel of yellow loam, 1-2 bushel of 
broken charcoal, 1-2 peck of guano, is a fine 
compost for pots or garden vegetables. 

MELON. 

Christiana melon. This fine early yellow 
fleshed cantelope, Downing thinks was produc- 
ed from a cross of the citron and netted vari- 
eties; it is earlier than the green flesh sorts. 

ASHES. 

Wood ashes and peat well incorporated, is 
we believe, as fine a compost for fruit trees ge- 
nerally as we can well obtain. 

SUGAR WATER. 

Sir II. Davy has said that different plants of 
grapes grow much more luxuriantly when wa- 
tered with solution of sugar, than with com- 
mon water, the two liquids differing in nothing 
but the presence of carbon in the fermer, and 
its absence in the latter. 

QUINCE. 

It is a delusion that these trees want a damp 
and shady position, and that they do not re- 
quire manuring. They should be placed in 
good loam, and the earth to be loosened deep- 
ly by the subsoil plow, or trenched by double 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



135 



spading, and well manured with a good com- 
post in the drills. Shorten in the branches (1-2 
of last year's growth,) give the roots a good 
drenching with water in setting, leave the soil 
around the stem concave, place them 10 feet 
apart, and the rows 12 feet; prune just after 
the fall of the leaf, or early in March ; fork in 
late in the fall, 3 or 4 shovelfulls of manure ; 
after digging and loosening the soil in the 
spring, then give the whole a broadcast of 
salt 

LEAF MANURE. 

The best manure, says Liebeg, (Humus) for 
any plant is the decomposed leaves and sub- 
stance of its own species; hence when the 
small onions or scullions as they are called, are 
left upon the bed, and turned under the soil, 
they greatly benefit the succeeding crop. Leaf 
manure is not, according to him, an entirely 
vegetable substance, but rather mineral vege- 
table, as th ey contain large quantities earthy 
matter. An annual dressing of salt in moder- 
ate quantities, sown broadcast over the whole 
garden early in spring, is beneficial, destroying 
the germs of insects and acting on the foliage 
of plants, retaining moisture, &c. Ten bushels 
to the acre will answer the purpose. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The value of products in Agriculture in U.S. 
in 1847 was $700,000,000. 
23,076 persons employed in inter, navigation. 
56,021 " " on the ocean. 

65,255 " " learned professions. 

119,507 " " commercial. 

791,749 « " manufactures. 

While in agriculture, the volue of its pro- 
ducts in 1747, was $700,000,000. 

LIME. 

A farmer commences with the use of lime on 
his soil ; the first season he sees an improve- 
ment ; he continues its use for some two or 
three years, and finds but little, if any percep- 
tible change in his crops ; he now cries hum- 
bug, this use of lime. Now the truth is, that 
in his first application, the land was rather de- 
ficient in lime only ; but in not using other ma- 
nure in connection, other substances in the soil 
were exhausted ; potash or soda was now want- 
ed, and hence the constant use of lime only for 
a series of years will injure and deteriorate the 
soil. 



WILD GRAPES. 

The question is often asked by the farmer, 
whether the native grape, if removed to our 
gardens and subjected to good culture, would 
not improv.e in the character of its fruit, and 
become less austere or foxy. This method was 
adopted some years since by Professor Gim- 
brede, of West Point, who collected every 
known variety from the woods, manured and 
pruned them with great care, in the hopes of 
changing or ameliorating their character ; the 
experiment was a failure, although the fruit was 
greatly increased in size, some berries being 
larger than the Black Hamburg, yet the flavor 
and rough state of the fruit remained the 
same. Yours, 

J. W. IVES. 



How to Raise Turkeys. 

A correspondent of the Country Gentleman 
says: Will you allow me in farmer style, 
through your paper to give my experi ence in 
raising turkeys, for the benefit of your readers. 
I commenced raising turkeys about three years 
ago, but never met with any success until the 
last season, 1855. The winter previous I win- 
tered one torn and two hens, and they laid six- 
ty eggs, from which I raised forty-five turkeys 
from fifty hatched. Until the last summer I 
never could raise over one-fourth that were 
hatched. 

My mode of raising them is as follows : I 
made each hen lay two sittings, which they 
will do without injury if they are well win- 
tered. I sit two sittings under dunghill fowls 
and the remainder under turkey hens. As 
soon as they are hatched, I have crates provi- 
ded and immediately shut, them up for four 
weeks, and then let them range anywhere on 
the farm. 1 feed them on Indian meal and 
keep buttermilk constantly before them. I 
throw about half an ounce of asafetida in their 
milk each day, and this keeps them lively, 
and they are never bothered with lice. When 
I let them out, they seem to grow up without 
any more trouble. 

I think there is nothing that will afford our 
farmers greater profit than turkeys, if man- 
aged in this way. I think the whole secret of 
my success lies in the asafetida. My debt and 
credit stands as follows ; 



138 



THE CAEOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



It has been stated before, that the most ef- 
ficient part of farm-yard dung is that small 
portion, invisible in the mass, which consists of 
earthy and alkaline salts and ammonia. The 
other ingredients which constitute the great 
bulk of fnanure, consisting of carbon and the 
elements of water, are abundantly supplied by 
the atmosphere to the growing plants, and 
therefore, a loss of these by needless fermenta- 
tion or neglect, is of little importance, were it 
not that their loss is unavoidably accompanied 
with the waste of the more essential substan- 
ces in the manure described. It should be the 
object of the farmer, not only to prevent the 
waste of such precious substances by every 
means that knowledge and ingenuity can de- 
vise, but also to make every addition to them 
that nature or local circumstances have placed 
within his reach. 

These very desirable purposes he will be bet- 
ter able to carry into effect when he fully un- 
derstands the nature of the manure he has un- 
der his management, and by that means he can 
exercise a sound discretion in adding to its 
quantity and effect. 

Let it not be alleged against any inquiry by 
the farmer into the constituent nature and che- 
mical properties of his manure, that he has no 
ideas attached to the several terms used to de- 
signate the substances of which it is said to 
consist. He is obliged to learn the names and 
uses of the several implements he employs in 
the cultivation ; and upon what principle, we 
may ask him, should he refuse to make him- 
self acquainted with the names and general pro- 
perties of the produce he raises 1 But little 
effort is required to obtain a precise knowledge 
of the several elements or substances, at least 
by the employment of which, he is enabled to 
raise arid increase his crops, and is it not plea- 
sant to learn as well as most useful to under- 
stand, the reason of their value to him ? Nor 
is. this limited degree of chemical knowledge 
of difficult attainment. Every farmer has seen 
wood ashes, and also seen water poured upon 
them, for the purpose of extracting a some- 
thing ; that substance is chiefly potash, which 
may be seen by evaporating the clean water, 
which leaves the alkali behind, and the dregs 
which remain behind consist, for the most part 
of earthy phosphates — a similar substance to 
the earth of bones. Soda is now so commonly 
used, as to be known at sight to most persons; 



lime and magnesia are still more familiar ; am- 
monia is the common pungent salt of smelling 
bottles ; sulphuric, muriatic and nitric acids 
are extensive articles of commerce, and with 
phosphoric acid, may be found at any chemist's 
shop, and these acids as well as their bases — 
potash, soda, lime and magnesia — may be had 
for a trifle, either separately or combined as 
salts. When, therefore the appearance, or 
more obvious qualities of these several sub- 
stances have become familiar, their efficacy as 
manure may be proved by mixing them tho- 
rough^ with two or three hundred times their 
weight of mould, and applying the compost to 
garden plants. The farmer might in this way 
soon become acquainted with the name, char- 
acter and properties of the invaluable substan- 
ces contained invisibly in the muck of his yards; 
and would be the better able, and more de- 
sirous, to prevent their stealing away from 
him." 

Multum in Parvo- 

A " notion" of ours. — If we could manufac- 
ture a journal for farmers precisely to our 
liking, we would have all the short, pithy arti- 
cles, containing as many thoughts as words in 
the May, June, July and August numbers, re- 
serving the long and more labored ones, till 
farm work should become less absorbing.- — 
Without expecting however to reach our "beau 
ideal," we will attempt a few thoughts for the 
season in S'« few words that the working farmer 
can catch them at an odd moment, and digest 
them ss he goes afield. 

A duty of yours. — The first thing for every 
firmer is to improve himself, and see that his 
children are growing up to adorn his own pro- 
fession or any other they may choose to engage 
in. More than half the future Presidents, cab- 
inet officers, men in all responsible stations, are 
to be grown on the farms of our country. — 
Now, farmers and planters, you must grow 
large crops ; it is a great loss to only half cul- 
tivate the land. You must grow fine cattle ; it 
would be a shame to perpetuate the scrubs. — 
You must drive a horse to admire and not one 
to be ashamed of, since in the long run it will 
cost no more ; but above all things you must 
grow good boys and girls, for the country 
wants them, it must have them, and nobody in 
the world is so well situated for raising them 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



139 



just right, healthy, vigorous, intelligent, incor- 
rupt, as the farmer. Let no day go by, not 
even in harvest, without getting a new idea, 
and see to it that your children are getting new 
Jdeas and right ones. We want to say more, 
but you must think out the rest. 

The In-door Stock. — In order that the farm- 
er mny always be on the road to self-improve- 
ment, that his sons may assist in his labors not 
only without injury to themselves but with 
positive benefit, and that his laborers (for he 
ought to look to their good) may participate in 
the general welfare, the work should, as far as 
possible, be so laid out that every hand may 
do a reasonable day's work everyday, and nev- 
er more than a reasonable day's work in one 
day. This is very important. V\ here the farm 
work is skilfully bossed, to use an expressive 
term, the farmei hi;;, self is more at ease, has 
more leisure moments, can get a little time to 
read, *an think more clearly, is less confused in 
his ideas, and will possess a ca'mer and more 
reliable judgment. It is so with all who work 
under him. The more perfectly every one un- 
derstands his duty, the more easily can he do 
it, and the more opportunity can he get for 
self-improvement. Lay out the plan of the 
farm operations considerately; execute the plan 
kindly but firmly. Nothing, we know, is more 
difficult, yet few things are more important. — 
The products of the farm will be greater; the 
profits will be increased ; and what is infinite 
ly more, every man and boy on the farm, and 
every member of the household will arise to a 
belter condition in such a state of things. Our 
readers will forgive the homely designation at 
the opening of this paragraph, since we have 
just avowed our belief that out of such a stock 
will come the future Presidents and great men 
of the nation. 

Outdoor Stock. — Of horses, cattle, sheep, 
swine, poultry, etc., we suppose our readers 
know more than we, and better understand 
their interests. A word nevertheless for them 
to think of. If you get into a better class of 
horses for the road, or of horses, mules and 
oxen for field labor, there will be extra expense 
in the outset, but ever after they will do you 
more work in proportion to their feed, and 
whenever you have one to dispose of you will 
receive more. Is it not so? and is not the 
profit of fine working animals greater in the 
end? and is theie not an innocent pleasure in 



seeing and using such animals ? and is there 
not in the constant use of such animals, grate- 
ful, capable of appreciating kind usage, noble 
sp'rited, a re-action favorable tb the man him- 
self ? We hardly dare broach this last thought. 
It will to many of our readers look like a very 
whim. But look at it All the world is a 
school to one who has his eyes open. "We 
verily believe that more can be learned from a 
majestie thunderstorm than from a tempest in 
a tea pot ; more from a noble, tall, wide-spread 
tree than from a shrub ; and why not more 
from the driving of high bred animals in one's 
life, than from being constantly with those of 
inferior grades? The thing is not unreasona- 
ble. If we had boys growing up on a farm, 
we should rather they should drive the best 
animals than the poorest — should expect they 
would love them more and abuse them less, 
and make likelier men for it, other things be- 
ing equal. But there are motives enough, aside 
from this, to encourage improvement in work- 
ing animals. 

The great motive with the farmer, with re- 
gard to working and all other animals will be, 
that after having once made the change, there 
will be an increased profit. But how shall the 
improvement be inaugurated ? The generality 
of farmers can not well pay fabulous prices for 
stock to begin with. We think they should 
select the best of their own as breeders. More 
attention should be given to pairing them suit- 
ably. Select the best of each kind early ; rear 
them in a way to produce an early and high 
development, of whatever the animal is capa- 
ble of making. Good keeping, kind care, and 
suitable pairing will, in a great majority of 
cases, be followed with satisfactory results. — 
The larmer who will proceed in this way, in" 
stead of selling the best of his young stock to 
the butcher, will soon find improved races about 
him. A few years will witness decided chan- 
ges for the better. If he would avoid loss of 
time let him procure blood stock from those 
who have imported and are propagating it, nor 
should he begrudge the payment of pretty 
high prices, as compared with the price of 
common stock, since the results will soon com- 
pensate him, and especially since those among 
us, who have imported and are breeding fine 
stock are doing a good thing for the country 
and at a very heavy outlay. 

The House, Out-ouildings, Barn. — Don't 



•40 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



talk obout the house now, we seem to hear you 
sa,y. Well, perh-ips you have enough else to 
do. But a word about the barn, and we will 
let the rest go till ,you are more at leisure. Is 
it ali ia order? If not, look about and see 
what can be done before the crops are gathered 
in. Do that now, and leave the rest for au- 
tumn, but do not forget to have all right from 
foundation to ridge-pole before another winter 
comes. Winter in no part of our country is 
much to be dreaded by the farmer, if he has a 
warm barn and warm sheds for his cattle. It 
is inhuman, or at least inhumane, not to have 
them, in by far the largest part of our territory, 
and it is unprofitable in all. 

Grass for Say. — When shall it be cut ? We 
say clover, when in full blossom ; herds-grass 
when out of blossom, but before the seed is 
fully ripe ; other grasses, a little before they 
begin to dry up and become woody. The su- 
gar turns to wood, and becomes indigestible if 
grass stands too long. If cut much belore or 
much after the periods indicated, it is less val- 
uable. Nevertheless the difference is not as 
great as sometimes stated ; and we say again, 
as we have often said, that no farmer should 
do more than a fair day's work in a day, nor 
require his hands to do much more, for the sake 
of cutting his grass at precisely the best time. 
It comes just when the hoe crops are to be at- 
tended to, and on the very eves of the wheat, 
rye, barley, and oat harvest, and when the 
flax, if that is grown on the farm, and we think 
it ought to be more than it is, requires to be 
secured. All good farmers are exceedingly 
anxious to get in the hay at the right time ; 
and how to do it and not neglect other busi- 
ness, is a harder problem than that of the fox, 
the goose and the bushel of corn. Every far- 
mer must solve it for himself. There is one a 
little worse than to mow too soon or too late, 
and that is to have hay caught in a shower 
when ready to go into the barn. The damage 
to hay, of being wet after being thoroughly 
dried, is considerable, in addition to the labor 
of drying it over again. Yet it would not be 
wise to pitch a load of hay in less than half 
the usual time even when a shower is at hand. 
Health is worth too much to peril by an unrea- 
sonable violent exertion. Our idea is that 
more men are seriously injured on the farms 
of this country in July than all the rest of the 
year. The effect follows insidiously and they 



are not aware what the cause was. Clover is 
better to lie a few hours in the swath, till the 
ground becomes heated, then to be turned over 
on the hot ground between the swaths, to be 
put in* small tumbles towards night, these to 
be turned over the next morning at 10 or 11 
o'clock, two to be put into one at middle after- 
noon, the same day, and then be let alone till 
pretty thoroughly dried, than to be treated, as 
it often is, in a way to deprive it of nearly all 
its leaves, and to convert its stalk, by too much 
exposure to the sun, into a dry, woody and 
indigestible mass. As to the degree of dry- 
ness which should be aimed at, in curing clo- 
ver and other grasses, much depends upon the 
quality of the moisture. If it is the natural 
juice of the grass, no harm accrues, even if it 
heats slightly in the mow; but if it is rain 
water, the effect is worse. We have always 
observed that a water soaked load injures the 
whole mow. A too green load may produce a 
fermentation, which we should dislike, but is 
not as apt to produce smut and unpleasant 
odor. 

Indian Corn. — When will it get its three 
dressings this year? While we write (June 
15) it is hardly out of the ground. Our opin- 
ion has always been in favor of giving this 
crop its three dressings in rapid succession so 
as to finish it before entering upon harvest, be- 
lieving that if the weeds are well fought in 
June and the beginning of July, they will not 
become very impudent after thai, and that the 
stirring of the ground will not more than com- 
pensate him for the injury to the roots, by late 
cultivation. But when that work will be done 
this season, we suspect every man will have to 
ascertain for himself. We will only say that 
we do not believe that very late cultivation is 
good for this crop. 

Pastures. — Our observations incline us more 
and more to the belief that permanent pastures 
are the true policy. This of course will de- 
pend much on the nature and use of a farm. — 
The grain farmer, whose land is all suitable for 
the cereals would hardly like the idea of set- 
ting apart large portio s for permanent pastu- 
rage ; and the farmer on bi-oken land can do 
no otherwise if he could. In a recent trip 
through the Eastern counties of this State we 
have been highly gratified with the almost 
universal thrift of the farmers, and have wit- 
nessed the most striking proofs of the benefit 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Ill 



of plaster on old pastures. Thousands of the 
farmers in these high mountain regions are 
using it, and the quantities of milk, butter and 
beef coming down the Harlem road, show witn 
what effect; while the style in which these 
farmers live shows that a good deal of money 
goes up the same route. It is said that plas- 
ter does not suit all land. We would not re- 
commend a large and indiscriminate outlay for 
plaster by those who have never tried nor seen 
it tried near them ; but we do say that the far- 
mer who has extensive pasture land's, who goes 
on from year to year without informing him- 
self by actual trial, whether fifty cents' worth 
of plaster to the acre would double the feed, 
is not true to himself. Woed ashes at twenty- 
five cents a bushel, or an} r thing less, are a 
good investment for most pastures ; and we 
doubt whether there are many pastures on 
which it would not be good policy to put 100 
' pounds ot plaster annually, at $10 the ton, 
though we believe that in many regions, it can 
be had for less than half that price. The good 
effects do not always come out the first year. 
Those who make the experiment should con- 
tinue it two or three years at least. "We say 
to farmers, after observing the good effects of 
plaster on many farms for some twenty years, 
and after hearing from not a few farmers that 
plaster does them no good, believe nobody> 
take nobody's word, try for yourself, and see 
with your own eyes, whether or not plaster 
will double your feed. The question is worth 
settling on your own authority. 

Salt for the Extirpation of Moss. — " It is 
stated to have proved efficacious during several 
years' trial. The salt is sowed broadcast, and 
in a few weeks after its application the moss 
(and heath) begins to wither, and shortly is 
destroyed ; in its place sweet grasses and nu- 
tricious plants make their appearance, and the 
herbage on such spots is greatly relished by 
cattle. It is warned not to use too much salt, 
else the grass itself is injured; the proper 
quantity is (in English measure) four bushels 
per acre." So says the Journal Ag. Soc. Han- 
over, translated by Professor J. W. Johnson. 
We know nothing about it. The trial would 
cost little, and should be made at once. The 
farther from the ocean the more likely it would 
be to succeed. 

Saltpetre a Cure for Garget. — J. Ellsworth, 
of Ann Harbor, Mich., says of a cow with 



swollen udder, that " I then pronounced it gar- 
get, and gave her a teaspoonful of saltpetre at 
night in her mess, and another dose the next 
night, which has cured her, and she is gaining 
in her milk very fas;." We hive seen this re- 
commended so often and from so high sources 
that it would seem as if there must be iruth in 
it. Were a case of the kind ours, we would 
try half a teaspoonful, morning ami night, and 
continue it some days, and then if i cure were 
not effected, perhaps would increase the quan- 
tity. Potash, whether in the form of saltpetre 
or saleratus, is more congenial to the soil than 
to the animal stomach, and if taken into the 
latter at all, should be taken rather as a med- 
icine than as a part of the habitu .1 food, wheth- 
er for man or beast. 

Short Horns.— Mr. Thomas Willis, of Swate 
Ireland, obtained from a Short-horn cow: "in 
1851, when 3 years old, from one week's 
cream, 18 lbs. butter (16 oz. to the lb) In 
1855, when 7 years old, from one week's 
cream, 21 lbs. 4 oz. In 1857, when 9 years 
old, from one week's cream, 21 lbs. 8 oz. In 
the same year, the second week after calving-, 
21 lbs. 8 oz. In 1853 we conversed with a 
farmer in Berkshire (Eng.) who milked sixty 
Durham cows, which he said would average 
1400 lbs. of beef when fattened, that he found 
them the most profitable dairy cows, and that 
a brother of his, who had milked the same 
number of Herefords, was fast exchanging- 
them for Durhams, convinced that the latter 
were the most profitable. These fasts look very 
much as if the Durhams, or Short-horns may 
be better, as milkers, than we have been wont 
to believe. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that the feed in all these cases was that 
of no ordinary pastures. — Ed. 

Plough, LoomanU Anvil. 



■^« ♦ »-»— 



Guano. — Persons using this fertilizer should 
be careful to prevent it coming in contact with 
any wound, sore or abrasion of the skin. Mr. 
Edward Hall, of Dennis, in planting pro- 
duced a blister in the palm of his hsnd, and a 
portion of guano coming in contact with the 
wound, was followed by a severe swelling, 
which became so painful that apprehensions 
were entertained that amputation might be ne- 
cessary. Under the surgical treatment of Dr. 
Nye, the hand is now partially relieved, with a 
prospect of ultimate recovery. — Real Estate Re- 
gister. 



142 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Covering Manures. 



The following is from the American Farmer. 
It is agricultural gospel and should be treasur- 
ed up and practiced. It will save you money 
as well as coin it. This is practical — it has 
been tested. You may rely upon it. Read it 
again — 

" It has been said with great probity and 
truth, that manure is the farmer's gold mine, 
and we will add,, that manure is to the vegeta- 
ble kingdom what blood is to the animal sys- 
tem, the source of life We, therefore, most 
earnestly advise, nay, conjure every culturist 
to exert himself by every possible means in his 
power to accumulate everything that may be 
convertable into manure, and when accumula- 
ted, to protect it from the sun, wind and rain. 
But few ever think how great a loss they sus- 
tain, by permitting their manure to be expos- 
ed to the sun, the wind and the rains, and as 
few reflect that ten loads of manure, well ta- 
ken care of, are intrinsically worth more and 
will go farther as a fertilizer than twenty loads 
that may have been kept without regard to the 
preservation of its more en idling properties. 
Many a fanner, through want of attention, suf- 
fers his dung pile to become exhausted of its 
principles of volatility lon^ iiefore he hauls it 
out to his grouyds for use -and many, after 
hauling it out, permit it to pnain unplowed in 
for weeks, thus exposing it to further loss— 
and then, perchance, blames cit!:er his land or 
his manures for a fault that should properly 
attach to himself, for having failed lo preserve 
the virtues of his tuaaure, 

Every body of manure should be kept cover- 
ed with earth a few inches in depth, until ta- 
ken out for use, and when taken to the field 
should be plowed in as speedily as possible, or 
each pile, as thrown from the cart or wagon, 
should be covered with the surrounding soil, 
and that compressed with a shovel. But this 
kind of care, owing to the high price of labor 
in our country, is more than can be expected 
from the generality of farmers — therefore, for 
the present, all that can be expected is this, 
that the cattle and other yards should be suf- 
ficiently dished in form as to prevent the rich- 
ness of the manure from being wasted by run- 
ning away on the occurrence of each succeed- 
ing rain ; that each yard be provided with a 
Sarge body of rough vegetable matter and earth 



— say to the extent of six or eight inches or 
more in depth over the surface of such yard, 
the dish-like form being preserved in spreading 
— to absorb the liquid voidings of the stock, 
and that plaster or charcoal be strewed over 
the yard every few days to arrest and fix the 
volatile gases — and further, as the excrements 
of the animals accumulate 'a few inches in depth 
through the season over the yard, these should 
receive additional coverings of earth." 



On the Advantages of Stirring the 
Soil in dry weather. 

We find the following Experience in the 
Genessee Farmer, an old and staunch friend, 
by the way, that takes occasion to call and give 
tis good advice each month. Read it — 

" I have known instances where a narrow 
strip has been left unbroken in a summer-fal- 
low during a d^ summer, and after harvest it 
was all plowed together. The unbroken strip 
would appear almost destitute of moisture, 
while that which was plowed and frequently 
ajiited with the harrow. or cultivator exhibited 
quite a contrast. 

1 1 is the common experience of farmers, that 
wheat sown in a dry fall upon fallow ground 
is much more liable to come up well, than when 
sown on stubble. 

Again, in hoeing corn in very hot weather, 
you could fairly see the corn grow, upon leav- 
ing the field at night. I have measured some 
hills that were hoed and some that were not, 
and the next night compared their growth din- 
ing the tv< enty-four hours. The result was that 
the hoed had made about twice the growth of 
the unhoed. 

Two years ago last summer I planted rather 
late in the season a small piece to cucumbers 
for pickles. The soil was dry, sandy loam, 
with a warm, southern exposure to the sun. I 
determined to stir the soil often. We all felt 
the effects of that unusually severe drought. — 
The piece yielded a fine lot of pickles, the vines 
remaining green and bearing, until destroyed 
by the frost ; while vines in the neighborhood 
treated in the ordinary wav, were dried up and 
barren. So much for facts. Now, how are 
these results to be accounted for ? 

We have seen that the soil frequently stirred 
had gathered moisture, and had also received 
from some source, nutrition. From what source 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



143 



and by what powers were those supplies of 
moisture and nutrition derived ? It is a well 
known fact that the driest atmosphere contains 
vapor, which is usually deposited in the night 
upon any substance that is sufficiently cool to 
condense it into water in the form of dew. At 
the close of a hot day, when the air is calm and 
the sky clear, vegetatian soon radiates suffici- 
ent heat to reduce its temperature to the dew 
point. The naked earth does not possess this 
power; hence we often find dew upon vegeta- 
tion, when the bear ground is dry, not having 
cooled enough to condense the vapor in the 
proximate atmosphere. But if the ground is 
mellow, the air will penetrate its surface, car- 
rying its vapor until it reaches a cooler soil, 
where it is condensed into dew, which diffuses 
itself through the mellowed earth. 

Your agricultural readers have probably no- 
ticed that fresh plowed ground is frequently 
covered with dew, and sometimes with frost 
when the adjoining ground is dry. 

I riiL.lc I have succeeded in accounting for 
the presence of moisture in soil frequently stir- 
re i, who.; almost entirely wanting ir compact 
■hound; vv-t 1 believe that water is not the, on- 
ly ingreiii.' it ti ..it soil frequently stirred derives 
fV.r.a th>' ..;..)<.)-. heie. 

! am (. i'-od with you, Messrs. Editors, 
t'.ir.t pitm gii is an important element in the 
pabulum < !' • »ps. Nitrogen is present in the 
fu'in of aiii ,;/.iia to a certain extent in the at- 
mosphere, and as it has a strong affinity for 
water, bei g -bsorb.'d by it in large quantities, 
is it not reasonable to infer that it is combined 
with the vapor, and with it conveyed to the 
roots of growing plants to minister to their 
urgent necessity ? Like favorable effects may 
be produced in mellow soil by the light show- 
ers that frequently occur, even in the dryest 
weather. The difference in the depth to which 
light showers will penetrate in soils frequently 
stirred, and those left hard and baked, U very 
appreciable. 

In conclusien allow me to exhort my brother 
farmers to keep the plow, the hoe and the cul- 
tivator pretty busy in their corn, potatoes, root 
crops, and even their wheat fields, believing it 
will do more to counteract the injurious effects 
of our severe droughts, than any other means 
which they can employ. 

Palmyra, N.Y. P.C.R. 



" That there are advantages to be obtained 
by stirring the- soil in dry weather, no person 
can doubt who has ever tried it, and as there 
certainly is some cause therefor, every inquir- 
ing mind will seek to know what those causes 
are. I am convinced that by the stirring, the 
soil causes the moisture from below to rise to 
the surface, and also prepares the soil by loos- 
ening it to absorb and retain the moisture of 
the atmosphere, which is so very essential to 
the growth and maturity of the growing crops, 
keeping it green and in a flouishing condition 
during the dry weather. Whereas if the soil is 
not stirred, (but let it wait for rain, as some 
farmers have done to my knowledge, because 
they were afraid they would kill, or at least 
very materially injure their crops,) after a few 
days it will become so dry that the moisture 
from below the surface will not rise even dur- 
ing the night season sufficient to keep the crop 
green and flourishing, and the soil will fail to 
absorb and retain the atmospheric moisture ; 
hence the crop becomes withered and begins to 
show signs of failure much sooner^ than where 
the soil was stirred and kept loose, proving 
conclusively, (to my mind at least) that stirring 
the soil in dry weather is a great advantage to 
the growing crops. 

Laurel, Delaware. W. 



Mysteriss of a Junk of Coal. 

For years no one supposed that a piece of sorl 
coal dug from its mine or bed in the earth, pos- 
sessed any other propert}^ than being combusti- 
ble, or was valuable for any other purpose than 
as a fuel. It was next found that it wou'd afford 
a gas which is also combustible. Chemical 
analysis proved it to be made up of hydrogen. 
In process of time mechanical and chemical in- 
genuity devised a mode of manufacturing this 
gas and applying it to the lighting of buildings 
and cities on a large scale. In doing this other 
products of distillation were developed, until 
step by step the following ingredients or mate- 
rials are extracted from it : 

1st. An excellent oil to supply light-houses, 
equal to the best sperm oil, and at a lower cost. 

2. Benzoic. A light sort of etherial fluid 
which evaporates easily, and combining with 
vapor or moist air is used for the purpose of 
portable gas lamps, so called, 



144 



THE CAROLINA CULTINATOR. 



3. Naptlm. A heavier fluid, useful to dis- 
solve Gutta Percha, India Rubber, etc. 

4 An oil excellent for lubricating purposes. 

o AspliaUum, which is a black solid sub- 
stance, useful in making varnishes, covering 
roofs and covering over vaults. 

6. Parrafine. This is a white chrystahne 
substance resembling white wax. and which can 



ified to see the question in my caption discussed 
with ability and earnestness by a writer in one 
of the best, and one of the neatest appearing 
journals of the west, namely, the Wisconsin 
Farmer, This writtr, who says he is neither a 
farmer nor a man of science, lends the sanction of 
his authority— that of a man-of good judgment 
to the views which have been named, as of- 



i it melts I ten presented and inculcated in your pages. He 

^z^^^f^A^ in w,sconsin - ,aesti " n ,8 often 

excellent light 



All of these substances we learn by the 
Plough Loom and Anvil, are now made from 
the soft coal found in Kentucky, and manufac- 
tured by the Breckinridge coal company at Clo- 
versport, in that State. They have twelve re- 



asked, "Why cannot our state raise as good 
wheat as she used to do before about 185U?" 
In reply to this question, this writer, who uses 
the signature of J. C. L., Juneau, Wis., states 
that when the country was first settled the in- 
habitants threshed entirely with the flail, and 



^ ::^ ^ night, .ons^were accustomed also to save the „p«t „d 

"ht or ten tons of coal every twenty-four hours best of the grain for seed. To secure the rip- 

i o 1 hardly realize as he takes a lump of es and best they were i. he ha b.t, many of 

heSt mutty co'al in his hand, that he holds them, of throwing down the bundles and beat- 

^ILed^herein,.! these different ingre- mgthe tops untU that porUon a was com 



dients chained within, and which a little heat 
properly applied will liberate and present in 
their separate forms, ready for the several pur- 
poses to which they are adapted.- Maine Far. 

■■»■ ♦ ♦*• ■ 

From the Country Gentleman. 

Deterioration of tlie Wheat Crop 

— One Cause. 



pleteiy matured, and most easily, therefore, freed 
from the hull, had been threshed out. " The 
bundles were then thrown i-ack upon the mow 
and reserved for the mill 

By this course the very hest of the crop was 
saved for seed, and secured whole and unin 
jured; whereas it is generally allowed that th 
, machines now used break the largest and besi 
kernels, and injure a great many so as to put 
them beyond all possibility of germinating. 

I have been informed by those who have bee 
at the pains to investigate this subject, and t 
examine wheat after threshing, that they haVj 
noticed many kernels in which the little gen 



Your colurns have been occupied occasionally 
for several years, with direct, statements of the 
fact that seed wheat is materially injured when 
threshed by machine, or with indirect and inci- 
dental allusions to this fact, in articles treating .. 

of matters connected with it. The injury thus towards one end seemed to be beat in or scoope 
done' to seed wheat has been frequently set out> and at all events injured so as to appe 
forth as a reason why the quantity of seed for. qu i te unlike its condition in a sound kernel, 
nierly sown and deemed sufficient for an acre These suggestions will receive, I trust, \\ 
should now be increased considerably, as a large 



proportion of the kernels are usually broken o r 
otherwise injured, as to make it impossible that 
that they should germinate. The injury thus 
done, lias also been presented as a probable 
cause of the young plan's being feebler and 
slower of growth, and consequently more liable 
to attacks of insects, wevils, &c than if the pro- 
duce of sounder and plumper seedf 

Deeming the consideration? above named, and 
the changes in ripening and threshing wheat in- 
tended for seed, which would naturally follow 
from practicing according to these considera- 
tions, of no little importance, I have been grat- 



con^ideration to which they seem to be well e 
titled, some at least among your readers, and I 
the farmers of New -York and other states, 
well as of Wisconsin. If any of your readd 
have reserved a patch of wheat for seed, a 
ihreshed it by flail, of late years, or thresh 
out some of the ripest in the way above m( 
tioned, we would be pleased to be informed 
the results observed in a subsequent crop. 

OBSERVER 



Good wheat soil contains twenty times mi 
lime than old, exhausted fields. 







InanttHn fgriralto, H&rtiritiutn, miii ft Mn^nu %xk 



WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher. 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, % C, AUGUST, 1857. 



NO. 6 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

TERMS. 

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Subscriptions may begin with any number: but 
when not otherwise directed, the back numbers of 
the current volume will be sent. 

RATES OP ADVERTISING. 

One square 12 lines, one month, §1 00 

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lOnepage « 50> 00 



From " Cozzen's "Wine Press," (published in N. Y.) 

American Wines- 

In Georgia, the luscious muscadines, gather- 
ed in the wild state, produce a wine of consid- 
erable merit; as yet, no attempt has been 
nade to give them a formal training, except 
lere and there, upon a small scale.* This i s 
,lso the case in South Carolina, But here we 
ire in a sister State, a land of promise, of vines, 

* Dr. Cammack, of Athens, Georgia, has, quite a 
irga vmeyard, and raises quantities of grapes annu- 
lly. Whether he makes wines, we do not know 
'here is much wine made for family use in various 
arts of G., from the wild grapes.. 



and pines, and mines ; of tar and turpentine ; 
the natal soil of the Isabella, the Catawba, the 
Her^emont, and the sonorous Scuppernong— 
North Carolina! 

We shall have occasion to speak of the Ca- 
tawba, the Isabella, and the Herbemont, here- 
after; the two first, unquestionably owe their 
reputation to the skill of the cultivators of Ohio 
and New York, and have only a limited growth 
in their native State; but Scuppernong vine- 
yards are found from Currituck on the ex- 
treme north, to the southern counties on the 
Cape Fear River, and extend inland, almost to 
the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains : while 
so various are the qualities of wine produced, 
that some kinds command three or four dollars 
per gallon, and some kinds can be purchased 
for five or six dollars per barrel! There are 
two species of this grape, the best having a 
white, silvery skin, with a rich, metalic lustre, 
while the inferior kind bears a small, black 
berry.. Mr. Longworth says, "the black Scup- 
pernong bears from one to four berries on a 
biinefey-and would, in times of war, if lead be 
scarce, be as valuable, even wien fully ripe, as 
the Fox grape, for bullets." The white Scap- 
pernong, also has a very small bunch, and is a ' 
better grape than the black But the skin is 
thick, and the pulp hard; it will uever be val- 
uable as a wine grape, unless to give to other 
must aroma and flavor. 

If for no other purpose than this, namely, to 
mix with the must of l«ss flavoraus grapes,' to 



146 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



give character to the wine when made, this 
Scuppernong will prove to be most valuable to 
this country. The " Traminer " of the Rhein- 
gua, a small berried grape, abounding in sac- 
eharum, and full of aroma and strength, is so 
used to mix with the "Riesling/' the favorite 
grape of the Rhine, in the production of the 
first class German wines. And that the gen- 
erality of European wines owe their excellence 
to the judicious mixture of various growths 
and vintages, is so well known as scarcely to 
need repeating here. In particular, Madeiras, 
Sherries, and Champagne wines are so com- 
posed ; the capitaz, or head butler of the Span- 
ish bodega, or wine-cellar, being a most impor- 
tant personage, to whom is confided the ex- 
quisite task of balancing flavor against body, 
and lusciousness, which might cloy, against 
acerbity, which might repel until the whole 
perfected vinous mass becomes the golden po- 
table which even the gods might envy. So 
highly are the services of this great functiona- 
ry prized, that the capi'.az of a large proprietor 
seldom fails to amass considerable wealth, as 
an instance of which, Juan Sanchez, the capi- 
taz of the late Pedro Domez, died recently, 
worth £300,000. 

But the value of the Scuppernong as a wine- 
grape, has not yet become fairly tried; at least 
not in North Carolina. Of all tke samples we 
have tasted, not one was the pure and original 
fermented juice of the grape, but, in every 
ease, more or less sophisticated with sugar or 
honey, and not unfrequently with whiskey or 
brandy. It is usual to add three pounds of su- 
gar to one gallon of the must, and then a little 
distilled spirits of some kind is poured into ev- 
ery barrel of wine, " to make it keep." Sub- 
jected to this treatment, the fluid degenerates 



allowance of sugar, while the Catawba wine 
requires but little. McCulloch, in his treatise 
on wine-making, makes a very accurate dis 
tinction between this " sweet principle," and 
that which constitutes the " sugar/' in fruit 
The latter, the saccharine principle, is the ele-, 
ment which, by the process of fermentation, ; 
transmitted into alcohol, or spirit of wine, 
certain percentage of which is necessary in al. 
vinous fluids. This spirit of the wine is deriv 
ed directly from the sugar of the grape. Now 
the difference between the sweet element am 
the saccharine element, is very clearly showi 
by Mr. McCulloch, who illustrates the subjec 
by comparing molasses with refined sugar- 
the first being much the sweetest of the two t 
the taste, and yet not comparable to the latte 
in its proportion of pure saccharum. And, 
we may venture upon a theory, we should sa 
"that the reason why sweet grapes make 
wine less sweet than those not so dulcet to tr 
taste, lies in this :-that in the sweet grape tl 
whole quantity of saccharum is absorbed in tl 
production of alcohol, while in those more 
bounding in sugar, & portion only is transmu 
ed into alcohol ; the superflux of sugar remai 
ing in undisturbed solution, and sweetening ti 
wine, less or more, as may be. , ' 

Now, the Scuppernong grape produces a wi 
naturally hard and dry, with little to recoi 
mend it.but its peculiar aroma and flavor ; an 
in consequence, the must is artificially swe 
ened to make it a marketable or a saleat 
commodity. So long as this method of tre 
ment is practiced, neither it, nor any other 
merican wine so used, can rank with any wir 
of Europe, except with the spurious prodt 
tions of Cette, Lisbon, and Marseilles, i 
difficulty lies in this— our vine growers 



into a sort of vinoas grog, 
character as a wine is almost entirely lost.— 
Still, in spite of this, it has an aroma which is 
somewhat grateful. This mistake must be rec- 
tified, as a larger experience obtains among 
our vine dressers of the South; let us look into 
the matter a little closer. 

That species of the muscadine, called the 
Scuppernong, is a very sweet grape, but sweet 
grapes are eftcn wanting in saccharine matter. 
For a familiar instance, take the Catawba and 
Isabella grapes. To the taste the latter is by 
far the sweetest fruit ; nevertheless, in making 
a sparkling wine, the Isabella needs a liberal 



and its peculiar \ afraid of a hard, dry win*,— because popu 



• 



I 



taste so far (especially in the rural distric 
has been corrupted by the sweetened, sophi 
cated, poorest class of imported wines, the sw 
malagas, and pure juice ports, that arecurr 
in every country town. Pure, wholesome wii, 
never are, and never should be, sweet ; a gl 
of surrup is no refreshment for a laborer, 
a miserable solace for the student, and a 
daily beverage for anybody, actually repulsj 
and as we are looking forward to the pei 
when our wine shall be used, not only at « 
dings, merry-makings, balls and dinners,! 
as the common drink for all classes of pec| 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR, 



147 



we should define now and here, that by wines, Catawba there is an abundant bearer and the 
we mean thepure Rented juiceofthegrape, wine made from it is essentially different fr m 
without the admixture of anything else whate- that nf Ohin r\,~ .,:„„.„ ., f^. *. . . 



without the admixture of anything else whate 
ver.* 

That the Scuppernong is a hard, dry wine, 
when made without sugar, is doubtless true ; 
but the question is, " what character will this 

very wine assume when mellowed by age ? 

The Sercial, the king of Maderas, is a harsh, 
austere and repulsive drink, for the first few 
years, nor is it drinkable until'age has carrect- 
*d the acerbity of its temper— but what then ? 
Then it becomes one of the most exquisite flu- 
ids in the world, and commands a price supe- 
rior, in some instances, to any known wine 
with the exception of Imperial Tokay The 
real merits of the native wine of North Caroli- 
na, then, still need development ; age and pro- 
per treatment must, in time, produce something ; 
:or the Scuppernong is not destitute of delicate 
iroma, an important quality, indeed. The 
node of culture is peculiar— the vines (layers, 
»ot cuttings), are planted one hundred feet 
ipart, the main branches have space to run 
ifty feet each way, at right angles from the 
entre, before meeting. Each vine may be rep- 
esented thus + the laterals interlacing over 
ead and forming a canopy. The branches are 
ever pruned, as it is said, « the vine would 
leed to death." Like the vines in Lombardy, 
lese are high trained (haut tige), the lowest 
ranches being eight feet above, and parallel 
ith the ground. The yield is most abundant; 
single vine often bearing thousands of bunch- 
;, the berries small and but few to the bunch, 
istances have been cited of single ones yield- 
g «nough grapes to make several barrels of 
ine, and covering two and a half acres of 
ound. We have no data to estimate the 
:arly produce of these vines, neither the quan- 
y nor value ; but we are well convinced that 
en now the statistics of grape culture in this 
ite would present an imposing array of fig- 
Pi 

We have already seen specimens of native 
.es of Virginia, of excellent quality. The 



that of Ohio. The climate of this State would 
seem to -be peculiarly adapted for the purpose, 
and the wild and waste land might be turned 
to profitable account in the production of vines 
To Virginia we are indebted for many species 
already popular, among which, we may instance 
"Norton's Seedling," the -Woodson, and 
"Cunningham." Here, too, the Bland grape 
grows abundantly, under the name af the Vir- 
ginia Muscadel. In Maryland and Delaware 
•ilso, a variety of native grapes are cultivated! 
some of extraordinary productiveness. One 
vine raised by Mr. Willis (near Baltimore), in 
1832, yielded twenty-five thousand bunches- 
and in the following year, Messrs. C. M* 
Bromwell and R. Monkland certify "that 
they counted upon it, fifty-four thousand tour 
hundred and ninety bunches, omitting small 
and young ones, which would have added at 
least three thousand more."* Whv Messrs 
Bromwell and Monkland could not wait till' 
the young ones grew up, is a question. To 
leave three thousand bunches out of the tally 
because they were small and green, is an h> 
suit to Young America. 

That part of the United States between the 
hirty-eighthand forty-fourth paralles of lati- 
tude, so far, is entitled to the supremacy in 
grape culture. Already the wines of Ohio and 
Missouri begin to supplant the imported Rhine 
and Champagne wines here, even at the same 
prices Terraces rise above terraces on the 
hill sides of the Ohio river, and the red bluffs 
begin to disappear beneath masesofvine fol- 
iage and purple clusters of fruit. In Pennsyl- 
vania, at the end of the last century, an assort- 
ation was formed for the purpose of cultivating 
he grape for wine, and vineyards were estab- 
lished at Spring Mill, under the superintendance 
of Mr. Peter Legoux. This was a failure- 



" Be assured," says President Jefferson, in a let- 
to Maj. Adlum, April 20, 1810, ■ that there is nev- 
*e atom of anything whatever, put into the good 
es of France. I name that country, because I 
vouch the fact from the assurrnce to myself, of 



ftomiS ■ f i Vmeyard ' aboutei g"teen miles 
from Wilmington, N. C, two gentlemen, Mr. J. R 
Restonand another) made an estimate of the pro-' 
duce of two vmes. They laid out a square by meas- 
ure, and picked the grapes within it, and by taking 
the number of square yards of the entire space oc- 
cupied by the vines, they were able to tell from the 
quantity gathered in the square, that the two vines 
would y,eld one hundred and fifty barrels of grapes 
1 aking the weight of a barrel at 200 lbs. this would 

am<-.nn* in IK nnn . . . 



rigneronsofallthe best wine a ; toned of ha .ZZ?iTS , "^ " ^ ^ "* W0B,d 

.try, whichl visited myself." that ^^^15,000 pounds to each vine, orsevenanda 


















foreign wines were tried and ^ abandone an ^ ^ a ^ ling '. The las t grape is th 

finally the wild grape called the Sch uylW »^ P ^ alg0 in Kentucky aB d 

Muscadel met with temporary success 1 was vonte t ^ ^ 

States. 



Now, good menu, u ^« <«~ . 

long itinerancy, take the cool, green glass 



In our own 



"*•""'" long itinerancy, taKe tne com, B »~" e ~~~ 

x. ■ A reach vonder lon°--necked amber-colored, k 

State there is already nruch w,n ™*Iw fllet if T ou be a hock drinke, 



ish looking flask, if you be a hock dnnkei 
if not, let us cut the cords around this 
cork for the luscious fluid confined withi 
fairground bottle, hath that propulsive 
it must needs be imprisoned, and heldw 
atures of flax and wire. You will try the, 
Aha!, you like it, do you? Compare l 

_ .■» am 



ma de from the Isabella grape-m Orange 
county; in Columbia county, among the bha- 
Ss aid on the banks of the Hudson, in the 
neighborhood of the city. We have tried ma- 
ny "of these wines, and although want of expe- 
rience, and improper treatment is manifest, ye 

there is sufficient merit in them, to insure u ^£ti£^Q* "Berg" of 184 
in the prediction "that %*X^^p^«*» last the most agrej 
• soon prove to be one of the most ^v ^ ? That smack of the lips 

fields for enterprise ever present d to g ^ loudl in favor f the other; and what 
of New York." Here is the soil, ^^ c a yo U of its farewell taste-the arrier ^ 
climate for the Isabella; as Ohio is to the Ca 7™° 44 and delicate , and! 

tawba,sowill this State be to his gr *£- \*^T ° ^ ^ u Which 
Here, too, is the market so W %^m^ „ "The first," you say? Br 
transportation will be trifling , andt he day may pete ^^ ^ 

not be far off when ships shal lay beside the atewb ^ ^ 

S ate is peculiarly adapted for the P^P^ffiw* bett J than that." We , 
we may hope hereafter for bftfewmes «S^L e glasses, and en. the a, 
those she now fnmishes *»*fiB» shape. " Try thij 
eign brands. Still ,,8^, w^st ja tn% ^ „ fr ?4tett ^y. 5 ..i B yithe moist, purple 



t^hinsl?i^'''^'„S°¥H " 



trrenar-rasiE*^- ~j — ■— *• - . 
^9Sa6em^^rea« pfci*¥<taw.is dehcr 

'tisa&fp toss* &*&' mi • wtf>»swer, 

fe»'t'^eia" r M^,Wa4(5hinlglthbJ&parl 
the glass up to his eye)-" Not our Is 

We answer, " Cincinnati^ 



5EEBEH tfWis^a 

W-Wffl^lMlWW**?™ m K,,f T Ohio theUp^b^rlgfrid* fr 
throng State. At the Crystal H«WM ^ na tiVTwine, of great 1 

tion, in New York, * pm* ^f^T* tie S nt Leful cultivation of the fruit, 
vine growers of Missouri for samples of supe- [tient, 



aged?" Y»Bttuo"v»i 

2-r„ 
Tiq 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



us management of the fermented juice after- 
rds, is always necessary in the production 
j fine wine ; and this union of scientific cul- 
■e with scientific treatment had never been 
>ught to perfection until the vine dressers of 
io set the example. And first and foremost 
ong these stands Nicholas longworth, as he 
familiarly termed there, ." The father of 
vpe culture in the west.'" It is not alone by 
irs of patient investigation ; it is not alone 
the success which has followed those efforts ; 
ivas not by the vast variety of experiments 
has tried, and by the untiring energy which, 
spite of numberless disappointments, still 
vived and triumphed over every defeat, that 
has won this title from his fellow citizens, 
t it was because every effort and every ex- 
riment was for the benefit of all; because, 
th him, the success of grape culture in this 
imtry was paramount to personal considera- 
ns 5 because, by every means, he spread as 
iely as possible the results of his investiga- 
ns and labors, so that the young vine-planter 
to-day might stand upon even ground with 
nself, the veteran of nearly half a century's 
perience. Adlum and Dufour predicted the 
scess of grape culture in the United States, 
t Longworth, their cotemporary, lived to see 
i prediction verified, and mainly by his per- 
.ial exertions. Would that all patriots were 
rewarded. 

The two principal wine grapes of Ohio are 
i Catawba and Isabella ; the first, however, 
the proportion of twenty to one. Boih are 
tives of North Carolina. The first was found 
d noticed merely as a wild grape, in the year 
02, by Colonel Murray and others, in Bun- 
mbe county, N. C* There it reposed for 
wards of twenty years without attracting at- 
ltion, and so would have remained probably 
til now, had not its merits been discovered 
Major John Adlum, of Georgetown, N. C, 
or about the year 1826. Major Adlum, an 
icer of the Revolution, formerly sutveyor- 
neral of Pennsylvania, was a great cultivat- 
of the grape, and devoted the last years of 
3 life to that purpose. In the course of his 
periments with native vines, he found this 
e in the garden of a German at Georgetown, 
d after a fair trial, was so convinced of its 
hie as a wine grape, that he sent some of the 

* Buchanan. 



slips to Mr. Longworth, with a letter, saying, 
" I have done my country a greater service by 
introducing this grape to public notice than I 
would have done if I had paid the national 
debt.'' Adlum paid the debt of nature soon 
after, but the slips fell into good hands. For 
nearly thirty years, with patient perseverance 
these grapes were nurtured by Mr. Longworth, 
until the hour has arrived whan the prophecy 
of Major Adlum seems certain of fulfilment. — 
Thirty years of patient labor • thirty j r ears of 
unfaltering faith ; thirty years of man's life ; 
what a span it is ! stretching from hopeful youth 
to hoary age; a long while, my good friend, to 
look forward to, a long w r ay to look back. In 
the thirty years to come we may have occasion 
to thank these pioneers — we may see greater 
results than eitheir of them dreamed of. 

The Isabella grape was first introduced to 
notice by Mr. Geo. Gibbs, of Brooklyn, L. I. 
The slips were brought from North Carolina by 
Mrs. Gibbs, his wife, and the vine, in compli- 
ment to her, was named the " Isabella." Ori- 
ginally it was called the "Laspeyre grape, "Mr. 
Bernard Laspeyre, who resided near Wilming- 
ton, N. C, having the parent vine from whence 
these slips were derived. By him it was sup- 
posed to be a foreign grape, but all scientific 
writers on vines in this country assert that the 
species, in a wild state, is quite common, and 
is unquestionably an indigenous production of 
the United States. From these two grapes the 
best wines are made in Ohio. We may also 
mention that the " Herbemont," another varie- 
ty of "the natives," produces an extraordinary 
fine wine, the flavor being like the purest A- 
montillado, and essentially different from the 
other two. Heretofore the demand for home 
consumption has prevented the shipment of 
these wines east of the mountains; but, by the 
increase of vineyards in Ohio and elsewhere, a 
limited quantity is now being sent to this city 
and Philadelphia.* 

An estimate of the entire wine crop of Ohio 
has not yet been made. Within a circle of 20 
miles around Cincinnati there were raised in 

1848, . - - - 84,000 gallons. 

1849, (the worst year for rot 

ever known there), 36,000 

18§2, ..-- 125,000 
1853, .... 340,000 



* The Isabella and Catawba wines of N. Long- 
worth, were first introduced in New York in May, 
1652, by the editor. 












150 



THE CAROLINA CTJLTINATOR. 



This year,+ on account of the severe cold 
weather in the spring, and the heavy, long, 
continuous rains, the crop will be a short one ; 
but new vineyards are multiplying, and, if 
this year does not promise so well as the last, 
yet, from the increased number of cultivators, 
there must be a continually increasing yield of 
wine, as there certainly is a constantly increas- 
ing demand for it. 

In comparing those wines with those of Eu- 
rope, we must bear in mind that they are dis- 
tinct in flavor from any or all of them. Spark- 
ling Catawba is not Champagne, nor can Isa- 
bella be compared with another wine known 
in the world. It is a peculiarity of these wines 
that no spurious compound can be made to 
imitate them, and in purity and delicacy, there 
is no known wine to equal them. From the 
experiments made by eminent chemists, we 
find the percentage of acohol ranks thus, ac- 
cording to Brande, and others : 

Madeiras, - 22.57 

Ports, 22.96 

Sherries, 19.17 

Clarets, ..... 17.11 
Sauternes, - - - - 14.22 
Burgundies, - 14.57 

Hock and Rhine Wines, - - 12.08 
Champagne, - 12.01 

Tokay, 9.85 

Thus, it will be seen, that the most expen- 
sive wine in Europe, the "Tokay," is also the 
lowest in alcoholie per eentage. But, we find, 
by the analysis of our good frined Dr. Chilton, 
that " Still Catawba" shows a per eentage of 
9.50 only, being, in fact, the lowest per cent, of 
spirit to be found in any wine in the world. 

We could pursue this subject for a page or 
two more, but the wine tide is at ebb in the 
bottle. We did intend to speak of the late 
Col. Alden Spooner, formerly editor, in fact 
first editor, of the Long Island Star; a man of 
many virtues, and one who was zealous in in- 
troducing the grape in the Empire State. We 
did intend to speak of a gentleman of Ohio, 
Mr. Robert Buchanan, to whom we are indebt- 
ed for much information on this subject. We 
did intend to speak of other eminent vine- 
growers, but there is a time to squeeze grapes, 
and a time to squeeze hands, and so, reader,— 
vale! 



\ 1854. The crop was a short one. 



Planting a Lawn- 

After what was said in a former paper on th« 
making of lawns, it may be presumed that tin 
ground is in a proper state for receiving thetreei 
to be planted in it: Its low, wet points hav< 
been drained, it has been plowed deeply o 
trenched with the spade, and suitably enriched 
The foundation work is done. 

The next point requiring attention is the for 
mation of a plan according to which the trees 
shrubs and flowers shall be arranged. It is no 
enough to find out how many trees the grounc 
will hold, and then to plant them in rows lik* 
an orchard. Nor is it enough to set them hert 
and there without any design whatever, taking 
it for granted that, because formal lines are avoid 
ed, the scene will therefore appear natural an« 
graceful. Certain designs are more pleasing 
than others ; and there is, probably, one desigi 
better suited to each particular scene than an] 
other. The planter should aim to find out wha 
that is, and then adopt it as his own. 

It is a generally admitted principle, that a'* 
offensive objects within view from the lawi 
should be concealed. It may be a barn or out 
house ; it may be the rear premises of a sloven 
ly neighbor. These should be hidden by mass 
es of trees. Fences should not appear in sigh 
from the lawn. They are seldom handsome ob 
jec's in themselves, and are suggestive of limi 
tation and restraint. They continually remini 
one of the comparative prettiness ofthebeautifu 
scene before him. Let those limits be kept ou 
of view, leaving the imagination to picture an in 
definite scene of delight, of which the lawn i 
the centre. Fences may be concealed by hedg 
es and trees, not set in stiff rows, and so sug 
gestive of what it is desired to keeb out of sight 
but diverging here and there in the premises 
and then retiring towards the fence, in easy 
flowing lines. This boundary belt should b< 
composed largely of evergreens, because thej 
furnish a protection in winter, and more effect 
ually than other trees, conceal fences at all sea-j 
sons of the year. Large trees should be intht 
rear, smaller trees and shrubs next to the lawn 
and running out here and there on its surface. 

The writer of this once visited a country resi 
dence on Staten Island, where this plan had beeij 
admirably executed. Here, there were two o 
three lawns, separated from each other by shrub 
bery ; but the outer boundaries of each wen 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



151 



►lanted with masses of trees and shrubs, shut- 
ing out the roads and fences near at hand, but 
•reserving fine views of the bay and other sce- 
lery about New York. In the back-ground of 
he principal lawn were pines, cedars and hem- 
ocks, intermingled with groups of maples, among 
vhich the dark foliage of the Norway was con- 
ipicous ; here and there tulip-trees and magno- 
las, flaunting their large, glossy leaves ; and in 
mother place were several varieties of the elm. 
[n front of those were smaller trees, such as 
themouutain-ash, fiibut, dogwood, and virgilia 
lutia. Before these again, were shrubs of high 
ind low degree, running out at intervals into 
the lawn, and scattering their blossoms on the 
velvet turf. In one corner, a large, weeping 
svillow, forgetful of all rules, had thrown out its 
long, pendulous branches over smaller trees and 
shrubs, and trailed them on the grass of the 
lawn, forming a picture of luxuriance and 
gracefulness which the visitor could not soon 
forget. 

But, it may be asked, is not this method of 
planting the lawn's boundaries somewhat un 
neighborly and exclusive 1 May not the spec- 
tator from without be permitted a glimpse of 
your smooth sward, your rare trees and flowers 1 
Yes, certainly. A lawn should be somewhat? 
screened from the gaze of street goers, so that 
the family may make it a place of frequent and 
unrestrained resort. "We do not entirely feel 
that to be our own," said Downing, "which is 
indiscriminately enjoyed by every passer-by." 
And it should be remembered that no country 
residence is so perfect in all its parts, that a 
finer effect is not given to some portions if they 
are partially concealed, the imagination of the 
beholder being left to conceive something bet- 
ter of what his eyes are not permitted to see. 
While we say this, it should also be observed 
that the proprietor of a fine place owes some- 
thing to the public. There are many persons 
of rural tastes who have not the means of grat- 
ifying such inclinations in lawns of their own, 
who would, nevertheless,highly enjoy a glimpse 
of such scenes from the road-side. The sight 
of well kept grounds tends to inspire a public 
taste for rural improvements. A truly benev- 
olent man will desire to afford such gratifica- 
tion, and to promote such refinement of the 
public taste. We therefore hold that while 
a lawn should be partially screened from the 
dust and publicity of the highway, it should 



also be open at certain points to easy observa- 
tions from without. 

In determining what trees to plant on the 
lawn, and where they should stand, much will 
depend on the size of the grounds. If large, 
the trees may be of the larger sorts, and groups 
of them may be introduced. But most lawns 
in this country, are small, and masses of trees 
must be confined to the boundaries. And as 
the beauty of a lawn consists chiefly in its 
broad reaches of smooth, unbroken turf, it is 
not advisable to occupy the space with nume- 
rous trees. The lawn is generally a highly 
cultivated scene near the dwelling : the trees 
selected should therefore, be of the finer sorts, 
with neat bark and pleasing foliage. Where 
the space will permit, some should be allowed 
to grow without pruning, from the ground to 
the top, forming a well-rounded mass of wav- 
ing foliage. Evergreens should always bo 
treated in this way, having no gaps in their 
outlines from the branches which sweep the 
turf up to their topmost comes. 

In planting shrubs, some specimens of the 
fine form and foliage may occasionally be plant- 
ed singly, along the borders of walks ; but as a 
general rule a finer effect is produced by setting 
them in groups, the highest in the center, and 
lower ones around them. In grouping, regard 
may sometimes be had to shades of color. For 
example, a striking scene may be produced by 
mingling the dark green of the European Straw- 
berry tree with the gray hues of the Missouri 
Silver tree, and the purple of the Purple Ber- 
berry, the whole softened by blending the 
lighter green of other shrubs with them. A 
very odd scene may be produced by grouping 
the variegated-leaved shrubs, such as the varie- 
gated Syringa, Euonymus, dog-wood, &,c. 

A lawn is not complete without its flowering 
plants. It should not be cut up with large 
beds, and they crowded with straggling, ill-as- 
sorted specimens. The best mode is to cutou* 
in the grass a few circular or other graceful fig- 
ures, near the walks, and to fill them with ver- 
benas, geraniums, petunias, perpetual roses, 
and other plants of neat habit, and which fur- 
nish a constant bloom throughout the summer- 
It is an excellent plan to occupy a portion of 
these beds with early flowering bulbs, which 
can be removed after their period of bloon', or 
their tops can be cut off and the space covered 
again with bedding plants. In this way a suc- 
cession of flowers can be kept up the whole sea^- 
son. A. D. a. 



152 



,■-.; 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



From the Prairie Farmer. 

Influence of Horticulture. 

JBY A. J. DOWNING. 



The multiplication of Horticultural Societies 
ia taking place so rapidly of late, in various parts 
of the country, as to lead one to reflect sowe- 
what on their influence, and that of the art they 
foster, upon the character of our people. 

Most persons* no doubt, look upon them as 
performing a work of some .usefulness and ele- 
gance, by promoting the culture of fruits and 
flowers, and introducing to all parts of ihe coun- 
try the finer species of vegetable productions. 
In other words, they are thought to add very 
considerably to the amount of physical gratifi- 
catons* which every American citizen endeav- 
ors, and has a right to endeavor, to assemble 
around him. 

Granting all the foregoing, we are inclined to 
claim also, for horticultural pursuits, a political 
and moral influence vastly more significant ard 
important than the mere gratification of the 
senses. We think, then, in a few words, that 
horticulture and its kindred arts, tend strongly 
to fix the habits, and elevate the character, of 
our whole rural population. 

One does not need to be much of a philoso- 
pher to remark that one of the most striking of 
our national traits, is the spirit of unrest. It 
is the grand energentic element which leads us 
to clear vast forests, and settle new States, with 
a rapidity unparalleled in the woild's history; 
the spirit, possessed with which, our yet com- 
paratively scanty people do not find elbow-room 
enough in a territory already in their possession, 
and vast enough to hold tlie greatest of ancient 
empires; which drives the emigrant's wagon 
across vast sandv deserts to California, and over 
Rocky Mountains to Oregon and the Pacific ; 
Which builds up a great State like Ohio in 30 
years so populous, civilized and productive, that 
the bare recital of its growth sounds like a gen- 
uine miracle to European ears ; and which over- 
runs and takes possession of a whole empire, 
like that of Mexico, while the cabinets ot old 
monarchies are debating whether or not it is ne- 
cessary to interfere and restore the balance Jof 
power in the new world as in the old. 

This is Ihe grand exciting side of the pic- 
ture. Turn it in another light, and study it 
and the effect is by no means so agreeable to 
the reflective mind. The spirit of unrest, fol- 



lowed into the bosom of society, makes of man 
a feverish being, in whose Tantalus' cup repote 
is the unattainable drop. Unable to take root 
anywhere, he leads, socially and physically, the 
uncertain life of a tree transplanted from place 
to place, and shif.ed to a different soil every 
season. 

It has been shrewdly said that what qualities 
we do not possess, are always in our mouths. 
Our countrymen, it seems to us, are fonder of 
no one Anglo-Saxon word than the term settle, 
It was the great object of our forefathers to find 
a proper spot to settle. Every year, large num- 
bers of our population from the older States go 
west to settle ; while those already west, pull 
up, with a kind of desperate joy, their yet new- 
set stakes? and go' farther west to settle again. 
So truly national is the word, that all the bus- 
iness of the country, from State debts to the 
products of a " true farm" are not satisfactorily 
adjusted till they are " settled ;" and no sooner 
is a passenger fairly on boaTd one of our river 
steamers, tnan he is politely and emphatically 
invited by a sable representative of its executive 
power, to "call at the captain's office and 
settle /." 

Yet, as a people, we are never settled. It is 
one of the first points that strikes a citizen of 
the old world, where something of the dignity 
of repose, as well as the value of action, enters 
into their ideal of life. De Tocqueville says, 
in speaking of our national trait ; 

" At first sight, there is something surpris- 
ing in this strange unrest of so many happy 
men, restless in the midst of abundance. The 
spectacle itself is, however, as old as the 
world. The novelty is to see a *7iole people 
furnish an exemplification of it. 

" In the United States a man builds a house 
to spend his latter years in, and sells it before 
the roof is on ; he brings a field into tillage, 
and leaves other men to gather the crops ; he 
embraces a profession, and gives it up ; he set- 
tles in a place, which he soon after leaves, in 
order to carry his changeable longings else- 
where. If his private affairs leave him any 
leisure he instantly plunges into the vortex of 
politics; and if at the end of a year of unre- 
mitting labor, he finds he has a few days' vaca- 
tion, his eager curiosity whirls him over the 
vast extent of the United States, and he will 



travel fifteen hundred miles in a few days, to 
shake off his happiness." 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



K3 



Much as we admire the energy of our peo- 
ple we value no less the loye of order, the obe- 
dience to law, the security and repose of socie- 
ty, the love of home, and the partiality to lo- 
calities endeared by birth or association, of 
which it is in some degree the antagonist. And 
we are therefore deeply convinced that whatever 
tends, without checking due energy of charac 
ter, but to develope along with it certain vir- 
tues that will keep it within due bounds, may 
be looked upon as a boon to the nation. 

Now the difference between the son of Ishma- 
el, who lives in tents, and that man who has 
the strogest attachment to the home of his fa- 
thers, is, in the beginning, one mainly of out- 
ward circumstances. He whose sole property 
is a tent and a camel, whose ties to one spot 
are no stronger than the cords which confine 
his habitation to the sandy floor of the desert, 
who can break up his encampment at an hour's 
notice, and choose a new and equally agreea- 
ble site, fifty miles distant, the next day — such 
a person is very little likely to become much 
more strongly attached to any one spot of 
earth than another. 

The condition of a western emigrant is not 
greatly dissimilar. That long covered wagon, 
which is the Noah's ark of his preservation, is 
also the concrete essence of house and home to 
him. He emigrates, he "squats' 1 he "locates," 
but before he can be fairly said to have a fixed 
home, the spirit of unrest besets him ; he sells 
his "diggins" to some less adventurous pio- 
neer, and tackling the wagon of the wilderness, 
migrates once mor«. 

It must not be supposed, large as is the in- 
fusion of restlessness in our people that there 
are not also large exceptions to the general 
rule. Else there would never be growing vil- 
lages and prosperous towns. Nay, it cannot 
be overlooked by a careful observer, that the 
tendency " to settle" is slowly but gradually 
on the increase, and that there is, in all the 
older portions of the country, growing evidence 
that the Anglo-Saxon love of home is gradually 
developing itself out of the Anglo-American 
love of change. 

It is not difficult to see how Horticulture con- 
tributes to the development of local attachments. 
In it lies.the most powerful philtre that civilized 
man has yet found to charm him to one spot 
of earth. It transforms what is only a tame 
meadow and a bleak aspect, into an Eden of 



interest and delights. It makes all the differ- 
ence between "Araby the blest," and a pine 
barren. It gives a bit of soil, too insignificant 
to find a place in the geography of the earth's 
surface, such an importance in the eyes of its 
possessor, that he finds it more attractive than 
countless acres of unknown and unexplored 
"teritory." In other words it contains the 
mind and soul of the man, materialized in many 
of the fairest and richest forms of nature, so 
that he looks upon it as tearing himself up, 
root -md branch, to ask him to move a mile to 
the right or the left, Do we need to Say more, 
to prove that it is the panacea that really "set- 
tles" mankind? 

It is not, therefore, without much pleasura- 
ble emotion, that we have had notice lately of 
the formation of five new Horticultural Socie- 
ties, the last at St. Louis, and most of them 
west of the Alleghanies. "Whoever lives to see 
the end of the next cycle of our race, will see 
the great valleys of the "West the garden of 
the world; and we watch with interest the 
first development, in the midst of the busy fer- 
mentation of its active masses, of that beauti- 
ful and quiet spirit, of the joint culture of the 
earth and the heart, that is destined to give a 
tone to the future character of its untold mill- 
ions. 

The increased love of home and the garden, 
in the older States, is a matter of every-day 
remark ; and it is not a little curious, that just 
in proportion to the intelligence and settled 
character of its population, is the amount of 
interest manifested in horticulture. Thus, the 
three most settled of the original States we 
suppose to be Massachusetts, New York and 
Pennsylvania ; and in these States horticulture 
is more eagerly pursued than in any others. 
The first named State has now seven horticul- 
tural societies ; the second, seven; the third, 
three. Following out the comparison in the 
cities, we should say that Boston had the most 
settled population, Philadelphiafthe next, and 
New York the least so of any city in the Un- 
ion ; and it is well known that the horticultu- 
ral society of Boston is at this moment the 
most energetic one in the country, and that it 
is stimulated by the interest excited by socie- 
ties in all its neighboring towns. The Phila- 
delphia society is exceedingly prosperous; 
while in New York, we regret to say, that the 
numerous efforts that have been made to estab- 



154 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



lish firmly a society of this kind have not, up 
to this time, resulted in any success whatever. 
Its mighty tide of people is as yet too much 
possessed with the spirit of business and of 
unrest. 



To Dissect the Atmosphere. 

The atmosphere in which we live, that sup- 
ports all animal life in respiration, and all the 
furnaces, fires and decaying organic matter on 
the globe in combustion — fast and slow — is 
stated to be principally composed of two gases. 
How do we know this? By performing the 
following experiment: Take a glass vessel 
containing a certain amount of water, in which 
is placed a cork to float a piece of phosphorus, 
on its surface ; ignite the phosphorus, then 
place a glass globe over it, (and into the other 
vessel, which must be wider than the globe.) 
White vapors will soon arise from the burning 
phosphorus, which at first burns brightly, but 
soon grows fainter and fainter, then goes out 
entirely. If when the phosphorus commenced 
to burn, the glass globe contained five pints of 
air, it will be found that it only contains four 
pints after it is extinguished. If alighted can- 
dle be now placed in the four remaining pints 
of air in the globe it will not burn, but it would 
have done so freely before the phosphorus 
was consumed in the five pints of air. This 
shows that the properties of the air in the 
globe have become entirely changed by the act 
of combustion with the phosphorus, and that 
the gas which supported combustion— to em- 
ploy a common term — has been all " used up." 
The gas which supports combustion is oxygen 
and the experiment described, by which one 
part of oxygen has been removed out of five 
volumes of air proves that the proportion of 
oxygen in the atmosphere is only as one to 
four of another gas, which cannot and does 
not support combustion. 

The remaining four volumes or pints of air 
left in the globe is nitrogen, which amounts to 
eighty in every hundred parts of the atmos- 
phere. (There is also a little carbonic acid gas 
in the air — one part to every two thousand.) 
The regular proportions of oxygen and nitro- 
gen described in the atmosphere, taken from 
any part of the globe have been found to be 
constant ; they are permanently elastic gases, 



and simple bodies. In the atmosphere they 
are mechanically, not chemically combined. 

By burning phosphorus in the manner de- 
scr'bed we obtain nitrogen gas, which when 
washed, by agitating it with water in a glass 
vessel, may be employed for an elastic gas 
cushion or spring, in a vessel containing mer- 
cury, or any metal where atmospheric air can- 
not be employed, because of the oxygen it con- 
tains having such an affinity for the metals as 
to rust them and destroy their properties. — 
Nitrogen is transparent, has no taste or smell, 
is a perfect non-supporter of combustion, and 
exhibits no tendency to combine with other 
substances. Although four volumes of nitro- 
gen is inhaled into the lungs for every one of 
oxygen during the act of respiration, it pro- 
duces no effect upon the human system. 

At one period it was taught and believed by. 
chemists that oxygen was the sole cause of 
combustion — that when it was not present 
combustion could not take place. This is true 
so far as it relates to combustion in the atmos- 
phere ; but some bodies will burn without oxy- 
gen being present. Thus iron and sulphur, 
when heated, will combine with much light and 
heat; and phosphorus, when introduced into 
chlorine gas, will take fire and burn, combining 
with the gas. The true definition of combus- 
tion is, "chemical combination attended with 
light and heat." 

Although nitrogen is termed the mosl inert 
of gases, because it cannot be made to unite 
directly with any element and only forms 
combinations when one or both elements are 
in the nascent state, yet it plays a most im- 
portant part in the animal, vegetable and min- 
eral kingdoms. It might be readily supposed 
that as oxygen is vital air, and as it alone per- 
forms a part in the act of breathing — the ni- 
trogen being inert — that the greater the quan- 
tity of this gas mixed with nitrogen the more 
healthy it would be for respiration ; it is not 
so, however. It is remarkable that the most 
powerful of acids, aquafortis, is composed of 
five parts of oxygen (vital air) and only one of 
nitrogen. — Scientific American. 



Blackberries are very beneficial in cases of 
dysentery. The berries are healthful eating. 
Tea made of the roots and leaves is good ; and 
syrup made from the berries excellent. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



155 



Artificial Propagation of Fish- 

This subject is attracting considerable atten- 
tion in our country at present. In 1856, the 
Legislature of Massachusetts adopted a resolu- 
tion, under which commissioners were appoint- 
ed to examine into it and report such facts as 
they could obtain, to the next General Court. 
Three commissioners were selected — R. A. 
Chapman, Henry Wheatland, and N. E. At- 
wood — their report has been published, and is 
now before us. Mr. Atwood, who is a practi- 
cal fisherman, and also a learned ichthyologist, 
was intrusted with the charge of making expe- 
riments and observations and confined his atten- 
tion to trout. His experiments were conduc- 
ted at Sandwich, but they turned out failures. 
He obtained 15,000 eggs, and they all rotted ; 
this he attributed to the character of the water 
in which the experiments were conducted. — 
November is the spawning season of trout and 
salmon, during which period, they are very 
poor, and should not be allowed to be caught 
or sold. 

Although the experiments with the eggs of 
trout failed with Mr. Atwood, the commission- 
ers believe that such fish may be profitably cul- 
tivated. They state it as their belief that there 
are many farms in the hilly regions of Massa- 
chusetts, containing trout streams, that, with 
little pains, might be made to yield a greater 
income than the land itself. Much might be 
done to increase their value without resorting 
to artificial breeding. The preparation of suit- 
able ponds or pools of deep water and gravelly 
beds, suitable for spawning, with guards to pre- 
vent the destruction of fish by freshets, would 
greatly increase the stock. " But the process 
of artificial propagation,'' says the report, " is 
so simple and easy that when trout become an 
object of care, we cannot doubt they will be 
multiplied and protected by this method. — 
Many millions of fine trout may thus be pro- 
duced annually, and what is now regarded as 
a mere temptation to waste time, may be made 
not only to minister to luxury and health, but 
become an important branch of productive in- 
dustry. In addition to this, fish ponds with 
borders of trees and shrubbery, add to the 
beauty of a landscape, and increase the value 
of a farm." 

It is stated that in England, salmon have 
been propagated with success, and that of 



300,000 of their spawn 275,000 were hatched 
artificially. 

It is our opinion that this subject deserves 
great attention, because in many of our creeks 
and rivers that once tenmed with the finest 
salmon, not one is now caught. When the 
first settlers came to our shores, they found 
salmon in every running brook having easy ac- 
cess to the sea ; now such fish are alone ob- 
tained from the " Northern Provinces." 

But there is one feature connected with fish 
culture, which we wish to impress indeliblv 
upon the minds of those who wish to re-stock 
our streams with an abundance of good fish ; 
that is, they must keep the streams clean and 
pure, if they expect to succeed. 

It is true that salmon and other fish have 
been banished from rivers and creeks in which 
they once abounded ; but this was not owing 
to the great depredations of fishermen, as has 
generally been supposed. 

The erection of saw mills on creeks and 
rivers destroyed the spawn of both salmon and 
trout, and it has been found that the former 
fish have been banished from all rivers on 
which chemical works have been established. 
They love clear running streams of water, and 
flee from saw-dust and the drainage of chemi- 
cal works in rivers, as people do from a pesti- 
lence — they are a sensible fish. 

Scientific American. 



Ants- 



From the Scientific American. 

-Their Senses and Habits- 



"Go to the Ant, thou sluggard," is advice 
not only against sluggishness, but is applicable 
to other things, particularly as it relates to what 
may be accomplished by the combination of 
individuals under great disadvantages. 

The only medium which ants possess for ac- 
quiring and imparting information appears to 
be their antenuse, or feelers, having neither of 
the two most useful sense s for learning which 
larger animals possess — seeing nor hearing — 
and if they have the sense of smelling it is very 
limited. I have placed sugar within half an 
inch of their trail to a sugar barrel, f nd they 
would pass without noticing it until one of 
them accidentally strayed within touch of it, 
when others would soon follow by feeling their 
way. I have placed a thin strip of wood not 
wider than the length of an ant, across their 



156 



THE OAEOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



trail, and it embarrassed them; they would 
turn towards each end of it and return, until 
some bold fellow ventured across it, when the 
rest followed. I caught a number of them on 
a chip with sugar on it, placed near their trail, 
and gently removed it to" the opposite side^ 
about a foot off; when they finished their re- 
past they went feeling around in every direc- 
tion, and often returned even when they had got 
within two inches of the great thorougfare where 
the multitude was passing ; they neither saw 
nor heard them ; but as soon as they struck 
the trail they took the homeward course, and 
ceased to return. 

The above experiments were made with the 
small red ants. When they first discovered the 
sugar those returning from it would extend 
their antenae to those they met, make one or 
two short jumps, and the latter would quicken 
their pace, as if satisfied with the information. 

Whenever ants discover the trail of another 
tribe in rather suspicious proximity to their 
own dwellings, if they are of equal size with 
themselves, they sally out in a body to attack 
them ; but if they are a size or two smaller — 
the very small ones they never notice — one 
or two guards take possession of the trail, 
and cross and r-ecross it with the most unwea- 
ried diligence for hours and days together, and 
wo to all they catch. But scores will pass 
within one or two inches of a guard without 
either being aware of the other's presence. 

Notwithstanding the want of these senses a 
community of large ants will explore an area 
of ten to fifteen acres, and if one of them 
makes a discovery of food, intelligence of it 
will be circulated so rapidly that they will form 
a trail to it in one night, though it be one hun- 
dred and fifty yards off. Their sense of feel- 
ing is extremely delicate, for by it they can 
spread an alarm, distinguish a friend from a 
foe, follow a trail over a smooth floor, and con- 
vey any intelligence which may be necessary 
for them to know. Tn their wars they are very 
destructive, and this appears to be a provision 
of nature to prevent their increase. Two ants of 
about equal size will fight to the death without 
yielding. In a regular battle between two 
tribes it is their custom to carry off the dead 
and wounded from the field. 

H. Pollard. 

Lexington, Mo., June, 1857. 



[Of all insects, ants seem to have the most 
perfect powers of communicating with each 
other, yet th«y emit no sound, like bees, but 
only use signs and motions, employing their 
attenae for such purposes ; and, as our corres- 
pondent states, if they have the power of 
vision, it must be very feeble. Still, " if they 
see not" it is not for want of eyes— these they 
possess. — Scientific American. 



Astonishing Feat of a House 
Spider. 

It would seem that there is no living thing 
so obnoxious as not to find admirers. What 
creatures so repulsive as rats and spiders ? Yet 
the London Quarterly finds something beauti- 
ful and even loveable in the former, and Dr. 
Asa Fitch, in Harper's Monthly, labors to show 
that the "latter delicate little objects" are 
worthy of all praise. In support of these 
views he tells the following curious story con- 
cerning a heroic spider who captured a snake. 
The affair came off last summer in the store of 
Charles Cook, in the village of Havana, Che- 
mung county, N. Y., and is attested by the 
Hon. A. B. Dickinson of Corning, " who him- 
self witnessed the phenomenon, as did more 
than a hundred others present." 

An ordinary looking spider of a dark color, 
in body not larger than that of a common 
house fly, had taken up its residence, it ap- 
pears, on the under side of a shelf beneath the 
counter of Mr. Cook's store. What may we 
suppose was the surprise and consternation of 
this little animal on discovering a snake, about 
a foot long, selecting for its abode the floor un- 
derneath, only two or three spans distant from 
its nest ? It was a common silk snake, which, 
perhaps, had been brought into the store un- 
seen in a quantity of saw-dust with which the 
floor has been recently "carpeted." The spi- 
der was well aware, no doubt, that it would in- 
evitably fall a prey to this horrid monster the 
first time it should incatiously venture within 
its reach. We should expect that to avoid 
such a frightful doom, it would forsake its 
present abode, and seek a more secure retreat 
elsewhere. But it is not improbable that a 
brood of its eggs or young was secreted near 
the spot, which the parent foresaw would fall 
a prey to this monster if they were abandoned 
by their natural guardian and protector. We 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



m 



can conceive of no other motive which should 
have induced the spider so pertinaciously to 
. remain and defend that particular spot, at the 
imminent risk of her own life, when she could 
so easily have fled and established herself in 
some secure corner elsewhere. But how, we 
may well ask, was it possible for such a weak 
tender little creature to combat such a power- 
ful mail-clad giant? Her ordinary resort, that 
of fettering and binding her victim, by throw- 
ing her threads of cobwebs around it, it is plain 
would be of no more avail here than the cords 
upon the limbs of the unshorn Sampson. * * 

By what artifice the spider was able in the 
first of its attack to accomplish what it did, we 
can only conjecture, as its work was not dis- 
covered until the most difficult and daring part 
of its feat had been performed. When first 
seen, it had placed a loop around the neck of 
the serpent, from the top of which a single 
thread was carried upward and attached to the 
under side of the shelf, whereby the head of 
the serpent was drawn up about two inches 
from the floor. The snake was moving around, 
and around incessantly, in a circle as large as 
its tether would allow — wholly unable to get 
its head down to the floor, or to withdraw it 
from tha noose ; while the heroic little spider, 
exulting no doubt in the success of its exploit, 
which was now sure beyond a peradventure, 
was ever and anon passing down to the loop 
and up to the shelf, adding thereby an addi- 
tional strand to the thread, each of which new 
strands being tightly drawn, elevated the head 
of the snake gradually more and more. 

But the most curious and skillful, part of the 
performance is yet to be told. When it was in 
the act of running down the thread to the loop 
the reader will perceive it was possible for the 
snake, by turning his head vertically upward, 
to snap at and seize the spider in his mouth.— 
This had, no doubt, been repeatedly attempted 
in the earlier part of the conflict ; but, instead 
of catching the spider, his snakeship had only 
caught himself in an additional trap. The spi- 
der, probably by watching each opportunity 
when the mouth of the snake had been turn- 
ed towards her, adroitly, with her hind legs', 
as when throwing a thread around a fly, had 
thrown one thread after another over the 
mouth of the snake, so that he was now per- 
fectly muzzled, by a series of threads placed 
over it vertically, and these were held from 



being pushed assunder by another series of 
threads placed horizontally, as my informant 
states he particularly observed. No muzzle or 
wicker work for the mouth of an animal could 
be woven with more artistic regularity and 
perfection ; and the snake occasionally making 
a desperate attempt to open his mouth, would 
merely put these threads upon a stretch. 

The snake continued his gyrations, his gait 
becoming more slow, however, from weakness 
and fatigue ; and the spider continued to move 
down and up the cord, gradually shortening it, 
until at last, when drawn up so far that only 
two or three inches of the end of his tail touch- 
ed the floor, the snake expired, about six days 
after he was first discovered. 

A more heroic feat than that which this lit- 
tle spider performed is probably nowhere up- 
on record — a snake a foot in length hung by 
a common house spider! Truly, the race is 
not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong! 
And this phenomenon may serve to indicate to 
us that the intelligence with which the Crea- 
tor has endowed the humblest, feeblest of his 
creatures, is ample for enabling them to tri- 
umph in any emergency in which He places 
them, if they but exercise the faculty He has 
given them. It is only the slothful, cowardly, 
timorous, that fail, and they fail not so much 
before their enemies as before their own supine- 
ness. 



Regulations 

Ofthefiifth N. C. State Fair, to be held in 
Baleigh, commencing on the 20th Oct., 1827. 

1. All members of the N. C. State Agricul- 
tural Society will be furnished with a badge of 
membership, upon payment of the annual tax 
of $2, and will be required to wear the same 
during the Fair. This badge will admit the 
ladies of his family and children under 18 years 
of age, during the fair. 

2. Members of the Society and families alone 
will be admitted on Tuesday, the day for exam- 
ination and awards by the judges. All compet- 
itors are expected to be present. The public 
will be admitted on and after Wednesday, at 
10 o'clock. Price of admission 25 cents. Chil- 
dren and servants 12g cents. Clergymen, Ed- 
itors and pupils of charitable Institutions ad 
mitted free. 

3. Agricultural Societies and Institution 



158 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



from other States are invited to send Delegates. 
Such Delegates will be presented with a com- 
plimentary card. 

4. All exhibitors who intend to compete for 
the premiums of the Society, must become 
members of the same, and have their articles 
on the ground and entered at the Secretary's 
Office in Reception Hall, at or before 5 o'clock 
on Monday evening, Oct. 19th, without fail, so 
that they may be arranged in their respective 
departments, and in readiness for examination 
by the Judges on Tuesday morning at 10 
o'clock. 

5. The regulations of the Society must be 
strictly observed by exhibitors, otherwise the 
Society will not be responsible fortho omission 
of any article or animal not entered under its 
rules. , 

6. No article or animal entered for a premium 
can be removed or taken away before the close 
of the exhibition. No premium will be paid on 
articles or animals removed in violation of this 
rule. 

7. All articles and animals entered for exhi- 
bition must have cards attached with the num- 
ber as entered at the Secretary's Office ; and 
exhibitors in all cases must obtain their cards 
previous to placing their articles or animals on 
the Fair grounds. 

8. Those who wish to offer animals or arti- 
cles for sale during the Fair must notify the 
Secretary of such intention at the time of en- 
try. 

9. The Executive Committee will employ a 
day and night guard, and will use all reasona- 
ble precaution in their power, for the safe pres- 
ervation of all articles and stock on exhibition, 
but will not be responsible for loss or damage 
that may occur. Exhibitors must give atten- 
tion to their articles or animals during the Fair, 
and at the close of the exhibition attend to their 
removal. 

10. The awarding committee or judges, se- 
lected for the next Fair, are earnestly request- 
ed to report themselves to the chairman of the 
Executive Committee at Reception Hall, upon 
the grounds of the Society, on Tuesday morn- 
ing, the 20th day of October, 1857. 

11. In no case can the Judges award special 
or discretionary premiums ; but will recom- 
mend to the Executive Committee any articles 
in their class which they may deem worthy of 



special notice and for which a premium has not 
been offered. 

12. The Judges on animals will have regard 
to the symmetry, early maturing, thorough 
breeding, and characteristics of the breeds 
which they judge. They will make proper al- 
lowances for the age, feeding and condition of 
the animals, escpeciaily in the breeding classes, 
and will not give encouragement to over fed 
animals. 

13. No stock of inferior quality will be ad- 
mitted within the grounds ; a committee will 
be appointed to rule out all below a medium 
grade. 

14. Animals to which premiums have been 
awarded must be paraded around the track, 
that visitors may see the prize animals. 

15. No person will be allowed to interfere 
with the Judges during their adjudications. 

16. The several Superintending Committees 
will give particular direction to all articles in 
their departments, and see that all are arranged 
in the best order possible to lessen and facilir 
tate the labors of the Judges in their examina- 
tion. 

17. The Superintendents will attend each set 
of Judges in their respective departments and 
point out the different articles or animals to be 
examined, will attach prize cards to the articles, 
or flags to the successful animals after the 
Judges' reports have been made up and deliv- 
ered to the chairman of the Executive Corn- 
mi ttee. 

18. The judges will withhold premiums on 
animals or articles in their opinion not worthy • 
though there be no competition. 

19. Premiums of $25, and upwards will be 
awarded in Plate, unless the person to whom 
the award is made shall prefer the payment in 
money. 

20. Stock brought to the Fair for sale, will 
have an enclosed lot adjoining the Fair grounds 
assigned them, with water convenient, where 
they can be kept at the expense of the owner, 

21. Articles manufactured in the State, when 
brought in competition with foreign articles 
will take precedence, other things being equal 
and the foreign article be entitled to a second 
premium. 

22. Articles not enumerated will be entitled 
to discretionary premiums at the option of the 
Executive Committee. 

23. The Chief Marshal, with efficient aide, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



159 



will be in attendance during the hours of exhi- 
bition to keep proper order. 

24. No exhibitor will be permitted to enter 
more than one animal in each of the sub-clas- 
ses. 

25. Animals, when duly entered, are well 
provided for by the Society, without charge to 
the owner, and .cannot be removed from the 
ground, except by permission of the Executive 
Committee. 

26. All machines, implements, or other pro- 
ducts of mechanical art, must be exhibited by 
their respective makers, or inventors, or improv- 
ers, or their assignors, to or for whom only pre- 
miums for such articles will be awarded. 

27. Every machine or implemeni offered for 
a premium, must be so designated or described 
as will serve to identify it to future purchasers, 
and also the selling price of the article must be 
stated and marked on the labels and in the pub- 
lished reports of premium articles. 

28. Efficiency, cheapness and durability will 
be regarded as chief excellencies in every ma- 
chine or implement. 

29. The Chief Marshal will call the Judges at 
10 o'clock on Tuesday morning — assemble 
them at his tent on the grounds— furnish them, 
with the printed list of premiums, also with 
blank books in which to register their awards, 
and have the Judges conducted by the assis- 
tant marshals to their respective departments 
of the exhibition. 

30. The Marshal and his aids shall give par- 
ticular attention to the proper arrangements of 
all articles exhibited in their respective depart- 
ments ; point out the articles or animals to the 
Judges, and otherwise facilitate the examina- 
tion by the Judges. 

31. The track will be open for the trial of 
harness and saddle horses every day during 
the Fair. 

32. A band of music will be in attendance 
each day, during the hours of exhibition. 

33. An efficient police will take charge of 
the grounds during the night. 

THOMAS RUFFIN, Ch. Ex. Com. 
William D. Cooke, Secretary. 

««# » «»- 

Judges to Award Premiums, 

At the next Annual Fair to be held at Ra- 
leigh, commencing on the 20th October. 

Thoroughbred Horses. 
Edmund Townes, Granville, Charles Manly, 
Wake, Thomas McGehee, Person. 



Quick Draught and Saddle Horses. 
Payton A. Dunn, Wake, John Lewis, Cas- 
well, James Turner, Granville. 

Heavy Draught Horses. 
John B. Leathers, Orange, John J. Shaver 
Rowan, James Twitty, Warren. 

Jacks, Jennetts and Mules. 
William K. Lane, Wayne, John L. Bridgers, 
Edgecombe, J. W. B. Watson, Johnston. 
Cattle — Devons. 
George W. Johnson, Caswell, Thomas D. 
Meares, New Hanover, John S. Dancy, Edge- 
combe. 

Durhams, Herefords, Ayrshires, Holsteins and 
Alderneys. 
Henry K. Burgwyn, Halifax, Dr. E. A. Cru- 
dup, Franklin, Samuel Hargrave, Davidson. 
Grades and Natives. 
Wm. A. Eaton, Granville, Sylvester Smith, 
Wake, Dr. James E. Williamson, Caswell. 
Imported Cattle. 
Dr. Wm. R. Holt, Davidson, Henry T. Clark, 
Edgecombe, C. H. K. Taylor, Granville. 
Milch Cows. 
Wm. H. Strother, Franklin, James Sloan, 
Guilford. 

Working Oxen. 
S. S. Royster, Granville, A. T. Mial, Wake, 
R. R. Bridgers, Edgecombe. 
Fat Cattle. 
Eldridge Smith, Wake, John Hutchin=, 
Wake, Seth Jones, Wake. 
Sheep. 
Dr. J. M. Davidson, Mecklenburg, Paul C. 
Cameron, Orange, John S. Yancey, Warren. 
Goats. 
John S. Burrell, Granville, John O'Rorke, 
Wake, Rielly Crawford, Wake. 
Swine- — Large Breed. 
J. E. Lankford, Franklin, Ashley Saunders, 
Johnston, Chas. R. Eaton, Granvilie. 
Swine — Small Breed. 
Wm. R. Smith, Halifax, Wm. K. Lane, 
Wayne, Laurence Hinton, Wake. 

Swine — Grades and Natives 
Wm. R. Pool, Wake, C. Wooten, Lenoir, 
Wm. 0. Green, Franklin. 

Poultry. 
Maj. John Caldwell, Mecklenburg, Thomas 
J. Blacknall, Granville, David Hinton Edge- 
combe. 



160 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Agricultural Productions. 
A. W. Venable, Granville, John W. Nor- 
wood, Orange, Richard H. Smith, Halifax. 
Tobacco. 
Thomas Miller, Granville, W. D. Jones, 
Warren, Wm. Long, Caswell. 
■ Salt Provisions. 

Ex. Gov. Ch. Manly, "Wake, Sessum, 

Warren, Owen Fennell, New Hanover. 
Dairy. 
James Smyth Rowan, John A. Taylor, New 
hanover, Dr. Charles Skinner, Warren. 
Food, Condiments, &c. 
Wm. Upchurch, Wake, J. TJ. Kirkland, Or- 
ange,. John Winslow, Cumberland, Nicholas 
L. Williams, Surry. 

Native Wines. 
William S. Ashe, Newhanover, Chas. F. 
Fisher, Rowan, J. D. Whitford, Craven, Wm. 
J. Hawkins, Wake. 

Fruit and Iruit Trees adapted to the South. 
Dr. R. S. Mason, Wake, William J. Bing- 
ham, Orange, George W. Johnson, Cas- 
well, Prof. E. Fetter, Orange, John Stafford, 
Alamance. 

Vegetables. 
Dr. R. C. Pritchard, Warren, T. H. Snow, 
Wake, W. W. Holden, Wake. 

Plows and Harrows. 
Dr. Wm. R. Holt, D ,vidson, Wilson W. 
Whitaker, Wake, Kenneth Rayner, Hertford. 

Threshing Machines, Hay, Straw Cutters, Corn 
Shellers and Crushers. 
Geo. W. Collier, Wayne, E. Belo, Stokes, 
Edwin M. Holt, sen., Alamance. 

Reapers and Mowers. 
Dr. G. Field, Warren, Solomon Dixon, Ala- 
mance, H. K. Burgwyn, Halifax, E. Mallette, 
Orange. 

Hay, Cotton Press, &c. 
J. M. Fleming, Wake, Dr. J. T. Leach, 
Johnston, Dr. S. McClanahan, Chatham. 
Carriages, Wagons, Carts, &c. 
P. A. Atkinson, Pitt, J. M. Morehead, Guil- 
ford, J. C. Washington, Craven, John Taylor, 
Beaufort County. 

Machinery. 
Gen. Alex. McRae, Silas Burnes, N. Hanover 
Wake, J. A. Boyden, Rowan, J. H. Thompson^ 
Davidson. 



Farm and Domestic Tools. 
T.L. Williams, Granville, John A. McMan- 
ning, Orange, Needharo Price, Wake. 
Saddles and Harness. 
Dr. Wilson, Warren, W. B. Foster, Frank- 
lin, FJijah Hillyard, Nash. 

Cabinet WorTc. 
Dr. T. D. Hogg, Wake, Thos. Hill, Orange, 
J. M. Fleming, Wake. 

Shoes, Hats, &c. 
Alfred Williams, Wake, T. H.. Selby, Wak?, 
N. N. Nixon, Newhanover. 

Sundries. 
James Sloan, Guilford, James McKimmon, 
Wake, John W. Cunningham, Person, Dr. T. 
B. Beckwith, Johnston. 

Mill Fabrics. 
' T. H. Dewey, Mecklenburg, C. B. Saunders, 
Johnston, Daniel A. Montgomery, Alamance, 
J. A. Bullock, Granville. 

Household Fabrics. 

Gov. Bragg, Wake, G. W. Mordecai, Wake, 
John H. Bryan, Wake, Mrs. M. M. Henry, 
Wake, Mrs. S. S. Royster, Granville, Mrs. G. 
W. Mordecai, Wake, Mrs. M. Somerville, War- 
ren, Mrs. Archibald Davis, Franklin. 

Crochet and Raised Worsted WorTc. 

Mrs. J. Bobbitt, Wake, Miss Sophia Part- 
ridge, Wake, Mrs. Kemp P. Battle, Wake, 
Miss Fanny Hawkins, Franklin, Mis Julia A. 
Holt, Davidson, Miss Joana Nixon, N. Hanover. 

Embroidered Silk, Cotton and Worsted. 

Mrs. L. O'B. Branch, Wake, Mrs. Alfred 
Williams, Wake, Mrs. John U. Kirkland, Or- 
ange, Miss Maria Cooke, Wake, Miss J. M. 
Ruffin, Alamance. 

Knitting and Knelting. 

Mrs. H. W. Husted, Wake, Mrs. Lynn Hen- 
derson, Warren, Mrs. Louisa Kittrel, Granville, 
Miss Lucy Gregory, Granville, Miss Emma 
Morehead, Guilford. 

Fancy Work and Needle WorTc. 

Mrs. L. P. Cotton, Wake, Miss Vena- 
ble, Granville, Mrs. J. F. Taylor, Wake, Mrs. 
J. McKimmon, Wake. 

Fine Arts. 

Dr. Aldert Smedes, Wake, Francis E. Sho- 
ber, Rowan, Dr. Chas. E. Johnson, Wake, 
Mrs. R. M. Saunders, Wake, Mrs. L. Walker, 
Guilford, Miss Susan Somerville. Warren, 
Miss Julia 0. Saunders, Newhanover. 




StfM in %tmltms, ftrtinilhtr?, imfr tjfe 3fitrjnimr $rk 

WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher- 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, W. C, SEPTEMBER, 1857. 



NO. 7 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

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JjJkeHantoiw. 



Benefit of Agricultural Fairs- 

No fact is more apparent to the reflecting 
mind, than the immense benefits Agricultural 
Fairs have contributed to our material pros- 
perity. They have contributed more to our 
vigorous growth as a nation, than all the gold 
California can pour into our country for ages. 
They have awakened a spirit of inquiry in the 
breasts of thousands, who have elaborated and 
made known their experience to the world — 
through the Agricultural Press — contributing- 
their experiments to the general stock of infor- 
mation (which at best is made up of atoms) 
garnered together, — a rich legacy of facts, from 



which the principles of Truth shall be deduced 
by the hand of the future historian. All this 
has been done quietly. The silent step of ag- 
ricultural progress has not been noted by the 
world — as it should have been — for the simple 
reason that it took time to nurture in man the 
high obligation he owed to his Maker, his 
country and himself, to use and develop that 
which was intrusted to his hand, that it might 
be improved, and the true design of our Crea- 
tor carried out. 

And what is an Agricultural Fair ? Is it a 
place where the most superior specimens of 
agricultural products are exhibited to the view 
of the visitors ? Yes. What then ? is that all 
the object, the aim, the end to be accomplished ? 
If so let them go by the board. But a higher 
object is to be accomplished — has been, and 
will continue to be — the interchange of thought 
among those who have produced the articles 
on exhibition. It is in this light that Agricul- 
tural Fairs are accomplishing the grand re- 
sults which will continue to rank us as a prao» 
tical, farming and progressive people. It is 
not enough that we should see the superior 
crop of grain, &c, but we should have the maa 
with us, that we may know by what process he 
produced it, so that his co-laborers may know 
and realise the facts which are brought before 
them in its most practical form. It is not 
enough that we see fat cattle, but we see the 
husbandman who produced them, that our less 
fortunate husbandmen may, by inquiry and 



162 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



observation, be arroused to the necessity of 
doing likewise— so that the object of the Fair 
may be the means of perpetuating the progres- 
sive spirit of political and rural economy. 

Fairs, rightly conducted, are great stimulants 
to good and thorough cultivation of the soil — 
Nothing is so well calculated to create as healthy 
a feeling, or develop so thoroughly the true 
dignity of Nature's noblemen, as this theatre, 
where all may meet in the exhibition of the 
arts of peace and usefulness: where those who 
have failed to realise their fond anticipations 
from the exhibition of their products, rejoice 
in the success of their neighbors. It is this 
feature which endears them to all good men 
■who know the wants of our farmers, and who 
have, from the earliest stage of their existence, 
.stood by them, believing they were destined to 
accomplish as much good in their sphere of 
usefulness, as Education has in hers. 

The benefits accruing from Agricultural 
Fairs are of a two fold nature, and apparent to 
all. Where the Fairs are made an object of 
attraction, you will find the greatest amount of 
thriftiness and prosperity prevailing in the sec- 
tions which contribute to, and take an interest 
in, their prosperity. The benefits flowing 
from them are not to be estimated in a pecuni- 
ary sense. There are benefits conferred on the 
agricultural interest through the influence of 
this institution, which command our most 
hearty admiration and respect for those public 
benefactors of our race who have nurtured and 
expanded this germ, so that agriculture should 
take once more her rank as one of the most 
honorable pursuits of man. 

T. C. W., Genesee Farmer. 



The Horse Charm ; 

OR THE GREAT SECRET OF TAMING HORSES. 

The horse-castor is a wart, or excrescence, 
which grows on every horse's fore legs and 
generally on the hind legs. It has a peculiar 
rank, musty smell, and easily pulled off. The 
ammonical effluvia of the horse seems peculi 
arly to concentrate in this part, and its very 
strong odor has a great attraction for all an- 
imals, especially canine, and the horse him- 
self. 

For the oil of cumin, the horse has an instinc- 
tive passion — both are original native of Arabia, 



and when the horse scents the odor, he is drawn 
toward it. 

The oil of Rhodium possesses peculiar pro- 
perties. All animals seem to cherish a fondness 
for it, and it exercises a kind of subduing influ- 
ence over them. 

The directions given for taming horses are 
as follows — 

Procure some horse-caster, and grate it fine. 
Also get some oil of Rhodium and oil of cu- 
min, and keep the three separate in air-tight 
bottles. 

Rub a little oil of cumin upon your hand, 
and approach the horse in the field, on the 
winward side, so that he can smell the cumin. 
The horse will let you come to him then with- 
out any trouble. 

Immediately rub your hand on the horse's 
nose, getting a little of the oil on it. You can 
then lead him anywhere. Give him a little of 
the castor on a piece of loaf sugar, apple or po- 
tato. 

Put 8 drops of oil of Rhodium into a lady's 
silver thimble. Take the thimble between the, 
thumb and middle finger of your right hand 
with the fore-finger stopping the mouth of the 1 
thimble, to prevent the oil from running ouii 
whilst you are opening the mouth of the 
horse. 

As soon as you have opened the horse'sj 
mouth, tip the thimble over upon his tongue 
and he is your servant. He will follow yoi 
like a pet dog. 

Ride fearless and promptly, with your knees 
pressed to the side of the horse, and your toeJ 
turned in and heels out; then you will alwayi 
be on the alert for a shy or sheer from th<J 
horse, and he can never throw you. 

Then if you want to teach him to lie down 
stand on the right, or left side ; have a couple o 
leather straps about six feet long ; string uf 
his left leg with one of them round his neck 
strap the other end of it over his shoulders 
hold it in your hand, and when you are ready 
tell him to lie down, at the same time, gently 
firmly and steadily pulling on the strap, touch; 
ing him lightly on the knee with a switch. 
The horse will immediately lie down. Do thi 
a few times, and you can make him lie dow 
without the straps. 

He is now your pupil and friend. You ca; 
teach him anything, only be kind to him, b 
gentle. Love him, and he will love you. Fee 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



16S 



him before you do yourself. Shelter him well, 
groom him yourself, keep him clean, and at 
night always give him a good bed, at least a foot 
deep. 

In the winter season don't let your horse 
stand out a long time in the cold, without shel- 
ter or covering ; for remember that the horse 
is an aboriginal native of a warm climate, and 
in many respects, his constitution is as ttnder 
as a man's. 



Production of Sexes at Will. 

" Many curious investigations," says Dr. 
Gardner's recent work, u have been instigated 
in regard to this point in the world of nature. 
It is a matter of familiar knowledge that the 
male and female characteristics of the higher 
species of the animal creation, are not produc- 
ed in the same individual, as they are in the 
great majority of the higher species of plants. 
The organs, as will be seen, from which the 
two are evolved, are, however, so nearly relat- 
ed to each other in intimate nature, that the 
one may be readily mistaken for the other in 
the earliest period of their formation. Physi- 
ologists now incline to tha opinion that the fer- 
tilizing vesicle is merely a germ vesicle, in a 
somewhat more exalted state of development. 
Mr. Knight has showa that plants, like th» 
oak, that bear the male and female flowers on 
separate individuals, may be made to produce 
either at will, by regulating the supply of light 
and heat according to the end in view. If the 
heat be excessive as compared with the light, 
male flowers only appear; but if tke light be 
in excess female flowers are produced. He al- 
so found that whenever the eggs of birds are 
not allowed to be fertilized until immediately 
before they are laid, and therefore their own 
intrinsic development has been carried to the 
highest possible pitch before renewed vivifica- 
tion of the germ visicle is effected^ as many as 
six out of every seven of the birds subsequent- 
ly batched proved to be males. * * Quetc- 
let believes that the relative ages of the maj • 
and female parent, influence the sex of the 
offspring produced, to a very considerable ex- 
tent. In support of this theory M. Hofack- 
er has shown that when the father is con- 
siderably younger than the mother, the pro- 
portion of female to male children is generally 
as ten to nine ; but that when, on the contra- 



ry, the father is nine years older than the 
mother, the proportion of male •ffspring to fe- 
male is as five to four and when eighteen years 
older, as two to one. In a general way, more 
males of the human species are born into the 
world than females. If all Europe be included 
in the estimate, the proportion of Male to fe- 
male births is about 106 to 100. Possibly, if 
Quetelet's views be based on truth, this pre- 
ponderance on the side of males may be due 
to the fact that in civilized communities men, 
from prudential and other motives, mostly 
marry women younger themselves. But there 
are other reasons why this preponderance ex- 
ists. Three male children are born dead to 
every two females." 



Ten Rules to be Observed in Ma- 
king Butter. 

In making good butter there are several nice 
operations to be gone through with, which re- 
quire an eye to cleanliness, forethought, and ex- 
perience. 

1. On milking clean, fast yet gently, regular- 
ly twice a day, depends the success of the dairy- 
man. Bad milkers should not be tolerated in a 
herd; better pay double the price for good ones, 

2. Straining is quite simple, but it should be 
borne in mind that two pans about half full each 
will produce a greater amount of cream than the 
same milk if in but one pan ; the reason of this 
is the greater surface. 

2. Scalding is quite an important feature in 
the way of making butter in cool weather ; the 
cream rises much quicker, milk keeps sweet 
longer, the butter is of a better color, and churns 
in one-half the time. 

4. Skimming should always be done before 
the milk becomes loppered; otherwise much of 
the cream turns into whey and is lost. 

5. Churning, whether by hand or otherwise, 
should occupy fifteen minutes. 

6. Washing in cold soft water is one of its 
pieserving qualities, and should be continued 
until it shows no color of the milk by the use 
of the ladle; very hard water is highly charged 
with lime, and must in a measure impart to it 
alkaline properties. 

7. Salting is necessarily done with the best 
kind of ground salt ; the quantity varies acord- 
ing to the state it is taken from the churn ; if 



164 ^"" :i:.-._,. 

soft, more — if hard, less ; alwa}'s taking taste 
for the surest guide. 

8. First working, after about 24 hours, is for 
the purpose of giving it greater compactness. 

9. Second working takes place at the time of 
packing, and when the butter has dissolved the 
salt, that the brine may be worked out. 

10. Packing is done with the hands or with a 
butter-mall; and when butter is put into wood- 
en vessels, they should be soaked two or three 
days in strong brine before using. After each 
packing, cover the butter with a wet cloth, and 
put a layer of salt upon it: in this way the salt 
can easily be removed at any time, by simply 
taking hold of the edges of cloth. 

Butter made in this way will keep any length 
of time required. — J. G. Adams, G. Farm. 



Saving Honey by Destroying 
Drones. 

It is a certain fact demonstrated by Huber, 
and proved again and again, since his time, 
that the impregnation of the queen lasts three 
years ; at least, this being the case, there are 
seasons when the apiarian will be enabled to 
secure the greatest quantity of honey, by pre- 
venting his bees from swarming and at the 
same time destroying all the drones. The plan 
is simple and effectual. For the first, it is only 
necessary to contract the entrance to the hive 
to a space 5-32 of an inch wide; this will allow 
a worker bee to pass in and out, but will detain 
the queen in the hive. This space will also 
keep back the drones, and if it is proposed to 
destroy them, (as they certainly ought to be, 
if the hive is prevented from swarming, and as 
I shall presently show,) then take a box, say 
six inches square, and insert a wooden tube 
1 inch in apertare and about 1 1 inches long, 
so that it shall be flush with the outside of the 
box, but project inside about an inch (if the 
box is half inch stuff the above length of tube 
will just do). Place this tube in the lower 
corner of the box, so that it shall overlay the 
entrance just enough to let a drone enter the 
tube, from the hive. The rest of the entrance 
may be contracted to the 5-32 of an inch. Now, 
place a glass on the open top of the box, cov- 
ering it all but 5-32 of an inch at one end. 
The drones will endeavor to go out with the 
workers, but cannot. They will then follow 
along till they come to the opening in the tube, 



. ^.^iv'ATOR. 

and go through it into the box. They cannot 
go out of the box into the air, on account of 
the space being only 5-32 of an inch wide 
neither can they go back to the hive, because 
the tube projects inside, and is not aecessable 
from the bottom or side of the box. If a work- 
er bee goes into the box, of course the slit will 
let him out (or rather I should say it, being 
neuter). 

When a large number of drones are collected 
they may be immersed in water, and the box 
put back. 

It is incredible the amount of honey consum- 
ed by the drones, even where there are but a 
few hundred. But in ordinary hives, where 
there are sometimes over 1,000, they consume 
probably as much as is ordinarily laid up in 
the surplus boxes. 

For gentlemen who do not wish to Increase 
the number of their hives, this plan is obvious- 
ly an excellent one. 

The contracted entrance is very suggestive 
to these who wish "to go to town," or "t6 
church," and are fearful of loosing a swarm. A 
very good way is to cut the slit out of sheet 
lead, and place it before the entrance. It will 
be perceived, also, that this space will entirely 
prevent the queen from going into the top box- 
es and placing brood among the honey comb?. 
We give our actual experience in the matter. 

This article is writren in haste, but we shall 
be glad to write again if it is not sufficiently 
clear. Apig 

Whitemarsh, Pa 

-»« ♦ »». 

The Eye, and how to See. 

From an article in the Scientific American, 
with the above caption, we extract the fol- 
lowing : 

The difference between the use of one and 
two eyes is not generally known. One eye has 
been found sufficient for the general purposes of 
life. There are instances 6n record of persons 
having the sight of but one eye, and yet were 
ignorant for years of having a blind one. There 
are also a great number of persons who have 
lost an eye by accident, and with the remaining 
one have performed all the duties required 
of the two. Two eyes, however, are better 
than one, for the field of vision with one is only 
about 150°, while with two it is about 200°.— 
It was long supposed, by many, that we saw 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



165 



objects twice as luminous with two as with one 
«ye ; but this is a mistake, for objects are seen 
as brightly with one as with two eyes. 

The pupil of the eye increases in size to ad- 
mit as much light, when one eye is shut, as 
when both of them are open ; therefore, so far 
as mere brightness is concerned, the loss of one 
eye is no disadvantage. Sir David Brewster 
has determined this by experiment. Two eyes 
«nable us to see solid objects in a higher relief, 
and all distances in nature more perfectly than 
one eye. With one eye, however, we see the 
direction in which an object or point is situated 
more distinctly than with two eyes. By mono- 
cular vision (one eye) we see the exact point 
where a near object strikes a more distant one 
In line ; this we «annot do with both eyes di- 
rected to it, for while they see a near object 
distinctly, they do not perceive tico objects in 
line accurately ; hence one eye only is used in 
shooting w r ith a rifle at a mark, because it takes 
cognizance correctly of the sight on the rifle, 
and the mark in a line beyond the needle — fur- 
ther off. Same have supposed that practice 
alone gives us an appreciation of distances with 
the eyes — one or two — and this idea of acquiring 
aH knowledge experimentally is taught by some 
works on philosophy, but it is a mistake. An 
artist in this city (New York) distinguished for 
his skill and fine tastes, who has been deprived 
of the use of one eye for a number of years has 
told us that in a dim light, such as the dusk of 
evening, he has never learned to judge well of 
distances; in other respects, however, monocu- 
lar vision is more advantageous to him than 
otherwise in pursuing his profession, 

To prove that we can appreciaie distances 
more correctly with two eyes than with one, 
let any person endeavor to thread a tolerably 
large needle held out at arms length, and he will 
discover how deceptive monocular vision is, re- 
garding distance. The needle's eye will appear 
further from him than it really is, and he will 
continually thust the thread in a line beyoud it. 
-»» ♦•»- 

A Hint for the Seasons. — The simplest 
and best way of 'preserving woolens through 
the summer from the destruction of the moths, 
is to wrap them well up after brushing them 
and beating them in cotton or linen cloths. — 
The moth can pass neither. Two covers, well 
wrapped around and secured from the air} 
will be effectual. An old sheet will answer, 
and save all expense of camphor, &c. 



The Army Worm. 

We find the following in relation to the his- 
tory and habit of the Army Worm in the Na- 
tional Intelligencer: 

"A friend who has made entomology a sub- 
ject of study, furnishes us with some of the 
results of his investigations into the character, 
habits and history of the army worm, of which 
so many complaints have arrisen in various 
parts of the country. The oat patch west of 
the Smithsonian grounds supplied him with 
specimens and an opportunity to observe much 
concerning these devouring pests. Our friend's 
first impression, and which indeed he retains, 
was that the worm in question is identical with 
the grass worm of the South. Present appear- 
ances all attest this identity, but it will require 
the complete round of transformation to be 
gone through with before it can be considered 
certain. 

"This worm destroys corn, clover, grain, and 
every kind of grass, and in the South is found 
very abundant on the grass, and weeds be- 
tween the rows of cotton. Its caterpillar, just 
before changing into the chrysalis, hides under 
stones, and where the ground is broken under 
clods of dirt. Their enemies are formidable, 
the largest being the toad, which stuffs itself 
with them almost to bursting. The stomach 
of a toad taken in the oat patch above referred 
to, having been cut open, was filled with these 
worms, mixed with a few wings of beetles. — 
The army worm has another enemy in the 
black larva of what seems to be a necrophorous 
which preys upon the caterpillar . Besides 
these there is a small ichneumon, or at all 
events a parasitical fly, which deposits its 
eggs all over the back of the caterpillar and 
they, when matured, spin cocoons, which send 
forth. a cloud of other flies to repeat the pro- 
cess. 

"Specimens of the army worm sent hither 
from Maryland were entirely destroyed by a fly 
much like the common house fly, but with a 
lighter colored series of rings around the abdo- 
men, which is hirsute and tipped with brown 
belonging to the family of musaidm. It is a 
merciful provision of nature that, as these 
worms, increase, so do the parasitical foe» which 
fe«d upon and destroy them. But for this the 
consequences would be terrible indeed to all 
the hopes of the agriculturist." 



166 



THE CAEOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Bones and Manure. 

The value of bones to the farmer says the 
American Farmer, is admitted by all ; and the 
improved condition of the Agriculture of Eng- 
land, dates from the introduction of their use, 
in connexion with the turnip culture. The 
great difficulty is in ottaining a supply, and a 
further one of preparing them for the soil. — 
Various suggestions have been made, to effect 
this latter object, which we have published 
from time to time, and now add another from 
the N. Jersey Farmer, which has the recom- 
mendation at least of simplicity : 
gjj/'Last fall a lot of bones were thrown in a 
heap of horse manure in the barn yard, and for 
no other purpose than to get them out of sight 
To this heap the manure of the horse stable 
was daily added. In the spring, upon carting 
out the manure,, the bones were found appa 
rently the same as when thrown in — whole and 
sound ; but upon being handled, were found 
to be soft; when lifted would fall to pieces of 
their own weight ; when exposed to the air 
would crumble and become as ashes, emitting 
a strong and offensive odor. This incident led 
to a trial of the same experiment last Spring 
in the same manner, and with the same re- 
sult. 

"We do not pretend to fix the chemical pro- 
cess by which this result is attained ; we mere- 
ly know that such is the result. And if a re. 
suit so happy in its effects is produced at so 
little trouble, and with such little cost, our 
farmers may well spare an odd day in gather- 
ing together the old bones lying about their 
farms, and for the mere trouble of gathering 
them, add to their lands one of the most ferti- 
lizing materials that can be obtained. 

"Let our readers avail themselves of this 
suggestion, and in preparing their manure 
heap for the winter, have collected together a 
» pile of old bones, and let them be scattered 
through your heaps where you throw your 
horse manure, and you will find when the ma- 
nure is carted out in the Spring, in place of 
old bones, a manufactured A. No. 1 Bone 
Dust." 



. Presebvation of Flesh, etc. — M. Robert 
has contrived a method of preserving animal 
and vegetable substances, which is easily man- 
agt d, cheap, and admits of their external ap- 



pearance, as well as their peculiar charac- 
ters being retained. It consists in exposing 
the partly dried substances to an atmosphere 
of sulphuric acid gas, and then covering them 
with a thin film of albumen mixed with mo- 
lasses. The flesh of animals that have been 
killed by blowing air into the breast can not 
be preserved in this way. In the first instance 
the flesh is freed from, and partly dried in a 
current of air ; the limbs are then hung in an 
air-tight chamber, so as not to touch, and the 
sulphurous acid introduced. The time during 
which the meat is left in contact with the gas 
depends upon the size of the pieces. For pie- 
ces of from four to six pounds, ten minutes 
is sufficient ; pieces of two hundred weight re- 
quire twenty or five-and-twenty minutes. They 
are then removed from the chamber, dried in 
the open air, and brushed over with the albu- 
minous varnish. Flesh thus prepared may be 
cooked in the usual way, and after being kept 
a long time, is quite as fresh and good as when 
the animal has recently been slaughtered. — 
This method of preservation is said to be 
equally applicable to game and poultry, with 
or without the feathers,, fish, fruit and vegeta- 
bles. For transport, the preserved substances 
are packed in casks, into ' which tallow or fat 
is poured at as low a temperature as possible. 
This prevents shaking, which is always very 
prejudicial. The preservation of flesh, etc.,. 
by this method has received the sanction of 
the French Minister of Public Health. 



Meadow Muck. 

The value of muck as a fertilizing agent, is 
always in the precise ratio of the vegetable 
matter it contains — all extraneous matters serv- 
ing only to increase the bulk without adding 
any percentage to the fructifying energies of 
the mass, or increasing its value as a stimu- 
lant of vegetable life. When, however, it is 
added to tough, vicid and tenacious clays, the 
admixture of sand may not be considered inju- 
rious, as the mechanical action of this earth 
will tend to overcome the innate adhesiveness, 
which characterizes such soils ; but as an ap- 
plication for loamy lands, in which there is lit- 
tle albuminous matter, the muck will be valu- 
able in proportion to the fibrous or decompos- 
able vegetable matter it contains. 

All muck, when taken from its bed^ is pos~ 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



16T 



sessed of a certain degree of acidity, which 
renders it necessary to mix it with lime or 
wood ashes to neutralize the acidity before ap- 
plying it to the soil. This may also be effect- 
ed by exposing it to the atmosphere, or to the 
action of frost, for a time ; or it may be sweet- 
ened by mixing it with manure in the yards 
or compost heap. 

Muck is a most valuable fertilizer, when 
properly managed, and the farmer who is so 
fortunate as to possess the means of obtaining 
it in sufficient quantity, may bring his lands 
to any degree of fertility he desires, and at 
comparatively small cost. For corn and pota- 
toes, as well as for garden vegetables, muck is 
one of the most valuable stimulants known. — 
iV. E. Farmer. 



Lightning Conductors. 

The Following suggestions in the Country 
Gentleman, by Mr. E. J. McCarthy, relating to 
cheap lightning rods meets our approbation : 

"If one human life is saved through the 
means of this publication, those who are en- 
gaged in sale of conductors at such exhorbi- 
tant prices that but few purchase, should not 
allow themselves to complain, but feel thank- 
ful for the timely hint. If the property con- 
tained in one barn even, is saved from destruc- 
tion by this simple means, the writer will feel 
amply rewarded for his trouble. 

There being no dispute about the perfect 
safety of couductors to life and property, the 
only questions to be considered are, which are 
the safest and cheapest? There is no person 
familiar with the subject who will not say that 
soft iron rods in one continuous length, pro- 
jecting to a sufficient height above the highest 
point of a building, and terminating in a well 
or cess-pool, or in damp earth, are the best 
electrical conductors known. Now, instead of 
erecting a single rod from the center of the 
building, and running over the roof, with fancy 
points and colored insulators, such as are 
hawked about and sold at high prices, put up 
as many as you have chimneys at least, and 
one at each gable end or high projecting point 
of every out-building. To do this cheaply, 
purchase a coil of quarter-inch iron wire, and 
a> many small staples as my be required ; saw 
off as many pieces of bone of proper length 
and size, with a hole of suitable dimensions 



for the wire to pass through and with a ladder 
and the help of one man, a person of ordinary 
ingenuity can put up a dozen rods in half a 
day, at a cost of one cent afoot. Who will 
run the risk of life and property, when perfect- 
ly safe conductors can be erected for less than 
a dollar a piece, including the cost of putting 
them up ? 



Sowing Cabbage seed in Septem- 
tember. 

It has been our custom for years to call up- 
on our readers to sow cabbage seed of differ- 
ent sorts early in September with the view of 
raising plants to be set out in the early part of 
November. Our object in doing so is, to in- 
duce you to lay the ground work of a supply 
of cabbages for your family early next sum- 
mer and through Autumn, and we therefore 
repeat our advice again. 

Preparation for ike led. — Select a spot an 
openly exposed border, or part of a similarly 
exposed bed ; manure it well, dig in the ma- 
nure a spade deep, rake until vou obtain a per- 
fectly fine tilth, then divide it into as many 
parts, as you have different sorts of cabbage 
seed. This done sow each kind separately 
rake the seed very lightly in, then put down 
the earth gently with the back of j^our spade 
so as to bring it immediately in contact with 
the seed to quick germination ; then dust the 
bed with a mixture of 4 parts soot and 2 parts 
plaster. 

The following varieties will ensure a contin- 
uous supply of fine delicious cabbages from 
early summer next year throughout autumn, 
viz : 

Early Imperial, Early York, Early Nonpareil, 
Early Vanak, Early Sugar Loaf, Large York, 
Flat Dutch, and Large Ox-heart. 

If the weather should not be seasonable at 
the time that you sow the seed, give the bed a 
free watering ; continue this every evening un- 
til the plants come up and until rains occurs. 
Just as your plants get above ground dust thera 
with a mixture of 4 parts ashes, 2 parts soot 
and 1 \>art flour of sulpher, first having wa- 
tered the plants so as to make the mixture ad- 
here to the leaves. Repeat this two or three 
or four successive evenings with the following 
decoction. Put half a .bushel of horse dung 
into a barrel, together with 1 quart of soot and 



168 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR, 



1 oz. of sulphur tied in a bag ; pour hot water 
thereon, and when the water becomes cool fill 
«p the barrel with cold water, and in 24 hours 
it will be fit for UBe. The barrel may be filled 
up several times. In six or eight weeks the 
plants will be large enough to be set out to 
stand the winter. 





RALEIGH, SEPTEMBER, 1857. 

rr '■—■— — ^ — — aai ■^—a— is 

Apology. — We hope our patrons will accept 
as a sufficient apology for the appearance of 
three numbers together at so late a date, that 
the operations in our office have been greatly 
embarrassed by sickness among the hands and 
the absence of the Proprietor. " Better late 
than never," however, and we now send out 
to subscribers a large, and, we hope, profita- 
ble body of reading upon the greatest inter- 
est of the State. 

Chinese Molasses. 

We are very much obliged to our friend for 
the following note and the accompanying spe- 
cimen. The experiments now making so gen- 
erally with the new article of Sugar Cane are 
deeply interesting, and every such contribution 
from careful observers is entitled to the read- 
er's earnest attention. These experiments 
have been eminently successful in this region. 
We hope they will be repeated, until it is fully 
demonstrated that the cultivation of the Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane is a profitable branch of agri- 
cultural industry. 

Raleigh, September, 1857. 
W. D. Cooke, Esq. : — The Chinese Sugar 
Cane seed which you had the kindness to give 
me early in the spring past, I planted as soon 



as our farmers commenced planting Indian 
corn, in hills, 10 seeds to the hill, and the hills 
four feet apart each way, and cultivated just as 
you would our common broom-corn — thinning 
down to 8 stalks in the hill, and keeping the 
suckers pulled out. About the time the seed 
or heads commenced turning black, I had the 
fodder stripped off, the stalks cut down, seed 
taken off with about one foot of the stalk, and 
now commenced the operation of molasses ma- 
king in North Carolina. Each stalk was 
pressed through a crushing mill made by Mr. 
Albert Johnson, of Raleigh, in order to get the 
juice, which answered an admirable purpose. 
From my crop, which occupied a space of 
ground 15 by 25 feet, I obtained 15 § gallons of 
juice, and did not use about 100 very small 
stalks. This juice, I boiled in two different 
iron pots — and after keeping them both to boil- 
ing heat only, for an hour, constantly skim- 
ming the foam off, I caused them to boil active- 
ly — putting to each five gallons of juice a com- 
mon tablespoonful of slacked lime. After six 
hours boiling, I obtained three and a half gal- 
lons of excellent syrup, a specimen of which, I 
herewith send. The specimen is not as bright 
as it would have been, had I used a brass ket- 
tle — however, I consider it superior to any 
sugar-house molasses. 

Very Respectfully, 

W. WHITAKER, Jr. 

-*.*-»-•-». 

The Season. — The season is now so far ad- 
vanced that we may speak with confidence o* 
the general yield of the crops in the United 
States, which we rejoice to say, has been oo 
the whole excellent and abundant. The im- 
proved quality of the wheat has been the sub- 
ject of frequent remark in many places, and 
the corn crop will exceed in quantity those of 
many past years. The probability is that a 
general decline of prices will take place, and 
farmers should be prepared for the charge. 

The Fair. — We again call the attention of 
our readers to the coming Fair, and urge upon 
them the duty of sustaining the credit of the 
State by large contributions to the exhibition. 
Remember that six thousand dollars will be 
distributed in premiums. 



A man without desire and without want, is 
without invention and without reason. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



189 



Exchanges. — We have on hand late num- 
bers of several valued exchanges, for which the 
publishers have our thanks, viz : The Eclectic, 
Godey, Arthur, Peterson, and other leading 
Magazines of the day. Time will net allow of 

a more specific notice. 

-»» ♦•«»- 

No better time than now for turning under 
stubble ground. 

«^ —a — — — — — ■ — — nwj 

Table of Contents. 



JULY NO. 




Covering Manures, 


142 


Deterioration of the Wheat Crop, 


144 


Guano, 


141 


How to Raise Turkeys, 


135 


Items in Agriculture, 


134 


Multum in Parvo, 


138 


Mysteries of a Junk of Coal, 


143 


On the advantages of stirring the soil in 




dry weather, 


142 


Premium Essay on the Farm Horse, 


129 


The management of Manures, 


136 


AUGUST NO. 




American Wines, 


145 


Artificial propagation of Fish, 


155 


Ants — their senses and habits, 


155 


Astonishing feat of a house Spider, 


156 


Influence of Horticulture, 


152 


Judges to award premiums, 


159 


Planting a Lawn, 


150 


Regulations of the Fifth Annual Fair, 


157 


To dessect the Atmosphere, 


154 


SEPTEMBER NO. 




A hint for the Season, 


165 


Apology, 


168 


Benefit of Agricultural Fairi, 


161 


Butter making, 


163 


Bones and Manure, 


166 


Chinese Molasses, 


168 


Exchanges, 


168 


Lightning Conductors, 


167 


Meadow Muck, 


166 


Production of sexes at Will, 


163 


Preservation of Flesh, 


166 


Saving Honey by destroying Drones, 


164 


Sowing Cabbage seed ia September, 


167 


The Fair, 


168 


The Season, 


168 


The Horse charm 


162 


The Eye and how to see. 


164 


The Army Worm, 


165 



itoifotttti; 



FALL TRADE, 1857. 

JO H N N. GORDON, GROCER AND COMMIS- 
SION MERCHANT, AND DEALER IN ME- 
TALS, 14th Street, near the Exchange Hotel, Rich- 
mond, Va., offersfor sale — 
Orleans and Coffee Sugars, various grades, 
Loaf, Crushed, Granulated and Powdered Sugar s. 
Laguira, Rio and Old Government Java Coffee. 
Orleans and West India Molasses. 
Pure Cider Vinegar. 

Sperm, Adamantine and Tallow Candles. 
Soaps, Fancy and Brown. 
Sole Leather, good and damaged. 
All sizes Flat, Round, Square Swedes, 
American Hammered, 
English Refined, 
English and American rolled, 
English and American blistered Steel. 
German, Cast and Shear Steel. 
Broad Plough Iron, 6 to 12 inch. 
American, English and Russia Sheet Iron. 
Oval, half Oval and half round Iron. 
Nail Rods, American and Swedes. 
Band, Scroll and Hoop Iron. 
Horse Shoes, assorted. 
Horse and Mule Shoe Iron. 
Tin Plate, Pig and Bar Tin. 
Sheet Zinc, Spelter, and Spelter Solder. 
Sheathing, Brazier's and Bolt Copper. 
McCormick's and Palmer Mould Boards. 

63F" Particular attention given to the sale of 
Wheat, Flour and Country Produce generally. 



] 

I IRON. 



4,000 Acres of Land for Sale- 

THIS Land lies in Chesterfield District, S.C., im- 
mediately on the Pee Dee riv^r, and the Cheraw 
and Darlington Railroad, and by the latter part of the 
present year, will be within a few hours ride oi the ci- 
ty of Charleston. There are about 1,300 acres of the 
land cleared, which 

PRODUCES FINELY 
without manure of any kind. The balance is dense- 
ly covered with a heavy growth of White Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Dogwood. Hickory, Cotton. Walnut, Poplar, 
&c, with a 

CANE BRAKE 
extending near over the entire Tract. About 200 
acres of the Tract lie in the Sand Hills, which for 
Health and Fine Springs of water, is 

PROBABLY UNSURPASSED 
by any of this State. The Tract will be uivided t© 
suit purchasers. For particulars address 

E. B. C. CASH, 

Cheraw, S. C. 
June 1857. 



"Learn of the Mole to plough." — Pope. 

WY CHE'S CULTIVATING PLOW, (PATENT- 
ED 8th of January, 1856)— called the Mole; 
Plow; with vertical cutters near the edge of a horizon^ 
tal share, for dividing the furrow slice, and a curved 
cutter on the rear of the share for turning the whole 
in towards the plow, or as far on the opposite side of 
the share as may be desired. Adapted to siding, list- 
ing, breaking turfy or hard land, subsoiliug, and 
many other purposes. Is light, cheap, and strong; 
and supposed to be the most perfect pulverizer in use. 
For license to sell, with directions for manufactur- 
ing, address. W. E. WYCHE, 
Brookville, Granville Co., N. C. 
June 16, 1856. 5— tl. 



170 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



NORTH CAROLINA INSTITUTION 

FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB AKD THE BLIND, 
RALEIGH, N. C— SESSION OF 1857-'58. 

Board of Directors. 
WILLIAM H. McKEE, M. D., President. 



S. H. Young, 
Jno. C. Palmer, 
VV. W. Vass, 



A. M. Lewis, 

Q. BUSBEE. 

D. G. Fowle. 



Officers of the Institution. 

WM. I"). COOKE, A. M., Principal. 

JAMES A. WADDELL, M. D., Vice- Principal. 

Teachers in the D. <& D. Department. 
Geo. E. Ketcham, | Chas. M. Grow, 



Teachers in the Blind Department. 

J. A. Waddell, M. D. I Mrs. S. C. Waddell, 

Miss M. E. Cookk. 

Mrs. L.E. Grow, Matron, j Mrs. E. Little, HouseWr. 
S. Little, Steward. 
The next session of this Institution will commence 
on the first Monday of September. Any intelligent 
and healthy white resident of the State, between the 
ages of 8 and 2Q, whether Deaf and Dumb or Blind, 
may, if the means of education are wanting, be ad- 
mitted to the school free of charge. The terms for 
others may be learned from the Principal. Such pu- 
pils as are capable of decided improvement, are not 
only instructed in the ordinary branches of a com- 
mon education, but receive such accomplishments as 
may best fit them for success in life. Music, draw- 
ing, needle-work, bead-work, and suitable handi- 
craft arts will form a considerable part of the course 
through which they pass. Careful attention will be 
paid to their religious, moral, and physical improve- 
ment, and every effort will be made, not only to ren- 
der them comfortable, but to promote thqr highest 
welfare. Pupils should by all means enter early in 
September. For any information in 1 egard to the 
Institution, address, 

WILLIAM P. COOKE, Principal, 
Raleigh, N. C. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY 

AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE North 
Carolina Mutual Insurance Company, held on 
the 9th inst. the following persons were elected Di- 
rectors and Officers for the ensuing year : 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY. 
T. II. Selby, President. 
H. D. Turner, Vice President. 
H. S. Smith, Sec'y and Treas, 
John H. Bryan, Attorney. 
T.H. Selby, ex officio. | 

John R. Williams, > Executive Committee. 
C. W. D. Hutchins, ) 

ThisCompany has been in successful operation far 
more than 7 years, and continues to take risks upon 
all classes of property in the State, (except Steam 
Mills and Turpentine Distilleries,) upon favorable 
terms. Its Policies now cover property amounting 
to $4,500,000, a large portion of which is in Country 
risks ; and its present capital is nearly Seven Hun- 
dred Thousand Dollars, in bonds properly secured. 

The average cost of Insurance upon the plan of this 
Company has been less than one third of one per 
cent, per annum, on all grades of property embraced 
in its operations. 

All communications in reference to insurance 
should be addressed to the Secretary, post paid. 
H. S. SMITH, Sec'y. 



PREMIUM THRESHING MACHINES. 

The North Carolina State Fair, held at Raleigh 
awarded the First Premiur,,, for our celebrated 
Threshing Machine. 

THIS Machine has been fully tested in this State 
and Virginia, and approved by all who have used it 
on account of its simplicity of construction, utility, and 
durability. We have no hesitation in saying they are 
the best Threshers now in use. They are economical 
in cost, simple in construction, and less liable to get 
out of working order. We also make a Hub Horst 
Poiver, which is adapted to either four or six horses. 
This Power is all that a planter can desire to do the 
power-work on a plantation: it is very simple in its 
construction, celebrated for its strength, and not 
easily got out of repair ; and, from the same quantity 
of power, can do more work than any other now in 
use. 

It is unnecessary for us to particularize further as 
to the advantages of our Thresher and Power, but 
respectfully solicit the attention of all, to call and ex- 
amine for themselves at our manufactory, where they 
can be seen in full operation ; and any recommenda- 
tion that may be wanted will be given, from planters, 
and others of this city, who have used them for the 
last four years. 

All orders promptly attended to. 

Repairing done at short notice, on application, at 
our manufactory, on Washington St., opposite Jar- 
ratt's Hotel, Petersburg, Ya. 

J. W. DAYIDSON & BRO. 

Ap., 1857— 3m 

ISN'T IT SO ! 

| USE ARTHUR'S Celebrated 
'Self-Sealing Cans and Jars, and 
lyou will have fresh fruit all the 
FRESH FRUIT year at Summer prices. 

Full directions for putting up all 
kinds of Fruit and Tomatoes, ac- 
company these cans and jars 

They are made of Tin, Glass, 
Queens' Ware, and Fire and Acid 
proof Stone Ware. The sizes arte 
from pints to gallons. These cans 
and jars are entirely open at the 
tops, and nest, to secure economy 
in transportation. 

For sale by Storekeepers 
throughout the United States. 

Descriptive circulars sent on ap- 
plication. J^gF" Orders from the 
trade solicited. 

Be sure to ask for "Arthur's.' 
It has stood the test of two seasons , 
having been used by hundreds o f 
thousands of families, hotel and 
boarding-house keepers 

We are now making them for 
the million. 

ARTHUR, BURNAM, &. 
GILROY, 
Manufacturers under the Patent, 
N. E. cor. Tenth and George Sts., 
PHILADELPHIA. 

r-— * 

A CHANCE FOR THE MILLION. 

THE subscribers are desirous of securing an Ag«nt, 
either male or female, in every town and county 
of the Union, to engage in a light and pleasant busi- 
ness, by which they can make, with ordinary energy, 
from $5 to $10 per day. Every information will b« 
given by addressing with stamp, to pay return letter 
S. A. DEWEY & CO., 
Ap., 1857— 8w Box 151, Philadelphia, Pa., 



IN WINTER 



BETTER 



THAN 



SW ETMEATS. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



171 



H. D. TURNER, 
GENERAL BOOK AGENT, 

No. 1 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, N. C, 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COURT REPORTS OF NO. CA., 

Has for sale, in quantities orby retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising Greek, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Books; School 
Books ; Blank 
Books ; Juve- 
nile and 

Toy 
B oo ks ; 
Miscellaneous 
Works; with all the 
New Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a large assortment of Station- 
ary and Fancy Articles. 

SCHOOL BOOKS.— All the different kinds o. 
Primers, Spelling Books, Reading Books, Gram- 
mars, Arithmetics, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &c; also Works on Astronomy, Alge- 
bra, Chemistry, Philosophy, Mathematics, Surveying, 
Geometry, Botany, Book-keeping, Rhetoric, Mensu- 
ration, Trigonometry, Geology, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery, Farming, Gardening, Medicine, Theology, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, &c, &c. He has always on 
hand the Standard English Law Reporter and Digests, 
and every Tieatise on Particular subjects; together 
with the various State Reports and Digests, and a 
general assortment of Law Books of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS— Ledgers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, Cash, and Letter Books, ReceiDt and Bill 
Books, Memorandum, Bank and Pass Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing Books. 

RELIGIOUS BOOKS.-Family, Pocket, and 
School Bibles, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
Books, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.— Piano Music, Music 
Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND FANCY ARTICLES.— 
Consisting of Foolscap and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Post and Drawing Paper, Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tracing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Quills, Wafers, Sealingwax, Pocket Books, Albums ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red Inks ; Prints, Gold and Silver ever-pointed Pen- 
cils, Seals, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Scrap-Books, Visiting Cards, Card Cases, Gold and 
Silver Paper, Inkstands, Slate and Slate Pencils, Lead 
Pencils, Bristol and Ivory Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Battledores, Rules, India Rubber, Carmine Saucers, 
Newman's, Reeves's, and American Water Col- 
crs, &c. 

N. B.— BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
forms, with neatness and dispatch. 



ftT GARDEN-SEEDS.— To be had at the North 
Carolina Bookstore. Garden-Seeds, warranted fresh 
and good, crop of 1855, selected from the most ap- 
proved Seedsmen and Gardeners in the Northern 
Country. 

February, 1857. tf 



TWENTY-FIVE WITNESSES; 

OK, THE 

Forger Convicted- 

JOHN S. DYE IS THE AUTHOR, 

Who has had 10 years experieu^e as a Banker 
and Pnblisher, and Author of A series of Lectures 
at the Broadway Tabernacle when, for 18 succes- 
siee nights, over 

VW 50,000 PEOPLE ,£B 
greeted him with Rounds of Applause, while he 
exhibited the manner in which Counterfeiters ex- 
ecute their Frauds, and the Surest and Shortest 
Means of Detecting them ! TM Bank Note En- 
gravers all say that he is the greatest Judge of Pa- 
per Money living 

GREATEST DISCOVERY of The Present 
Century for 

Delecting Counterfeit Bank Notes. 

Describing every Genuine Bill in existence, and 
exhibiting at a large glance every Counterfeit in 
Circulation. Arranged so admirably, that Ref- 
erence is easy and Detection instantaneous. 

55" No Index to exumine ! , Fo pages to hunt 
up ! But so simplified and arranged, that the 
Merchant, Baker and Business Man can see all 
at a Glance. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN. 
Thus each may read the same in his own Na- 
tive Tongue. 

MOST PERFECT BANK NOTE LIST 
PUBLISHED, also a List of All the Private 
Bankers in America. A complete summary of 
the Finance of Euiope and America will be pub- 
lished in eadh edition, together with all the impor- 
tant News of the Day. Also 

A SERIES OF TALES 
from an old Manuscript found in the East. Itf ur 
nishes the most complete History of 

ORIENTAL LIFE 
describing the most perplexing positions in which 
the Ladies and Gentlemen of that Country have 
been so otten iound. These Stories will continue 
throughout the whole year, and will prove the 
most entertaining ever offered to the Public. 

fty Furnished weekly to Subscribers only, at 
%\ a year. All letters must be addressed to 
JOHN S. DYE, Brokek, 

Publisher and Froprietor, 
70 Wall Street, New York. 

FARMER'S HALL 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

The subscriber is general agent for the sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Farming utensils, Field 
seeds, Fertilizers, &c. &c. Almost all the articles 
brought to the late Fair are kept on sale and are 
offered at manufacturers prices with no cost of trans- 
portation, as they were brought free by the Railroad. 

There is also a new fire proof Ware House on the 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are stored. 
The following are some of the articles brought to the 
late Fair: Horse Powers, Wheat- Fans, Corn Drills, 
Field Rollers, Corn and Cob Crushers. Harrows, Cul- 
tivators, and Plows of every size and description. 
JAMES M. TOWLES. 



© 
© 

P 

© 

ft 
© 

o 

o 
© 
© 

© 



Book Binding 
JOHN H. DeCARTERET & SON. 

RAREIGH, N. C. 

ARE still carrying on the BOOK BINDING busi- 
ness in all its branches at the old stand over 
"Turner's N. C. Bookstore." 



172 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Wyche's Cultivating Plow. 

PATENTED 26TH FEBRUARY, 1856. (THE 
Bladed Plow,) awarded §20 premium at the last 
N. C. State Fair; with cutting blades in the place of 
a moldboard; cuts, divides and turns over the soil; 
depositing the finer parts in the furrow, and turning 
over the turf, clods, &c, on the surface. Is cheap, 
light, and lasting, and easy to both driver and team. 
Admirably adapted to almost any purpose for which 
the plow is used. 
For license to sell, with further information, address 
W. E. WYCHE. 
Brookville, Granville Co. N. C". 
June 16, 1856. 5— tf. 

J. H. Gooch, Oxford, N. C, solicits orders for the 
above plows. 

DOCTOR HOOFLAND'S 

CELEBRATED 

GERMiN BITTEIS. 

PREPARED BY 

Dr. C. M. JACKSON. Philad'a, Pa. 

WILL EFFECTUALLY CURE 

LIVER COMP'T, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or Nervous Debility, Disease M the 
Kidneys, and all diseases arising from a disordered 
Liver or Stomach. 
Such 
as Constipa- 
tion, Inward Piles, 
Fulness or Blood to the 
Head, Acidity of the stomach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Disgust for food, 
Fullness or Weight in the Stomach, Sour Eruc- 
tations Sinking or Fluttering at the pit of the sto- 
mach. Swnniningof the Head, Hurried and diffi- 
cult Breathing, Fl itteringatthe Heart, Choaking 
or suffocating sensations when in a lying pos- 
ture. Dimness of vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight, Fever and Dull Pain in the 
Head, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
V ellowness of the skin and eyes, 
Pain in the Side. Back, Chest,- 
Limbs, &c , Sudden flush- 
es ol Hedt, Burning in 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil, 
and great de- 
pression of 
Spirits, 
The proprietor in calling the attention of the pub- 
lic to this preparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in its virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for which it is recommended. 

It is no new untried article but one that has stood 
the test of a ten years' trial before the American peo- 
ple, and its reputation and sale is unrivaled by any si- 
milar preparations extant. The testimony in its fa- 
vor given by the most prominent and well known 
Physicians and individuals in all parts of the coun- 
try is immense, and a careful perusal of the Almanac 
published annually by the proprietor, and to be had 
gratis of any of his agents, cannot but satisfy the most 
skeptical that this remedy is really deserving the great 
celebrity it has obtained. 

Principal Office and Manufactory No. 96 Arch St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM N. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING EFFECTS FROM THE GER- 
MAN BITTERs. 
Certificate of Dr. W. SMITE, of Pine Hill, Rich- 
mond Co., N. C, March 4, 1854. 
Dr. C. M. Jackson, Philadelphia.—Dear Sir,— I 
have been a subject of Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for the last five years. Such was my condition for 12, 
months that the physicians and all who saw me said) 
I must die. While in this condition, I was carried to 
the watering places in Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, but was not benefitted by any water to 
which I was taken. While on my way home, I stop- 
ped a week at Rutherlordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina to try the effect of some Chalybeate water 
in that place. About the last of the week, I went in- 
to a drug store to get some medicine for my child and 
myself. There were several of the village physici- 
ans in the store, and one of them seemed to take some 
interes; in my case, and after asking me some ques- 
tions, said he had been a dyspeptic, and had been 
greatly benefitted by the use of " Dr. Hoofland's Ger- 
man Bitters," prepared by ycu, and he insisted that I 
should try the Bitters He also called the next day 
atmy room, and insisted so much that I would try 
them, that I asked him to get me one bottle. He did 
it, and 1 commenced taking it as directed, and I do 
say I was more benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine I had ever taken. 

After reaching home, one of my neighbors came to 
me for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic,) 
and I gave him nearly all the Bitters 1 had left; which 
effected much good in his case. He has often called 
on me for more of the same kind of medicine, saying 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he "had 
taker , but I have not been able to get any more for 
him or myself since ; will you, therefore, please ship 
me a dozen or more as soon as possible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. SMITH, M. D. 

GREAT CURE OF PILES. 

Certificate of W.J. AT WOOD, HuntsvilU, Yadkin 
Co.,N. C, Nov. 1,1853. 

Dr. C. M. Jacks* n— Dear Sir, — Allow me to ex- 
press to you my sincere thanks tor your discovery of 
a medicine, which, to say the least of it, has effected 
a cure that all other medicines that I have taken have 
entirely failed to do "Hoofland's German Bitters," 
have cured me of the most stubborn and aggravated 
case of the Piles that, perhaps, evejr fell to the lot of 
man. My case is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all myfrinds and relations, as I had tried every- 
thing recommended, and nothing did me any good 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, for 
the benefit of the afflicted, as you may think proper. 
Truly yours, 

Wm. T. ATWOOD. 

These Bitters are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great advantage over every mineral preparation, as 
they never prostrate, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem. 

Ptice 75c. per bottte. Sold by Druggists and Store- 
keepers in every town and villaee in the United 
States and Canadas, and by 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

November 1856. Raleigh. 

WARRENTON FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

WARRENTON, ]N. C. 

THE 30th session of this school will commence on 
the 3d of January next, prepared to give thorough i 
instructruction in all the branches of female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
time of entrance. 

Terms per Session : 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in rooms, $60 00 
English tuition, 12 50 

Music on Piano, Guitar, Melodeon, with use 

of instrument, each 23 0* 

Oil Painting, 15 00 

Persons wishing further information, will" please 
apply to GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 

December, 1855. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



173 



GRE\OBLE HOSE. 

THIS superior hose, manufactured from the fines! 
of HEMP, is adapted and especially recom- 
mended for the use of Fire Engines, Mills, Manufac- 
tories, Ships, Steamboats, Railroads, Hotels, Garden 
uses, &c. Its advantages over other Hose are its 
extreme lightness and cheapness. It will stand as 
much pressure as Leather Hose, and has proved to be 
as durable ; and all the care it needs alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air. 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
inches in diameter, in lengths from 100 to 200 feet, 
by CHARLES LENZMANN, 

54 Cedar st., New York. 
Sole Agent for the United States. 

Certificates of its superior qualities from the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navy Yards ; from Ai- 
red Carson, Esq., Chief Engineer of the New York 
Fire Department ; James Smith, Esq , New York, 
and L. Button, Esq., Waterford, Fire Engine Build- 
fers, and from some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &c, can be examined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb 18 — 6m 

LYON'S KATHAIRON 

Has now become the standard preparation 
for the HAIR. Its immense sale, nearly 
"1,000,000 

bottles: 

Per year, attests its excellence and great 
superiority over all other articles of the kind. 
The ladies universally pronounce the 
KATHAIRON 
To be, by far, the finest and most agreeable 
article they ever used. It restores the Hair 
after it has fallen out ; invigorates and beau- 
tifies it, giving to it a rich glossy appearance, 
and imparts a delightful perfume, Sold by all 
dealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 
25 Cents per Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNKOOP & CO., Proprietors, 

63 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers, also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
and in great variety. 6m. 

SARDS' SARSAPARILLA, 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 
FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

AND FOR THE CURE OF 

Scrofula, Rheumatism, Stubborn Ulcers, Dys- 
pepsia, Salt Rheum, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases, Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Liver Complaint, Bronchitis, 
Consumption, Female 
Complaints, 
Loss of Appetite, General Debility, <5rc. 

TO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
of the humane and philanthrophic of all ages. — 
Before the practice of medicine became a science, the 
sick were publicly exposed in the open air, and every 
passer-by named the remedy he considered most suit- 
able for the complaint. Wc possess at the present, 
day, through the agency of the press, a more reliable 
mode of conveying information to our suffering fel- 
low cieatures. Those afflicted with Scrofula, Cuta- 
neous or Eruptive Diseases, will find in the columns 
of almost every newspaper and periodical published 
cer tificates and testimonials from those who hare 



been speedily cured of these dreadful complaints by 
the purifying and powerfully regenerative qualities 
of Sands' Sarsaparilla. 

ASTONISHING CURE. 

Patekson, N. Y. 

Messrs. A. B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen-. — Having 
witnessed the most beneficial effects from the use of 
your SARSAPARILLA, it gives me pleasure to send 
you the following statement in regard to my son. In 
the Spring, he took a severe cold, and after eight 
weeks of severe suffering the disease settled iu his 
left leg and foot, which swelled to the utmost. The 
swellingwas lanced by his physician, and disharged 
most profusely. After that, mo less than eleven Ul- 
cers formed on the leg and foot at one time. We had 
five difierent physicians, but none relieved him much; 
and the last winter found him so emaciated and low 
that he was unable to leave his bed, suffering th« 
most excruciating pain. During this time the bona 
had become so much affected, that piece after piece 
came out, of which he has now more than twenty- 
five preserved in a bottle, varying troni one half to 
one and a half inches in length. VVe had given np 
all hopes of his recover v, but at this time we were 
induced to try your SARSAPARILLA, and with its 
use his health and appetite began immediately to im- 
prove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
dozen bottles effected a perfect cure. 

With gratitude, I remain trulv vours, 
DARIUS BALLARD. 

We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ballard 
cheerfully subscribe to thp facts of the above state- 
ment. 

H. & R. S. Hyatt, 
Geo. T. Dean, 
A. M. Trowerbkidoe, 
C. Eastwood. 

Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A. B. 
D. SANDS, Druggists and Chemists, 100 Fulton S t, 
corner of William, New York. 

Sold also by Druggists generally. 

Price $1 per bottle ; six bottles for $5. 1 ly 



A YER'S PILLS 

FOR ALL THE PURPOSES OFA 

FAMILY PHYSIC 

There has long txisted a public demand for an ef- 
fective purgative Pill which could be relied on as suro 
and perfectly safe in its operation. This has been 
prepared to meet that demand, and an extensive trial 
of its virtues has conclusively shown with what suc- 
cess it accomplishes the purposes designed. It is easy 
to make a physical -Pill, but not so easy to make the 
best of all Pilh — one which should have none of the 
objections, but all the advantages of every other. Thii 
has been attempted here, and with what success we 
would respectfully submit to the public decision. It 
has been unfortunate for the patient hitherto that al- 
most every purgative medicine is acrimonious and ir- 
ritating to the bowels. This is not. Many of them 
produce so much griping pain and revulsion in the 
system as to more than counterbalance the good to 
he derived from them. These Pills produce no irrita- 
tion or pain, unless it arrises from previous 'existing ob- 
struction or derangement in the bowels. Being pure- 
ly vegetable, no harm can arise from their use in any 
quantity ; but it is better thai any medicine should be 
taken judiciously. Minute directions for their use in 
the several diseases to which they are applicable are 
given on the box. Among the complaints which 
have been speedily cured by them we may mention 
Liver Complaint, in its various forms of Jaundice, In- 
digestion, Langor and Loss of Appetite, Listlessn^ss, 
Irritability, Billious Headache, Bilious Fever, Fever 
and Ague, Pain in the side and Loins, for in truth all 



174 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



these are but the consequence of diseased action of 
the liver. As an aperient, they afford prompt and 
sure relief in Costiveness, Piles, Colic, Dysentery, Hu- 
mors, Scrofula and Scurvey, Colds, with soreness of 
the body, Ulcers and impurity of the blood ; in short 
any and every case where a purgative is required. 

They have also produced some singularly success- 
ful cures in Rheumatism, Gout, Dropsey, Gravel, Ery- 
sipelas, Palpitation of the Heart, Pains in the Back, 
Stomach and Side. They should be freely taken in 
the Spring of the year ; to purify the blood and prepare 
the system lor the change of seasons. An occasional 
dose stimulates the stomach into healthy action, and 
restores the appetite and vigor. They purify the blood 
and by their stimulant action on the circulatory sys- 
tem, renovate the strength of the body, and restore the 
wasted or diseased energies of the whole organist. 
Hence an occasional dose is advantageous even though 
no serious derangement exists ; but unnecessary dos- 
ing should never be carried too far, as every purgative 
medicine reduces the strength, when taken to excess. 
The thousand cases in which a physic is required can- 
not be enumerated here, but they suggest themselves 
to the reason of every body ; and it is confidently be- 
lieved this pill will answer a better purpose than any 
thing which has hitherto been available to mankind. 
When their virtues are once known the public will no 
longer doubt what remedy to empioy when in need of 
a cathartic medicine. 

Being sugar wrapped they are pleasant to take, and 
being purely vegetable, no, harm can arise from their 
use in any quantity. 

For minute directions, see the wrapper on the box. 

PREPARED BY 

DR. JAMES C. AYER, 

Practical and Analytical Chemist, Lowell, Mass. — 

Price 25 cts. per box. Five boxes for $1. 



AYER'S 

CHERRY PECTORAL. 

FOR THE RAPID CURE OF 

COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESS, 

BRONCHITIS, WHOOPING-COUGH, CROUP, 

ASTHMA AND CONSUMPTION. 

This remedy has won for itself such notoriety for its 
cures of every variety of Pulmonary disease, that it 
is entirely unnecessary to recount the evidences of its 
virtues in any community where it has been employed 
So wide is the field of its usefulness, and so numerous 
the cases of its cures, that almost every section of the 
country abounds in persons publicly known, who 
have been restored from alarming and even desperate 
diseases of the lungs by its use. vVhen once tried its 
supe iority over every other medicine of its kind is too 
apparent to escape observation, and where its virtues 
are known, the public no longer hesitate what antidote 
to employ for the distressing and dangerous affections 
of the pulmonary organs which are incident to our 
climate. And not only in formidable attacks upon 
the lungs, but for the milder varieties of Colds, Coughs 
Hoarseness &c, and for children it is the pleasantest 
and safest medicine that can be obtained. 

As it has long been in constant use throughout this 
section, we need not do more than assure the people 
its quality is kept up to the best that it ever has been 
and that the genuine article is sold by — 



P. F. Pescud and "Williams & 
N. C, June, 1857. 



Raleigh 
*-7- 



GREEN SAND MARL OF NEW-JERSEY, 

rpHE NEW-JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
JL is now prepared to receive orders for this impor- 
tant Manure. For all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Marl is more than a substitute. Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annual Report to the Legislature 
of New Jersey, says : 

" The value of these Marls is best seen in the rich 
and highly cultivated district which has been im- 
proved (almost made) by their use. But it may be 
interesting to examine the causes of their great value 
in agriculture, and to compare them with other fertil- 
izers. For example : The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as five per cent of the whole weight of 
the Marl ; a bushel, wnen dry, weighs eighty pounds ; 
and in the proportion mentioned, would contain four 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel of unleached wood ashes." 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found in the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

Price, delivered on board vessels at the wharves of 
the Company at Portland Heights, Karitain Bay, New- 
Jersey, Seven Cents per Bvsliel. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sent/re* of 
postage. Orders for other fertilizers will receive 
prompt attention Address either of the undersigned. 
CHAS. SEARS, Pres. 
Riceville Post-Office, N. J. 
GeoW. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar st., N. Y. 

Tappat Townsend Treas., 
82 Nassau st., N.Y. 9— ly. 

N. B. — Those wishing Marl for Spring use should 
order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
Orders will be filled in rotation. 



"TVTORTH CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE 1NSUR- 
J_ 1 ance Company, Raleigh, N. C. 1 his Company 
lusures the lives of individuals for one year, a term of 
years, or for life, on the mutual principle, the as- 
snredfor life participating in all the profits of the 
Company. For policies granted for the whole term 
of Life, when the premium therefor amounts to §=80, 
a note may be given for one half the amount of the 
premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
anty. 

The prompt manner in which all losses have been 
paid by this Company, together with low rates of 
premium, present great inducements to sucb as are 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to five 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within 90 days after satisfactory 
proof is presented. 

DIRECTORS. 



Charles E. Johnson, 
Wm. D. Haywood, 
Jonh G.Williams, 
H W. Husted, 
Wm. H. McKee, 
Charles B. Root, 



Wm. W. Holden, 
Wm. D. Cooke, 
R. H. Battle, 
Wm. H. Jones, 
P F. Pescud' 
Seaton Gales. 



OFFICERS. 

Dr. Charles E. Johnson, President, 

William D. Haywood, Vice President, 

Richard H. Battle, Secretary, 

William H. Jones, Treasurer, 

H. W. Husted, Attorney. 
Charles E. Johnson, M. D. ) Medical 
William H. McKee, M. D. V Board of 
Rich'd . B. Haywood, M. D. ) Consultation. 

W. W. hS. I Mecut Z e °°^ 
Charles B. Root, ) mittee - 

Communications should be addressed, (post paid to) 

R. H. BATTLE, Secrtiary, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



175 



PIANOS, MELOPEONS, AND MUSIC. 




PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



HORACE WATERS, 

No. 333 Broadway, New York. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK PIANOS AND MELO- 

DEONS. 

THE LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE UNITED STATES. 
Pianos from five different Manufacturers, of every variety of style— from those m plain rosewood 
cases for $200, to those of the most elegant finish, for $1000. No House in the Union can come m com- 
petition for the number, varieiy, and celebrity of its instruments, nor the extremely low prices at which they 

areSold- HORACE WATERS' MODERN IMPROVED PIANOS. 

with or without iron frames, have, in their new scale and improved action, a power and compass ol tone 
equalllin* the grand, with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Press and first music mas- 
ters have justly pronounced them equal ifnot superior to any other make. They are guaranteed to stand 
the action of every climate. . . . . ,, , 

HORACE WATERS' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable quai- 
itv-sole agent tor the sale of S. D. & H. W. Smith's celebrated Melocl eons-can also tarnish Metadeons of 
all other makers. Prices from $45 to $125; for two sets of reeds, $150 ; two banks of keys, $200 ; Organ 
uedil bass meledeons,275 and $300. , , . 

MUSIC -One ot the largest and best catalogues of Music now published ; sold at greatly reduced prices. 
Mu--ic senr to wherever ordered, post paid. Personal attention paid to all orders received by Mail, fce- 
c.. ml hand Pianos taken in exchange for new. Catalogues sent by mail. Great inducements ottered to 
a *ents to sell the above. A liberal discount to deilers, teachers, seminaries and clergymen. 
"Each IiHtmme it guaranteed to give satisfaction, or purchase money refunded. bhiOUJNU xiaimu ri- 
ANOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly in store ; prices from 30 to $140. 

TES -IM0NIALS FROM PROFESSORS, AND OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 



Says "Tlu Christian Intelligencer" "The Horace 
Waters Pianos ,-fdr elegance of construction, superior 
depth and sweetness of tone, were pronounced by 
competent judges at the Crystal Palace to be in all 
respects masterpieces of Mechanical skill. Having 
inspected a large number of the Horace Waters' Pi- 
anos, we can speak of their merits, from personal 
knowledge as being of the very best quality." 

N othing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in any department than the Piano-Forte manu- 
factured by Horace Waters, of this city.— Church- 
man. 

The following is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "The finest among the many pianos at the 
Crystal Palace are those placed there by Horace Wa- 
ters, whose instruments are always popular." 

The following we take from the "Christian Advo- 
cate" Memphis Tenn. : "The Horace Waters' Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
terial. From all we can learn of this establishment — 
said to be the largest in the United States— we have 
no doubt that buyers can do as well, perhaps better, 
at this time than any other house in the Union." 

"Mr. Waters has been long established and is favo- 
rably known. We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
usually charged for articles in his line."— Jacksonian 

X. J. 

"Your instruments are a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos, and on honor to the skillful manu- 
facturer. There is no doubt but they will be appre- 
ciated by the public and all admirers of true merit. — 
Oscar Gomettant. 



"I take great pleasure in pronouncing them instru- 
ments of a superior quality both in tone and touch. 
August Gochle.' 7 

For power of tone, depth of bass, and brilliancy of 
treble, together with accuracy of touch, they are equal 
to any make I am acquaihted with, and 1 cordially re- 
commend them to those wishing to purchase.— V. C. 
Taylor. 

"Our friends will find at Mr. Waters' store the very 
best assortment of music and of pianos to be found in 
the United States, and we urge our southern and 
western friends to give him a call whenever they go 
to New York." — Graham's Magazine. 

"We consider <hem worthy of special attention, 
from tli« resonant and exceedingly musical tone which 
Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining."— A. Y. Mu- 
sical World and Timet. 

There is one which, for beauty of finish and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of tone, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the kind we have ever seen. It is 
from the establishment of Horace Waters. Being 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the action of the climate, and of standing 
a long time in tune.— Savannah Georgian, Savannah, 
Ga 

Says the "Evening Mirror," "They (the Horace 
Waters' Pianos) are very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comparison 
with any other manufacturer in the country, as re- 
gards their outward elegance, and quality of tone and 
power. 



176 THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 

COOKE'S NEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

NOW READY FOR DELIVERY. 



THIS Large and Beautiful MAP of North Carolina is now ready for delivery. It is one of the best 
engraved maps that has ever been published of any State in the Union, and is sold at the low price o 
Eight Dollars. 

JVb Maps will be sold except by subscription. Agents will be found in most of the counties of the State, o 
ersons desiring a copy of the Map can send their names directly to "Wm, D. Cooke, Raleigh, N. C." 

AGENTS WANTED. 

A number of counties in the State are yet unengaged. Persons wishing to canvass for the Map will be 
furnished with the terms, &c, upon application to the undersigned. 

Agents are also wanted for South Carolina and Virginia. The Map includes Virginia as far north ac 
Richmond, and South Carolina as far south as the junction of the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 

TO EDITORS. 

Editors in this State, who, having advertised the Map for six months, are entitled to a copy will please 
•ommunicate the fact to the undersigned, that their copies may be forwarded by first opportunity 

W. D. COOKE, 

Raleigh, N. C. 



Report of Professors Emmons and Mitchell, to the North Carolina State Ag. Soc., on 

COOKE'S NEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA- 

I have had frequent opportunities of testing the correctness of Mr Cooke's new Map of North Carolina, 
and parts of the adjoining States. This Map is worthy of special notice: 1st, from the fact that it embraces 
those parts of Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee which are of immediate Interest to the citizens of this 
State. 2d, that the eastern part of the State is compiled from data obtained through the determinations of 
the Coast Survey. 3d, it contains an entirely new feature in its profile extending along the line of the Rail- 
road survey from Goldsboro' to Asheville, which exhibits the heights of many interesting points, as well 
through the central aud western parts of the State lying east of the mountains as amongst the Mountains 
themselves. 

In addition tothe foregoing it may ba justly said that Mr. Cooke has taken unwearied pains to correct the 

geography of the different counties, and to insert the prevalent names of places, those for insiance which 
ave come into use since new lines of travel have been established. It is in fact a New Map, and the only map 
which can be relied upon for accuracy in its details. It moreover merits commendation for the artistical skill 
displayed in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct. I 

EBENEZER EMMONS, State Geologist. 
In the encorrium passed by Prof. Emmons, upon Mr. Cooke's new Map, I fully concur. The particulars 
mentioned by him are of first rate importance and interest. Most of the maps of the State, heretofore pub- 
lished, have furnished few, if any, indications of the position of any point within our own limits, with regard 
to the States, north, south, or west of us. This evil has now a remedy. In noticing the map, the very ef- 
ficient and important aid, in its construction, so fully afforded by Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendent of (he 
United States Coast Survey, and by Col. G-wynn, having the management of the Survey of a railroad, car- 
ried over the Blue Ridge into the valley of the French Broad, should not be passed in silence Only the por- 
tion of the map representing the eastern part of the State has been submitted to my inspectiion, but to this I 
presume, the rest will be made to correspond. E. MITCHELL. 

University of N. C, October 21, 1856. 



JOHN N. GORDON, , TXT AN TED, by a young lady residing at the 

Grocer and Commission merchant and Dealer U^T^T^J^^S^^ 

ID Metals, to teach the common and higher English branches, 

ta+t, <&*.**+ n»„ n .+'k t?r,»l,™„. TT*t*i Music, and Drawing. Credentials given if required. 

Uth Street, near the Exchange Httel, If in a fam]JV) she w * uld prefer one * f re]ig j ou ^ prin . 

RICHMOND, VA. cibles. Address the Editor of the " Carolina Culti- 

May, 1851. ».— tt k»tor." feb. 18— tf- 



Jfag^***^ 










1* £V> : 



'^ <2M 



I 






A'?', 



,«ij ."" Yrr-^ 



THE CAROLINA- CULTIVATOR 



Dnaofrit in Igrtmltmt, JSortioiltur^ oiilt \\)i 31krjjnuir %xi 

WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher. 



VOL. 



RALEIGH, in. C., AUGUST, 1857. 



NO. 6 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACn MOXTH. 

TE.UMS. 

1 Copy in advance 



6 Copies 
10 " 
13 " 
20 " 



Si oo 

5 00 

3 00 
10 CO 
15 00 



Subscriptions may begin with any number; but 
vhen not otherwise directed, the back numbers of 
the current volume will be sent. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

One square 12 lines, one month, 

Eeach .subsequent insertion, »; 

3i P a £ 1? one year, , 



One page " 



.. . . . %l 00 

' 75 

.... H, 00 

30, 00 

50, 00 



!PstcI(aE01UL 



From " Cozzen's T iVine Press," (published in N. Y.) 

American Wines- 

In Georgia, :he luscious rauscadiu'es, gather- 
ed in the wild state, produce a wiuo of consid- 
erable merit; as yet, no attempt 'has been 
made to give them a formal training, except 
here and there, upon a small scale.* This is 
elso the case in South Carolina. But here we 
&re in a sister State, a land of promise, ofvii.es, 



. * Dr. Cammack, of Athens, Georgia, hns quite ft 
large vineyard, and raises quantities of grapes aruu- 
ally. Whether he makes wines, we do nyt knptfj i 
There is much wine made for family use in vr.rioas / 
ports of G., horn tho wild grapes. 



and pines, and mines; of tar and turpentine; 
the natal soil of the Isabella, the Catawba, the 
Herberhont, and the sonorous Scuppe.rnong — - 
North Carolina! 

We shall have occasion to sreak of the Ca- 
tawba, the Isabella, and she Herbemont, here- 
after; the two first, unquestionably owe their 
reputation to the skill of the cultivators of Ohio 
and New York, and haSe, only a limited growth 
in their native State; bst Scuppernong vine- 
yards are found from' C;i!-u!>:cZ: on the ex- 
treme north,, to the southern counties on the 
Cape Fear reiver,, and extend inknd, almost to 
the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains : . while 
so various are the qualities of wine produced, . 
that some kinds command three or four dollars , 
per gallon, and some kinds can be purchased 
for five or sis dollars per band: There are,- 
two species of this grape, the best having a ", 
white, silvery skin, with a rich, metalic lustre, . 
while the inferior kind boars a small, black . 
berry. Mr. Longworth says, "the black Scup- ■ 
pernong bears from one to four berries on a 
bunch, and would, in times of war, if lead be • 
scarce, be as valuable, even when fully ripe, as 
the Fox grape, for bullets." The white Scup- 
pernong, also has a very small bunch, and is a 
better gran- than ihfi black. But the skin is 
thick, and the pulp hard; it will never be val- 
uable us. fe v-;m: jj&jje, unless to give to other 

li'iUSt. avov,;;.; ?,0(1 /'kvur,. 

u ^or no e! her ;.:urpo?: than this, namely, to 
mix with Cketgust of hss flavorous grapes, to 



146 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



cive character to the trine when made, this J allowance of sugar, while the Catawba wine 
Scup'-iernong will prove to be most valuable to • requires but little. McCulloch, in his treatise 
this countrj-. The " Trammer " of the Rhein- on wine-making, makes a very accurate dis- 
gua, a small berried grape, abounding in sac- 1 tinction between this "sweet principle," and 
eharum, and full of aroma and strength, is so that which constitutes the " sugar," in frait 
used to mix with the " Riesling,'-' the favorite ! The latter, the saccharine principle, is the ele- 



grapc of the Rhine, in the production of the 
first class German wines. And that the gen- 
erality of European wines owe their excellence 
to the judicious mixture of various growths 
and vintages, is so well known as scarcely to 
need repeating here. In particular, Madeiras, 
Sherries, atid Champagne wines are so com- 
posed : the capitaz, or head butler of the Span- 
ish iodega, or wine-cellar, being a most impor- 
tant personage, to whom is confided the ex- 
quisite task of balancing flavor against body, 
and lusciousness, which might cloy, against 
acerbity, which might repel until the whole 
perfected' vinous mass becomes the golden po- 
table which "even the gods might envy. So 
highly are the services of this great functiona- 
ry prized, that the cajai'.az of a large proprietor 
■seldom fails to amass considerable wsalth, as 
an instance of which, Juan Sanchez, the cajpi- 
taz of the late Pedro Domez, died recently, 
worth £300,000. 

But the value of the Scuppernong as a wine- 
grape, has not yet become fairly tried; at least 
not in North Carolina, Of all the samples we 
have tasted, not one was the pure and original 
' fermented juice of the grape, but, in every 
; -case, more or less sophisticated with sugar or 
.honey, and not unfrequently with whiskey or 
fcrandy. It is usual to add three pounds of su- 
gar to one gallon of the must, and then a little 
distilled spirits of some kind is poured into ev- 
ery barrel of wine, "to make it keep." Sub- 
jected to this treatment, the fluid degenerates 
into a sort of virions grog, and its peculiar 
character as a wine is almost entirely lost. — 
Stul, in spite of this, it has an aroma which is 
.somewhat grateful. This mistake must be rec- 
tified, as a larger experience obtains among 
our vine dressers of the South ; let us look into 
the matUr a little closer. 

That species of the- muscadine, called the 
Scuppernong, is a very sweet grape, but sweet 
grapes arc eften wanting in saccharine matter 
For a familiar instance, take the Catawba aDd 
Isabella grapes. To the taste the latter is by 
far the sweetest fruit ; nevertheless, in making 
& sparkling wine, the Ifi&beila needs a liberal 



: -' '. 






ment which, by the process of fermentation, ig 
transmitted into alcohol, or spirit of wine, a 
certain percentage of which is necessary in all 
vinous fluids. This spirit of the wine is deriv- 
ed directly from the sugar of the grape. Now, 
the difference between the sweet element and 
the saccharine element, is very clearly shown 
by Mr. McCulloch, who illustrates the subject 
by comparing molasses with refined sugar — 
the first being much the sweetest of the two to 
ths taste, and yet not comparable to the latter 
in its proportion of pure saccharum. And, if 
we may venture upon a theory, we should say 
"that the reason why sweet grapes make a 
wine less sweet than those not so dulcet to the 
taste, lies in this : — that in the sweet grape the 
whole quantity of saccharum is absorbed in the 
production of alcohol, while in those more a- 
bounding in sugar, a portion only is transmut- 
ed into alcohol ; the superflux of sugar remain- 
ing in undisturbed solution, and sweetening the 
wine, less or more, as may be." 

Now, the Scuppernong grape produces a wine 
naturally hard and dry, with little to recom- 
mend it but its peculiar aroma and flavor ; and, 
in consequence, the must is artificially sweet- 
ened to make it a marketable or a saleable 
commodity. So long as this method of treat- 
ment's practiced, neither it, nor any other A- 
merican wine so used, can rank with any wines 
of Europe, except with the spurious produc- 
tions of Cette, Lisbon, and Marseilles. The 
difficulty lies in this — our vine growers are 
afraid of a hard, dry wine, — because popular 
taste so far (especially in the rural districts) 
has been corrupted by the sweetened, sophisti- 
cated, poorest class of imported wines, the sweet 
malagas, and pure juice ports, that are current 
in every country town. Pure, wholesome wines 
never are, and never should be, sweet ; a glass 
of surrup is no refreshment for a laborer, it is 
a miserable solace for the student, and as a 
daily beverage for anybody, actually repulsive; 
and as we are looking forward to the period 
when our wine shall be used, not only at wed- 
dings, merry-makings, balls and dinners, but 
as the common drink for all classes of people, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



147 



we should define now and here, that hy wines, 
we mean the pure, fermented juice of the grape, 
without the admixture of anything else whate- 
ver.* 

That the Scnppcrnong is a hard, dry wine, 
when made without sugar, is doubtless true ; 
but the question is, " what character will this 
very wine assume when mellowed by age? — 
The Sercial, the king of Madcras, is a harsh, 
austere and repulsive drink, for the first few 
years, nor is it drinkable until age has correct- 
ed the acerbity of its temper — but what then? 
Then it becomes one of the most exqui.-dte flu- 
ids in the world, and commands a price supe- 
rior, in some instances, to any known wine, 
with the exception of Imperial Tokay. The 
real merits of the native wine of North Caroli- 
na, then, still need development ; age and pro- 
per treatment must, in time, produce something; 
for the Scuppernong is not destitute of delicate 
aroma, an important quality, indeed. The 
mode of culture is peculiar— the vines (layers, 
not cuttings), are planted one hundred feet 
apart, the main branches have spnec to run 
fifty feet each way, at right angles from the 
centre, before meeting. Each vine may be rep- 
resented thus + the laterals interlacing over 
head and forming a canopy. The branches are 
never pruned, as it is said, u the vine would 
'bleed to death." Like the vines inLombardy, 
these are high trained (Jiaut tige), the lowest 
branches being eight feet above, and parallel 
with the ground.. The yield is most abundant; 
a single vine often bearing thousands of bunch- 
es, the berries small and but few to the bunch. 
Instances have been cited cf single ones yield- 
ing enough grapes to make several barrels of 
wine, and covering two and a half acres of 
ground. We have no data to estimate the 
vearly produce of these vines, neither the quan- 
tity nor value; but we are well convinced that 
•even now the statistics of grape culture in this 
State would present an imposing array of fig- 
ures. 

We have already seen specimens of native 
vines of Virginia, of excellent quality. The 

* " Be assured," says President Jefferson, in a let- 
ter to Maj. Adlura. April £0, 1810, " that there is nev- 
er one atom of anything whatever, put into the good 
wines of France. I name that country, because 1 
can vouch the fact from the assurrnee to myself, of 
the vigr.eruris of all the best wine cantoned of that 
country, which I visited myself." 



Catawba there is an abundant bearer, and tho 
wine made from it is essentially different from 
that of Ohio. The climate of this State would 
seem to be peculiarly adapted tor the purpose/ 
and the wild and waste land might be turned' 
to profitable account in the production of vines. 
To Virginia we are indehtcd for many species 
already popular, among which, we may instance 
"Norton's Seedling," the "Woodson, and 
" Cunningham." Here, too, the Bland grape 
grows abundantly, under the name af the Vir- 
ginia Muscadel. In Maryland and Delaware, 
also, a variety of native grapes are cultivated, 
some of extraordinary productiveness. One 
vine, raised by Mr. Wiilis (near Baltimore), in 
18S2, yielded twenty -five thousand bunches- 
and in the following year, Messrs. C. M, 
Bromwell and R. Monklai.d certify, "that 
they counted upon it, .fifty-four thousand iour 
hundred and ninety bunches, omitting small* 
and young, ones, which would have added at 
least three thousand moreT* Why Messrs 
Bromwell and Monkland could not wait till, 
the young ones grew up, is a question. To 
leave three thousand bunches out of the tally 
because they were small and green, is an in- 
sult to Young America. 

That part of the United States between the" 
thirty-eighth and forty-fourth paralles of lati- 
tude, so far, is entitled to the supremacy in ' 
grape culture. Already the wines of Ohio and 
Missouri begin to supplant the imported Rhine' 
and Champagne wines here, even at the same 
prices. Terraces rise above terraces on the ' 
hill sides of the Ohio river, and the red bluffs' 
begin to disappear beneath mases of vine fol- 
iage and purple clusters of fruit. In Pennsyl- ,' 
vania, at the end of the last century, an associ- ' 
ation was formed for the purpose of cultivating' 
the grape, for wine, and vineyards were estab- ' 
lishedat Spring Mill, under thesuperintendance 
of Mr. Peter Lcgoux. This was a failure: 



* At Mr. Weller's vineyard, about eighteen miles 
from Wilmington, N. C-, two gentlemen, /Mr. J. R. 
Reston and another) made an estimate of the pro- 
duce of two vines. They laid out a square bv meas- 
ure, and picked the grapes within it, and by taking 
the number of square yards of the entire space oc- 
cupied by the vines, they were able to tell from the 
quantity gathered in the square, that the two vir.es 
would yield one hundred and fifty barrels of grapes 
Taking the weight of a barrel at 200 lbs. this would 
amount to 15,000 pounds to each vine, or sewn <znda j 
half tons t 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR, 



foreign wines were tried and abandoned, and rior native wines, both Isabella and Catawba, 
finally the wild grape called the Schuylkill i still and sparkling. The last grape is the fa- 
ifuscadel met with temporary success. It was vorite there, as it is also in Kentucky and Ten- 



cn'v pro tempore, however, and the failure of 
•that vinevard threw a broad-brimmed shadow 
over similar enterprises thenceforward. But 



nessee. In St. Louis, the native wines are rap- 
idly supplanting the foreign, especially the 
sparkling kinds : at the hotels there the ma- 



tte vine begins to flourish again in the land of jjority of wines on the tables are of home pro- 
drab, and we presume by and by Pcnnsylva- duction. 

nia will not behind the rest of the middle i Now, good friend, if you are tired with our 
States. I long itinerancy, take the cool, green glass, and 

In our own State there is already much wine reach yonder long-necked amber-colored, Rhen- 
made from the Isabella grape — in Orange! ish looking flask, if you be a hock drinker ; or 
countv; in Columbia county, among the Sha- if not, let us cut the cords around this other 
kers ; ancTon the banks of the Hudson, in the cork, for the luscious fluid confined within the 
neighborhood of the city. "We have tried ma- fair, round bottle, hath that propulsive spirit 
ny of these wines, and although want of expe- it must needs be imprisoned, and held with lig- 
rience, and improper treatment is manifest, yet i aturcs of flax and wire. You will try the first ? 
there is sufficient merit in them, to insure us Aha ! you like it, do you? Compare it with 
in the prediction "that the grape culture will this Rudesheimer, the "Berg" of 1816. Is 
soon prove to be one of the most valuable not the aroma of the last the most agreeable ? 
fields for enterprise ever presented to the'peo- You think not? That smack of the lips speaks 
of New York." Here is the soil, here is the loudly in favor of the other ; and what think 
climate for the Isabella ; as Ohio is to the Ca- you of its farewell taste — the arrier gout? — 
tawba, so will this State be to this grape. — "Fine,'' you say, "and delicate, and leaves 
Here, too, is the market, so that the cost of the mouth sweet and cool." " Which do you 
transportation will be trifling, and the day may prefer?" "The first," you say? Bravo for 
not be far off when ships shall lay beside the Catawba 1 Good friend, surprised, holds forth 
rich vineyards on the Hudson's banks, to re- his empty glass, and S2}'S. "You don't say so?" 
ceive the golden fraughtage for distant Eu- j We fill it, and repeat that it is true. Good 
Tope. frind much animated,' "Why, when I was in 

In New Jersey the vine has been cultivated < Cologne I paid twenty florins for a bottle of 
for many years, especially in the neighborhood Metternieh Schloss Jbhannesherger. and altho' 
cf Burlington. The soil of some parts of this j it 'was an old wine, and had the arms of the 
Slate is peculiarly adapted for the purpose, and j prince on the seal, yet, to , my 'taste, this wine 
we may hope hereafter for better wines than ; appears, even bitter than that." We set forth 
those she now furnishes under a variety of for- fair chompagne' glasses, and cut the strings of 



eigr: brands. Still further west we find that 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan are improving 
Jhe.hiut given by Ohio; in fact, Indiana must 
be recognized as one of the pioneers ; for, in 
the beginning of this century, the most consid- 
erable quantity of native wine made in the 
United States was from the Cape or Schuylkill 
grape cf Yevay, Switzerland county, Indiana. 
Missouri already ventures to contest the palm 
with Ohio. In 18-j2, the vineyard at Hermann 
embraced some forty or fifty acre,? only, and 
this year, we arc informed that no Less than fivo 
hundred are under cultivation there, besides 
many other vineyards in the interior of this 
thriving State. At the Crystal Palace exhibi- 
tion, in New York, six prizes were awarded to 
tine growers of Missouri for samples of supo- 



a bottle of different shape. "Try this," (good 
friend tastes). " By the moistj purple globules 
ofBacchus's great plant, this is delicious! (he 
drinks).' What is it?" We answer, ''Isabel- 
la." (Good friend, watching the sparkles with 
the glass up to his eye) — "Not our Isabella ? " 
We rQ'[>\y in the affirmative. "And where, in 
the name of roses and raspberries, was it tint- 
itged?" We answer, " Cincinnati." "Not in 
the city? " We respond, " The wine is made 
and the grapes grown within the corporate lim- 
its of that celebrated western town." (Good 
friend, anxiously) — "Proceed with the itine- 
rary." 

To Ohio the praise belongs cf first produc- 
ing a pure, native vriue, of great merit. Pa- 
tient, $j»fc$pl yukivjtiovi of the fruit, with judi- 



• 



TUB CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



119 



clous management of the fermented juice after- 
wards, is always necessary in the production 
of a fine wine; and this union of scientific cul- 
ture with scientific treatment had never heen 
brought to perfection until the vine dressers of 
Ohio set the example. And first and foremost 
among these stands Nicholas longworth, as he 
is familiarly termed there, " The father of 
grape culture in the west" It is not alone by 
years of patient investigation ; it is not alone 
hy the success which has followed those efforts ; 
it was not by the vast variety of experiments 
he has tried, and by the untiring energy which, 
in spite of numberk-.-s disappointments, still 
survived and triumphed over every defeat, that 
he has won this title from his fellow citizens. 
But it was because every effort and every ex- 
periment was for the benefit of all ; because, 
with him, the success of grape culture in this 
country was paramount to personal considera- 
tions ; because, by every means, he spread as 
widely as possible the results of his investiga- 
tions and labors, so that the young vine-planter 
of to-day might stand upon even ground with 
himself, the veteran of nearly half a century's 
experience. Adlum and Dufour predicted the 

' success of grape culture in the United States, 
but Longworth, their cotemporary, lived to see 
the prediction verified, and mainly by his per- 
sonal exertions. Would that all patriots were 
so rewarded. 

The two principal wine grapes of Ohio are 
the Catawba and Isabella ; the first, however, 
in the proportion of twenty to one. Eo:h are 
natives of North Carolina. The first was found 
and noticed merely as a wild grape, in the year 
13)2, by Colonel Murray and others, in Bun- 
combe county, N. C* There it reposed for 
upwards of t .verity years without attracting at- 

■ tention, and so would have remained probably 
until now, had not its merits been discovered 
by Major John Adlum, of Georgetown- N. C, 
in or about the year 1826. Major Adlum, an 
officer of the Revolution, formerly surveyor- 
genera! of Pennsylvania, was a great cultivat- 
or of the grape, and devoted the last years of 
his life to that purpose. In the course of his 
experiments with native vines, he found this 
one in the garden of a German at Georgetown, 
and after a fair trial, was so convinced of its 
value as a wine grape, that be sent some of the 



* Buchanan. ' 



slips to Mr. Longworth, with a letter, saying, 
" I have done my country a greater service by 
introducing this grape to public notice than I 
would have done if I had paid the national 
debt.'' Adlum paid the debt of nature soon 
after, but the slips fell into good hands. For 
nearly thirty years, with patient perseverance 
these gripes were nurtured by Mr. Longworth, 
until the hour has arrived when the prophecy 
of Major Adlum seems, certain of fulfilment. — 
Thirty years of patient labor ; thirty years of 
unfaltering faith; thirty years of man's life; 
what a span it is! stretching from hopeful youth 
to hoary age; a long while, my good friend, to 
look forward to, a long way to look back. Ta 
the thirty years to come we may have occasion 
to thank these pioneers — we may see greater 
results than eitheir of them dreamed of. 

The Isabella grape was first introduced to 
notice by Mr. Geo. Gibbs, of Brooklyn, L. I. 
The slips were brought from North Carolina by 
Mrs. Gibbs, his wife, and the vine, in compli- 
ment to her, was named the " Isabella." Ori- 
ginally it was called the "Laspeyre grape, "Mr. 
Bernard Laspeyre, who resided near Wilming-" 
ton, N. C, having the parent vine from whence 
these slips were derived. By him it was sup- 
posed to be a foreign grape, but all scientific 
writers on vines in this country assert that the 
species, in a wild state, is quite common, and 
is unquestionably an indigenous production of 
the United States. From these two grapes the 
bestwir.es are made in Ohio. Yfe may also 
mention that the i; Herbemont," another varie- 
ty of "the natives," produces an extraordinary 
fine wine, the flavor being like the purest A- ' 
montillado, and essentially different from the 
other two. Heretofore the demand for home 
consumption has prevented the shipment of 
these wines east of the mountains; but, by the 
increase of vineyards in Ohio ant! elsewhere, a 
limited quantity is now being sent to this city 
and Philadelphia.* 

An estimate of the entire wine crop of Ohio 
has not yet been made. "Within a circle of 20 
miles around Cincinnati there were raised in 

1848, . - - - 84,000 gallons. 

1849, (die worst year for rot 

ever known there), SO.OOO " 

1852, .... 125,000 " 
1833, .... 340,000 " 

* The Isabella and Catawba wines of N. Long- 
worth, were first introduced in New York in May, " 
1S52, by the editor. .".'"'■• " 



150 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



This yeaiyt on account of the severe cold 
weather in the spring, and ■ the heavy, long, 
continuous rain?, the crop will be a short; one ; 
but new vineyards are multiplying, and, if 
■ this year does not promise so well as the last, 
yet, from the increased number of cultivators, 
there must be a continually increasing yield of 
wine, as there certainly is a constantly increas- 
ing demand for it. 

In comparing those wines with those of Eu- 
Tope, we must bear in mind that they are dis- 
tinct in flavor from any or all of '.hem. Spark- 
ling Catawba is not Champagne, nor can Isa- 
bella be compared with another wine known 
in the world. It is a peculiarity of these wines 
that no spurious compound can be made to 
imitate them, and in purity and delicacy, there 
is no known wine to equal them. From the 
experiments made by eminent chemists, we 
find the percentage of acohol ranks thus, ac- 
cording to Brande, and others: 

Madeiras, - - - - 22.27 

\ Ports, - - - - - 22.96 

Sherries, - - - - - 19.17 

« Clarets, - - - - - 17.11 

. Sauternes, - - . - 14.22 

Burgundies, - - - - 14.57 

Hock and Rhine Wines, - - 12.08 

Champagne, - 12.01 

Tokay, - - - - . - 9.85 

Thus, it will be seen, that the most expen- 
sive wine in Europe, the "Tokay," is also the 
lowest in alcoholie per centage. But, we find, 
by the analysis of our good frined Dr. Chilton, 
that " Still Catawba" shows a per centagc of 
"9.50 only, being, in fact, the lowest per cent, of 
Spirit to be found in any wine in the world. 

We could pursue this subject for a page or 
two more, but the wine tide is at ebb in the 
botde. We did intend to speak of the late 
Col. Alden Spooner, formerly editor, in fret 
first editor, of the Long Island Star; a man of 
many virtue--, and one who was zealous in in- 
troducing the grape in the Empire State. We 
did intend to speak of a gentleman of Ohio, 
Mr. Robert Buchanan, to whom we are indebt- 
. ed for much information on this subject. We 
did intend to speak of other eminent vine- 
growers, but there is a time to squeeze grapes, 
and a time to squeeze hands, and so, reader,— 
vale! 

\ 1351. Tho crup was a short one. 



Planting a Lawn- 
After what was said in a former paper on the 
making of lawns, it may be presumed that the 
ground is in a proper state for receiving the trees 
to be planted in it. Its low, wet points have 
been drained, it has been plowed deep!)" or 
trenched with the spade, and suitably enriched. 
The foundation work is done. 

The next point requiring attention is the for- 
mation of a plan according to which the trees, 
shrubs and flowers shall be arranged. It is not 
enough to find out how many trees the ground 
will hold, and then to plant them in rows like 
an orchard. Nor is it enough to set them here 
and there without any design whatever, taking 
it for granted that, because formal lines are avoid- 
ed, the scene will therefore appear natural and 
graceful. Certain designs are more pleasing 
than others; and there is, probably, one design 
better suited to each particular scene than any 
other. The planter should aim to findont what 
that is, and then adopt it as his own. 

It is a generally admitted principle, that all 
offensive objects within view from the lawn 
should be concealed. It may be a barn or cut- 
house ; it may be the rear premises of a sloven- 
ly neighbor. These should be hidden by mass-. 
es of trees. Fences should not appear in sight 
from the lawn. They are seldom handsorns ob- 
ject in themselves, and are suggestive of limi- 
tation and restraint. They continually remind 
one of the comparative prettiness of the beautiful 
scene before him. Let those limits be kept out - 
of view, leaving the imagination to picture an in- 
definite scene of delight, of which the lawn is 
the centre. Fences maj be concealed by hedg- 
es and trees, not set in stiff rows, and so sug-. 
gestive of what it is desired to keeb out of sight, 
but diverging here and there in the premises, 
and then retiring towards the fence, in easy*. 
flowing lines. This boundary belt shoald be 
composed largely of evergreens, because they ; 
furnish a protection in winter, and more effect- 
ually than other trees, conceal fences at a!l sea- 
sons of tho year. Large trees should be in the 
rear, smaller trees and shrubs next to the lawn, 
and running out here and there on its surface. 
The writer of this once visited a country resi- 
dence on Staten Island, where this plan had been . 
admirably executed. Here, there Avere two or 
three lawns, separated from each other by shrub- 
bery j but the outer boundaries of each were 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



151 



planted with masses of trees and shrubs, shut- 
ting out the roads and fences near at hand, but 
preserving fine views of the bay and other sce- 
nery about New York. In the hack-ground of 
the principal lawn were pines, cedars and hem- 
locks, intermingled with groups of maples, among 
which the dark foliage of the Norway was con- 
spicous ; here and there tulip-trees and magno- 
lias, flaunting their large, 'glossy leaves ; and in 
another place were several varieties of the elm. 
In front of those were smaller trees, such as 
the mouutain-ash, fiibut, dogwood, and virgilia 
lutia. Before these again, were shrubs of high 
and low degree, running out at intervals into 
the lawn, and scattering their blossoms on the 
velvet turf. In one corner, a large, weeping 
willow, forgetful of all rules, had thrown out its 
long, pendulous branches over smaller trees and 
shrubs, and trailed them on the grass of the 
lawn, forming a picture of luxuriance and 
gracefulness which the visitor could not soon 
forget. 

But, it may be asked, is not this method of 
planting the lawn's boundaries somewhat un- 
neighborly and exclusive ? May not the spec- 
tator from without be permitted a glimpse of 
your smooth sward, your rare trees and flowers'? 
Yes, certainly. A lawn should be somewhat 
screened from the gaze of street goers, so that 
the family may make it a place of frequent and 
unrestrained resort. "We do not entirely feel 
that to be our own," said Downing, "which is 
indiscriminately enjoyed by every passer-by." 
And it should be remembered that no country 
residence is so perfect in all its parts, that a 
finer effect is not given to some portions if they 
are partially concealed, the imagination of the 
beholder being left to conceive something bet- 
ter of what his eyes are not permitted to see. 
"While we say this, it should also be observed 
that the proprietor of a fine place owes some- 
thing to the public. There are many persons 
of rund tastes who have not the means of grat- 
ifying such inclinations in lawns of their own, 
who would, neverthe!ess,highly enjoy a glimpse 
of such scenes from the road-side. The sight 
of well-kept grounds tends to inspire a public 
taste for rural improvements. A truly benev- 
olent man will desire to afford such gratifica- 
tion, and to promote such refinement of the 
public taste. We therefore hold that while 
a lawn should be partially screened from the 
dust and publicity of the highway, it should 



also be open at certain points to easy observa- 
tions from without. 

In determining what trees to plant on the 
lawn, and where they should stand, much will 
depend on the size of the grounds. If large, 
the trees may be of the larger sorts, andgroup3 
of them may be introduced. But most lawns 
in this country, are small, and masses of trees 
must be confined to the boundaries. And as 
the beauty of a lawn consists chiefly in its 
broad reaches of smooth, unbroken turf, it is 
not advisable to occupy the space with nume- 
rous trees. The lawn is generally a highly 
cultivated scone near the dwelling : the trees 
selected should therefore, be of the finer sort*, 
with neat bark and pleasing foliage. Where 
the space will permit, some should be allowed 
to grow without pruning, from the ground to 
the top, forming a well-rounded mass of wav- ; 
ing foliage. Erei-greens should always be 
treated in this way, having no gaps in their 
outlines from the branches which sweep the 
turf up to their topmost comes. 

In planting shrubs, some specimens of the 
fine form and foliage may occasionally be plant- 
ed singly, along the borders of walks ; but as a 
general rule a finer effect is produced by setting 
them in groups, the highest in the center, and 
lower ones around them. In grouping, regard 
may sometimes be had to shades of color. For 
example, a striking scene may be produced by 
mingling the dark green of the European Straw- 
berry tree with the gray hues of the Missouri 
Silver tree, and the purple of the Purple Ber- 
berry, the whole softened by blending the 
lighter green of other shrubs with them. A 
very odd scene may be produced by grouping 
the variegated-leaved shrubs, such as the varie- 
gated Syringa, Euonymus, dog-wood, &c. 

A lawn is not complete without its flowering 
plants. It should not be cut up with large 
beds, and they crowded with straggling, ill-as* 
sorted specimens. The best mode is to cutcu* 
in the grass a few circular or other grace ful fig- 
ures, near the walks, and to fill them with ver- f 
benas, geraniums, petunias, perpetual .roses,; 
and other plants of neat habit, and which fur- 
nish a constant bloom throughout the summer^ 
It is an excellent ('Ian to occupy a portion of* 
these beds with curly flowering bulbs, which 
can be removed after their period of b!ooi», or 
their tops can be cut offand the space covered 
again with bedding plants. In this way a suc- 
cession cf flowers can be kept up the whole sea- 
son. A. D. ft. 



162- 



TIIE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



From the Prairie Farmer. 

Influence cf Horticulture. 

by A. J. Dowxrjs-g. 

The multiplication of Horticultural Societies 
is taking place so rapidly oflate, in various parts 
of the country, as to lead one to reflect sowe- 
what on their influence, and that of the art they 
foster, upon the character of.our people. 

Most persons, no doubt, look upon them as 
performing a work of some usefulness and ele- 
gance, by promoting the culture of fruits and 
flowers, and introducing to all parts of ihc coun- 
try the finer species of vegetable productions. 
In other words, they are thought to add very 
considerably to the amount of physical gratifi- 
cat ons which every American citizen endeav- 
ors, and has a right to endeavor, to assemble 
around htm. 

Granting all the foregoing, we are inclined to 
claim also, fox horticultnral pursuits, a political 
and moral influence vastly more significant a- d 
important "Inn the mere gratification of the 
senses. We think, then, in a few words, that 
horticulture and its kindred arts, tend strongly 
to fix the habits, and elevate the character, of 
our whole rural population* . 

One does not need to bo much of a philoso- 
pher to remark that one of the most striking of 
our national iraiis;, is the spirit' of txnrsst. It 
is the'gra.fur] fenergentic clement' which leads us 
loolear 7352 fores'5, and settle new States, with 
a rapidity nnpars-Ileled in the world';? history; 
the spirit; possessed with which, our yet com- 
paratively scanty people do not find elbow-room 
enough in a territory already in their possession, 
and vstst enoagh to hold the greatest of ancient 
empires; which drives the emigrant's wagon 
across vasl :-n-»uv deserts to California, and over 
Rocky Monntaios to Oregon end the Pacific; 
which builds up a (mat State like Ohio in 80 
y'fars so populous, civilized and productive, that 
the hc.ee recibil of its growth sounds li!;e a fjren- 
ttitiii rairao e to European ears; and winch over- 
-.Itihs a'tjfj takes possession of a whole empire, 
like that of Mexico, while the cabinets ot old 
BJonarchies are debating whether or not it is ne- 
c?s-sary to interfere and restore the balance Jof 
power iii the new world as in the old. 

This i.s the g*sand exciting side of the pic- 
ture. Turn It in another lipht, and study it 
and the eflVt is b.Vj So 'mc.'.nf. to Sgreeable to 
the u-flebtiva vavt' ' Tf'he opinio/ unrest, fol- 



lowed into the bosom of society, makes of man 
a feverish being, in whose Tantalus' cup repose 
is the unattainable drop. Unable to take root 
anywhere, he leads, socially and physically, the 
uncertain life of a tree transplanted from pie ee 
to place, and shifed to a different Soil every" 
season. 

It has been shrewdly said that what qualities 
we do not possess, a?e always in our mouths. 
Our countrymen, it seems to us, are fonder of 
no one Anglo-Saxon word than the term settle. 
It was the great object of our forefathers to find 
a proper spot to settle. Every year, large num- 
bers of our population from the older States go 
west to settle ; while those already west, pull 
up, with a kind of desperate joy, their yet new- 
set stakes, and go farther west to settle again. 
So truly national is the word, (hat all the bus- 
iness of the country, from State debts to the 
products of a " true farm" are not satisfactorily 
adjusted' till they are " settled;" and no sooner • 
is a passenger fairly on board one of our river 
steamers, tnan he is politely and emphatically 
invited by a sable representative of its executive 
power, to "call at the captain's office and 
settle /" 

Yet, as a people, we are never settled. It is 
one of the first points that strikes a citizen of 
the old world, where something of the dignity 
of repose, as well as the value of action, enters 
into their ideal of life. De Tocqueville says, 
in speaking of our national trait : 

"At first sight, there is something surpris- 
ing in this strange unrest of so many happy 
men, restless in the midst of abundance. The 
spectacle itself is, however, as old as the 
world. The novelty is to see a whole people 
furnish an exemplification of it. 

" In the United States a man builds a house 
to spend his latter years in, and sells it before 
the roof is on ; he brings a field into tillage, 
and leaves other men to gather the crops ; he 
embraces a profession, and gives it up ; he set- 
tles in a place, which he soon after leaves, in 
order to cany his changeable longings else- 
where. If his private affairs leave him any 
leisure he instantly plunges into the vortex of 
politics; and if at the end of a year of unre- 
mitting labor, lie find,", he has a few days' vaca- 
tion, his eager curiosity whirls him over the 
vast extent of the United States, and he will 
travel fifteen hundred miles in a few days, to 
shake off his happiness 1 ," 



THE CAROIJNA CULTIVATOR. 



1 » a 



Much as we admire the energy of our peo- 
ple we value no less the love of order, the obe- 
dience to law, the security and repo.se of socie- 
ty, the love of home, and the partiality to lo- 
calities endeared by birth or association, of 
which it is in some (h^ne the antagonist. And 
we are therefore deeply convinced that whatever 
tends, without, checking due energy of charac 
tor, but to develops along with it certain vir- 
tues that will keep- it within due bounds, may 
be looked upon as a boon to the nation. 

Now the difference between the son of Ishrna- 
el, who lives in tents, and that man who has 
the strogest attachment to the home of his fa- 
thers, is, in the beginning, one mainly of out- 
ward circumstances. He whose sole property 
is a tent and a camel, whose ties to one spot 
are no stronger than the cords which confine 
his habitation to the sandy floor of the desert, 
who can breakup his encampment at an hour's 
notice, and choose a new and equally agreea- 
ble site, fifty miles distant, the next day — such 
a person is very little likely to become. much 
more strongly attached to any one spot of 
earth than another. 

The condition of a western emigrant is not 
greatly dissimilar. That long covered wagon, 
which is the Noah's ark of his preservation, is 
also the concrete essence of house and home to 
him. He emigrates, he "squats'' lie "locates," 
but before he can be fairly said to have a fixed 
home, the spirit of unrest besets him ; he sells 
his "diggins" to some less adventurous pio- 
neer, and laclclhig the wagon of the wilderness, 
migrates once more. 

It must not be supposed, large as is the in- 
fusion of restlessness in our people that there 
are not also large exceptions to the general 
rule. Else there would never be growing vil- 
lages and prosperous towns. Nay, it cannot 
be overlooked by a careful observer, that the 
tendency " to settle" is slowly but gradually 
on the increase, and that there .is, in all the 
older portions of the country, growing evidence 
that the Anglo-Saxon love of home is gradually 
developing itself out of the Anglo-American 
love of change. 

It is not difficult to see how Horticulture con- 
tributes to the development of local attachments. 
In it lies the most poworfalphiUre that civilized 
man has yet found to charm him to one spot 
of earth. It transforms what is only a tame 
meadow and a bleak aspect, into an Eden of 



interest and delights. It makes all the differ- 
ence between "Araby the blest," and a pir.c , 
barren. It gives a bit of soil, too insignificant , 
to find a place in the geography of the earth's 
surface, such an importance in the eyes of its 
possessor, that he finds it more attractive than 
countless acres of unknown and unexplored 
"teritory. 1 ' In other words it contains the 
mind and soul of the man. materialized in many 
of the fairest and richest forms of nature, so 
that he looks upon it as tearing himself up, 
root -nd branch, to a^k him to move a mile to 
the right or the left. Do we need to say more, 
to prove that it is the panacea that really ''set- , 
ties" mankind? 

It is not, therefore, without much pleasura- . 
bio emotion, that we have had notice lately of 
the formation of five new Horticultural Socie- 
ties, the last at St. Louis, and most of them 
west of the Alleghanies. Whoever lives to sec 
the end of the next cycle of our race, will see 
the great valleys of the West the garden of 
the world; and we watch with interest tho 
fi-st development, in the midst of the busy fer- 
mentation of its active masses, of that beauti- 
ful and quiet spirit, of the joint culture of the 
earth and the heart, that is destined to give a 
tone to the future character of its untold mill- 
ions. 

The increaseJ love of home and the garden, 
in the elder States, is a matter of every-day 
remark ; and it is not a little curious, that just 
in proportion to the intelligence and settled 
character of its population, is the amount of 
interest manifested in horticulture. Thus, the 
three most settled of the original States we 
suppose to be Massachusetts, New York and 
Pennsylvania; and in these States horticulture 
is more eagerly pursued than in any others. 
Tho first named State has now seven horticul- 
tural societies; the second, seven; the third, 
three. Following out the comparison in the 
cities, we should say that Boston had the most. 
settled population, Philadelphia* the next, and 
New York the least so of zriy city in the Un- 
ion ; and it is well known that the horiicultu-- 
ral society of Boston is at this moment the 
most energetic one in the country, and that it 
is stimulated by the interest excited by socie*- 
ties in all its neighboring towns. The Phila- 
delphia society is exceedingly prosperous; 
while in New York, we regret to say, that the 
numerous efforts that have, been made to est?.b-i 



154 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



lish firmly a society of this kind have not, up 
to this tiiiie, resulted in any success whatever. 
Its mighty tide of people is as yet too much 
possessed with the spirit of business and of 
unrest. 

To Dissect the Atmosphere. 

The atmosphere in which we live, that sup- 
ports all animal life in respiration, and all the 
furnaces, fires and decaying organic matter on 
the globe in combustion — fast and slow — is 
Stated to be principally composed of two gases. 
How do we know this 1 By performing the 
following experiment: Take a glass vessel 
containing a certain amount of water, in which 
is placed a cork to float a piece of phosphorus, 
on its surface; ignite the phosphorus, then 
place a, glass globe over it, (and into the other 
vessel, which must be wider than the globe.) 
White vapors will soon arise from the burning 
phosphorus, which at first burns brightly, but 
soon grows fainter and fainter, then goes out 
entirely. If when the phosphorus commenced 
to burn, the glass globe contained five pints of 
air, it will be found that it only contains four 
pints after it is extinguished. If alighted can- 
dle be now placed in the four remaining pints 
of sir in the globe it will not burn, but it would 
have done so freely before the phosphorus 
was consumed in the five pints of air. This 
shows that the properties of the air in the 
globe have become entirely changed by the act 
of combustion with the phosphorus, and that 
the gas which supported combustion — to em- 
ploy a common term — has been all " used up." 
The gas which supports combustion is oxygen 
and the experiment described, by winch one 
part uf oxygen has been removed out of five 
volumes of air proves that the proportion of 
oxygen in the atmosphere is only as one to 
four of another gas, which cannot and does 
not support combustion. 

The remaining four volumes or pints of air 
left in the globe is nitrogen, which amounts to 
eighty in every hundred parts of the atmos- 
phere. (There is also a little carbonic acid gas 
in the air— one part to every two thousand.) 
The regular proportions of oxygen and nitro- 
gen described in the atmosphere, taken from 
any part of the globe have been found to be 
constant; they are permanently elastic gases, 



and simple bodies. In the atmosphere they 
are mechanically, not chemically combined. 

By burning phosphorus in the manner de- 
scribed we obtain nitrogen gas, which when 
washed, by agitating it with water in a glass 
vessel, may be employed for an elastic gas 
cushion or spring, in a vessel containing mer- 
cury, or any metal where atmospheric air can- 
not be employed, because of the oxygen it con- 
tains having such an affinity for the metals as 
to rust them and destroy their properties. — 
Nitrogen is transparent, has no taste or smell,' 
is a perfect non-supporter of combustion, and 
exhibits no tendency to combine with other 
substances. Although four volumes of nitro- 
gen is inhaled into the lungs for every one of 
oxygen during the act of respiration, it pro- 
duces no effect upon the human system. 

At one period it was taught and believed by 
chemists that oxygen was the sole cause of 
combustion — that when it was not present 
combustion could not take place. This is true 
so far as it relates to combustion in the atmos- 
phere ; but some bodies will burn without oxy- 
gen being present. Thus iron and sulphur, 
when heated, will combine with much light and 
heat; and phosphorus, when introduced into 
chlorine gas, will take fire and burn, combining 
with the gas. The true definition of combus- 
tion is, "chemical combination attended with . 
light and heat" 

Although nitrogen is termed the most inert ; 
of gases, because it cannot be -made to unite 
directly with any element and only forms - 
combinations when one or both elements are 
in the nascent state, yet it plays a most im- 
portant part in the animal, vegetable and min- 
eral kingdoms. It might be readily supposed 
that as oxygen is vital air, and as it alone per- ■ 
forms a part in the act of breathing — the ni- 
trogen being inert — that the greater the quan- 
tity of this gas mixed with nitrogen the more 
healthy it would be for respiration; it is not 
so, however. It is remarkable that the most 
powerful of acids, aquafortis, is composed of 
five parts of oxygen (vital air) and only one of 
ni troge n. — Sc ien t ific A merica n. 

Blackberries are very beneficial in cases of 
dysentery. The berries are healthful eating. 
Tea made of the roots and leaves is good; and 
syrup made from the benies excellent. 



TEE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



155 



Artificial Propagation of Pish- 

This subject is attracting considerable atten- 
tion in our country at present. In 1S5G, the 
Legislature of Massachusetts adopted a resolu- 
tion, under which commissioners were appoint- 
ed to examine into it and report such facts as 
they could obtain, to the next General Court. 
Three commissioners were selected — R. A. 
Chapman, Henry Wheatland, and N. E. At- 
wood — their report has been published, and is 
now before us. Mr. Atwood, who is a practi- 
cal fisherman, and also a learned ichthyologist, 
was intrusted with the charge of making expe- 
riments and observations and confined his atten- 
tion to trout. His experiments were conduc- 
ted at Sandwich, but they turned out failures. 
He obtained 15,000 eggs, and they all rotted ; 
this he attributed to the character of the water 
in which the experiments were conducted. — 
November is the spawning season of trout and 
salmon, during which period, they are very 
poor, and should not be allowed to be caught 
or sold. 

Although the experiments with the eggs of 
trcut failed with Mr. Atwood, the commission- 
ers believe that such fish may be profitably cul- 
tivated. They state it as their belief that there 
are many farms in the hilly regions of Massa- 
chusetts, containing trout streams, that, with 
little pains, might be made to yield a greater 
income than the land itself. Much might be 
done to increase their value without resorting 
to artificial breeding. The preparation of suit- 
able ponds or pools of deep water and gravelly 
bed3, suitable for spawning, with guards to pre- 
vent the destruction of fish by freshets, would 
greatly increase the stock. "But the process 
of artificial propagation," says the report, " is 
so simple and easy that when trout become an 
object of care, we cannot doubt they will be 
multiplied and protected by this method. — 
Many millions of fine trout may thus be pro- 
duced annually, and what is now regarded as 
-a mere temptation to waste time, may be made 
not only to minister to luxury and health, but 
become an important branch of productive in- 
dustry. In addition to this, fish ponds with 
borders of trees and shrubbery, add to the 
beauty of a landscape, and increase the value 
of a farm." 

It is stated that in England, salmon have 
• been propagated with success, and that of 



300,000 of their spawn 275,000 were hatched 
artificially. 

It is our opinion that this subject deserves 
great attention, because in many of our creeks 
and livers that once teemed with the finest 
salmon, not one is now caught. When the . 
first settlers came to our shores, they found 
salmon in ever}' running brook having easy ac- 
cess to the sea; now such fish are alone ob- 
tained from the "Northern Provinces." 

But there i.i one feature connce'ed with fish 
culture, which we wish to impress indelibly 
upon the minds of those who wish to re-stock 
our streams with an abundance of good fish ; 
that is, they must keep the streams clean and 
pure, if they expect to succeed. 

It is true that salmon and other fish have 
been banished from rivers and creeks in which 
they once abounded ; but this was not owing 
to the great depredations of fishermen, as has 
generally been supposed. 

The erection of saw nulls on creeks and 
rivers destroyed the spawn of both salmon and 
trout, and it has been found that the former 
fish have been banished from all rivers on 
which chemical works have been established. 
They love clear running streams of water, and 
flee from saw-dust and the drainage of chemi- 
cal works in rivers, as people do from a pesti- 
lence — thoy are a sensible fish. 

Scientijic American. 

From the Scientific American. 

Ants— Their Senses and Habits- 



"Go to the Ant, thou sluggard," is advice 
not only against sluggishness, but is applicable 
to other things, particularly as it relates.to what 
may be accomplished by the combination of 
individuals under great disadvantages. 

The only medium which ants possess for ac- 
quiring and imparting- information appears to 
be their antenna?, or feelers, haviftg neither of 
the two most useful senses for learning which 
larger animals possess — seeing nor hearing — 
and if they have the sense of smelling it is very 
limited. I have placed sugar within half an 
inch of their trail to a sugar barrel, and they 
would pass without noticing it until one of' 
them accidentally strayed within touch of it, 
when others would soon follow by feeling their 
way. I have placed a thin strip of wood not 
wider than the length of au aut, across their 



150 



THE CAEOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



trail, and it embarrassed them; they would 
turn towards each end of it and return, until 
some bold fellow ventured across it, when the 
re.-t followed. I caught a number of them on 
a chip with sugar on it, placed near their trail, 
and gently removed it to the opposite side 
about a foot off; when they finished their re- 
past they went feeling around in. every direc- 
tion, and often returned even when they had got 
within two inches of the great thorougfare where 
the multitude was passing ; they neither saw 
nor heard them ; but as soon as they struck 
the trail they took the homeward course, and 
ceased to return. 

The above experiments were made with the 
small red ants. When they first discovered the 
sugar those returning from it would extend 
their antenae to those they met, make one or 
two siiort jumps, and the latter would quicken 
their pice, as if satisfied with the information. 

"Whenever ants discover the trail of another 
tribe in rather suspicious proximity to their 
own dwellings, if they are of equal size with 
themselves, they sal!}- out in a body to attack 
them ; but if they are a size or two smaller — 
the vary small ones they never notice — one 
or two guards take possession of the trail, 
and cross and recross it with the most unwea- 
ried diligence for hours and days together, and 
wo to all they catch. But scores will pass 
within one or t'.vo inches of a guard without 
either being aware of the other's presence. 

Notwithstanding the want of these senses a 
community of largo ants will explore an area 
of ton to fifteen acres, and if one of them 
makes a discovery of food, intelligence of it 
will be circulated so rapidly that they will form 
a trail to it in one night, though it be one hun- 
dred and fifty yards off. Their sense of feel- 
ing is extremely delicate, for by it they can 
spread an alarm, distin uish a friend from a 
foe, follow a trail over a smooth floor, and con- 
vey any intelligence which may be necessary 
for them to know. In their wars they are very 
destructive, and this appears to be a provision 
of nature to prevent their increase. Two ants of 
about equal size will fight to the death without 
yielding. In a regular battle between two 
tribes it h their custom to carry off the dead 
and wounded from the field, 

II. Pollard. 
Lexington, Mo., June, 1857. 



[Of all insects, ants seem to have the most 
perfect powers of communicating with each 
other, yet they emit no sound, like bees, but 
only use signs and motions, employing their 
attenaj for such purposes ; and, as our corres- 
pondent states, if they have the power of 
vision, it must be very feeble. Still, "if they 
see not" it is not for want of eyes — these they 
possess. — Scientific American. 



Astonishing Feat of a House 
Spider. 

It would seem that there is no living thing 
so obnoxious as not to find admirers. What 
creatures so repulsive as rats and spiders ? Yet 
the London Quarterly finds something beauti- 
ful and even loveabie in the former, and Dr. 
Asa Fitch, in Harpers Monthly, labors to show 
that the "latter delicate little objects" are 
worthy of all praise. In support of these 
views he tells the following curious story con- 
cerning a heroic spider who captured a snake. 
The affair came off last summer in the store of 
Charles Cook, in the village of Havana, Che- 
mung county, N. Y., and is attested by the 
Hon. A. B. Dickinson of Corning, " who him- 
self witnessed the phenomenon, as did more 
than a hundred others present." 

An ordinary looking spider of a dark color,, 
in body not larger than that of a common 
house fly, had taken up its residence, it ap- 
pears, on the under side of a shelf beneath the 
counter of Mr. Cook's store. What may we 
suppose was the surprise and consternation of 
this little animal on discovering a snake, about 
a foot long, selecting for its abode the floor tin- ' 
derneath, only two or three spans distant from 
its nest ? It was a common silk snake, which, 
perhaps, had been brought into the store un- 
seen in a quantity of saw-dust with which the 
floor has been recently "carpeted." The spi- 
der was well aware, no doubt, that it would in- 
evitably fall a prey to this horrid monster the 
first time it should incatiously venture within 
its reach. Wc should expect that to avoid 
such a frightful doom, it would forsake its 
presont abode, and seek a more secure retreat 
elsewhere. But it is not improbable that a 
brood of its eggs or young was secreted near 
the f-pot, which the parent foresaw would fall 
a prey to this monster if they were abandoned 
by their natural guardian and protector. We 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



157 



can conceive of no other motive which should 
have induced the spider so pertinaciously to 
remain and defend that particular spot, at the 
Imminent ri^k of her own life, when she could 
so easily have fled and established herself in 
some secure corner elsewhere. IJut how, we 
may well ask. was it possible for such a weak 
tender little creature to combat such a power- 
ful mail-clad giant? Her ordinary resort, that 
of fettering and binding lier victim, by throw- 



being pushed as.-.undcr by another series of 
threads placed horizontally, as my informant 
states he particularly observed. Xo mnzzlo or 
wicker work for the mouth of an animal could 
be woven with more artistic regularity and 
perfection; and the snake occasionally making 
a desperate attempt to open his mouth, would 
merely put these threads upon a stretch. 

The snake continued his gyrations, his gait 
becoming more slow, however, from weakness 



ing her threads of cobwebs around it, it is plain i and fatigue; and the spider continued to move 



would be of uo more avail here than the cords 
upon the" limbs of the unshorn Sampson. * • 

By what artifice the spider was able in the 
first of its attack to accomplish what it did, we 
can only conjecture, as its work was not dis- 
covered until the most difficult and daring part 
of its feat had been performed. When first 
seen, it had placed a loop around the neck of 
the serpent, from the top of which a single 
thread was carried upward and attached to the 
under side of the shelf, whereby the head of 
the serpent was drawn up about two inches 
from the floor. The snake was moving around, 
and around incessantly, in a circle as large as 
its tether would allow — wholly unable to get 



its head down to the floor, or to withdraw it them, if they but exercise the faculty lie has 



down and up the cord, gradually shortening it, 
until at last, when drawn up so far that only 
two or three inches of the end of his tail touch- 
ed the floor, the snake expired, about six days 
after he was first discovered. 

A more heroic feat than that which this lit- 
tle spider performed is probably nowhere up- 
on record — a snake a foot in length hung by 
a common house spider! Truly, the race is 
not to the swift, nor the battle to the stropcr' 
And this phenomenon may serve to indicate to 
us that the intelligence with which the Crea- 
tor has endowed the humblest, feeblest of his 
creatures, is an. pie for enabling them to tri- 
umph in any emergency in which lie places 



from the noose ; while the heroic little spider, 
exulting no doubt in the success of its exploit, 
which was now sure beyond a peradventure, 
was ever and anon passing down to the loop 
and up to the shelf, adding thereby an addi- 
tional strand to the thread, each of which new 
strands beintr tightly drawn, elevated the head 
of the snake gradually more and more. 

' But the most curious and skillful part of the 
performance is yet to be told. When it, was in 
the act of running down the thread to the loop 
the reader will perceive it was possible for the 
snake, by turning his head vertically upward, 
to snap at and seize the spider in his mouth. — 
This had, no doubt, been repeatedly attempted 
in the earlier part of the' conflict ; but, instead 
of catching the spider, his snakeship had only 
caught himself in an additional trap. The spi- 
der, probably by watching each opportunity 
when the mouth of the snake had been turn- 
ed towards her, adroitly, with her hind legs, 
as when throwing a thread around a fly, had 
thrown one thread after another over the 
mouth of the snake, so that he was now per- 
fectly muzzled, by a series of threads placed 
over it vertically, and these were held from 

* - : ■' 



given them. It is only the slothful, cowardly, 
timorous, that fail, and they fail not so much 
before their enemies as before their own supine- 
ness. 



Regulations 

OfthefiifthN. C. State Fair, to be held in 
Raleigh, commencing on the 20t/t <?i*(.,1S27. 

1. All members of the N. C. State Agiicul- 
tural Society will be furnished with a badge of 
membership, upon payment of the annual tax 
of $2, and will be required to wear the same 
during the Fair. This badge will admit the 
ladies of his family and children under IS years 
of age, during the fair. 

2. Members of the Society and families alone 
will be admitted on Tuesday, the day for exam- 
ination and awards by the judges. All compet- 
itors are expected to be present. The public 
will be admitted on and after "Wednesday, at 
10 o'clock. Price of admission 25 cents. Chil- 
dren and servants 12^ cents. Clergymen, Ed- 
itors and pupils of charitable Institutions ad- 
mitted free. 

3. Agricultural Societies and Institutions 



158 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



from other States .ire invited to send Delegates. 
Such Delegates will be presented with a com- 
plimentary card. 

4. AH exhibitors who intend to compete for 
the premiums of the Society, must become 
members of the same, and have their articles 
on the ground and entered at the Secretary's 
Office in Reception Hall, at or before 5 o'clock 
on Monday evening, Oct. 10th, without fail, so 
that they may be arranged in their respective 
departments, and' in readiness for examination 
by the Judges on Tuesday morning at 10 
o'clock. 

5. The regulations of the Society must be 
strictly observed by exhibitors, otherwise the 
Society will not be responsible fortlm omission 
ofanv article or animal not entered under its 
rules. 

G. No article or animal entered for a premium 
can ■ • removed or taken away before the close 
of th s exhibition. No premium will be paid on 
articles or animals removed in violation of this 
rule. 

7. AH articles and animals entered for exhi- 
bition must, have cards attached with the num- 
ber a'§ entered at the Secretary's Office; and 
exhibitors in nil cases must obtain their cards 
Previous to placing their articles o: animals on 
the Fair grounds* 

8. Tho-e who wish to r-Ter animals or arti- 
cles for Ssde during the Fair must notify the 
Secretary of su-.-.ii intention at the time of en- 
try. 

.•; 9. Th;j Executive Committee will employ a 
day ant' night: guard, and will use all reasona- 
ble precaution in their power, for thesafe pres- 
ervation of all ai tides and stock on exhibition, 
but will not be responsible for loss or damage 
that may occur. Exhibitor:; must give atten- 
tion, to their articles or animals during the Fair, 
and 'it the close of the exhibition attend to their 
rcn jval. 

10. The awarding committee or judges, se- 
lected for the next Fair, are earnestly request- 
ed to report themselves to th-3 chairman of the 
Executive Committee at Reception Hall, upon 
the grounds of the Society, on Tuesday morn- 
h g, the 20th day of October, 1857. 

Til- St, no case can the Judges award special 
t.r dfesrc.tibnary premiums; but will recbni* 
>h(;.'l ;.» vh<; Executive Committee any articles 
m'ffitk class which they may deem worthy of 



special notice and for which a premium has not 
been offered. 

12. The Judges on animals will have regard 
to the symmetry, early maturing, thorough 
breeding, and characteristics of the breeds 
which they judge. They will make proper al- 
lowances for the age, feeding and condition of 
the animals, escpecially in the breeding classes, 
and will not give encouragement to over fed 
animals. 

13. No stock of inferior quality will be ad- 
mitted within the grounds ; a committee will 
be appointed to rule out all below a medium 
grade. 

14. Animals to which premiums have been 
awarded must be paraded around the track, 
that visitors may see the prize animals. 

15. No person will be allowed to interfere 
with the Judges during their adjudications. 

1G. The several Superintending Committees 
will give particular direction to all articles in 
their departments, and see that all are arranged 
in the best order possible to lessen and facili- 
tate the labors of the Judges in their examina- 
tion. 

17. The Superintendents will attend each set 
of Judges in their respective departments and 
point out the different articles or animals to be 
examined, will attach prize cards to the articles' 
or flags to the successful animals after the 
Judges' reports have been made up and deliv- 
ered to the chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

18. The judges will withhold premiums on 
animals or articles in their opinion not worthy 
though there be no competition. 

19. Premiums of s25, and upwards will be 
awarded in Plate, unless the person to whom 
the award is made shall prefer the payment in 
money. 

20. Stock brought to the Fair for sale will 
have an enclosed lot adjoining the Fairgrounds 
assigned them, with water convenient, where 
they can be kept at the expense of the owner. 

21. Articles manufactured in the State, when 
brought in competition with foreign articles 
will take precedence, other things being equal 
and the foreign article be entitled to a second- 
premium. 

22. Articles not enumerated will be entitled 
to discretionary premiums at the option of the 
Executive Committee. 

23. The Chief Marshal, with efficient aids, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



159 



v.-ill be in attendance during the hours of exhi- 
bition to keep proper order. 

24. No exhibitor will be permitted to enter 
more than one animal in each of the sub-clas- 
ses. 

25 Animals, when duly entered, are well 
provided for by the Society, without charge to 
the owner, and t cannot be removed from the 
ground, except by permission of the Executive 
Committee. 

26. All machines, implements, or other pro- 
ducts of mechanical art, must be exhibited by 
their respective makers, or inventors, or improv- 
ers, or their assignors, to or for whom only pre- 
miums for such articles will be awarded. 

27. Every machine or implement offered for 
a premium, must be so designated or described 
as will serve to identify it to future purchasers, 
and also the selling price of the article must be 
stated and marked on the labels and in the pub- 
lished reports of premium articles. 

28. Efficiency, cheapness and durability will 
be regarded as chief excellencies in every ma- 
chine oi- implement. 

20. The Chief Marshal will call the Judges at 
10 o'ciork on Tuesday morning — assemble 
them at ins tent on the grounds— furnish them, 
with the printed list of premiums, also with 
blank books in which to register their awards, 
and have t : ie Judges conducted by the assis- 
tant marshals to their respective departments 
of t !, .e exhibition. 

30. The .Marshal and his aids shall give par- 
ticular atu-ntion to the proper arrangements of 
all articles exhibited in their respective depart- I 
ments ; point out the articles or animals to the 
Judges, and otherwise facilitate the examina- 
tion by the Judges. 

31. The track will be open for the trial of 
harness and saddle horses every day during 
the Fair. 

32. A band of music will be in attendance 
each day, during the hours of exhibition. 

S3. An efficient police will take charge of 
the grounds during the night. 

THOMAS RUFFIN, Ch. Ex. Com. 
William D. Cooke, Secretary. 



Judges to Award Premiums, 

At the next Annual Fair to be held at Ra- 
leigh } commencing on the 20th October. 

Thoroughbred Horses. 
Edmund Townes, Granville, Charles Manly, 
Wake, Thomas McGehee, Person, 



Quick Draught an J Saddle Hone*. 
Payton A. Dunn, Wake, John Lewis, Cas- 
well, James Turner, Granville. 

Heaiy Draught Horses. 
John B. Leathers, Orange, John J. Shaver 
Rowan, James Twitty, Warren. 

Jacks, Jennetts and Males. 
William K. Lane, Wayne, John L. Badgers, 
Edgecombe, J. W. B. Watson, Johnston." 
Cattle— Daons. 
George W. Johnson, Caswell, Thomas D. 
Meares, New Hanover, John S. Dancy, Edge- 
combe. 

Durhams, Hereford*, Ayrshire*, Hohteins and 
Alderneys. 

Henry K. Eurgwyn, Halifax, Dr. E. A. Cru- 
dup, Franklin, Samuel Hargravc, Davidson. 
Grades and Natives. 
Wm. A. Eaton, Granville, Sylvester Smith, 
Wake, Dr. James E. Williamson, Caswell. 
Imported Cattle. 
Dr. Wm. R. Holt, Davidson, Henry T. Clark, 
Edgecombe, C. H. K. Taylor, Granville. 
Milch Coirs. 
Wm. H. Strother, Franklin, James Sloan, 
Guilford. 

Working Oxen. 
S. S. Eoyster, Granville, A. T. Mia!, Wake, 
R. R. Bridgers, Edgecombe. 
Fat Cattle. 
Eldridge Smith, Wake, John Hutching 
Wake, Seth Jones, Wake. 
Sheep. 
Dr. J. M. Davidson, Mecklenburg, Paul C. 
Cameron, Orange John S. Yancey, Warren. 
Goals. 
John S. Bunell, Granville, John O'Rorke, 
Wake, Rielly Crawford, Wake. 

Swine — Larejs Breed. 
J. E. Lankford, Franklin, Ashley Saunders, 
Johnston, Chas. R. Eaton, Granvilie. 
Sin in e — Small Breed. 
Wm. R. Smith, Halifax, Wm. K. Lane, 
Wayne, Laurence Hinton, Wake. 

S trine — Grades and Natives 
Wm. R. Pool, Wake, C. Wooten, Lenoir,- 
Wm. 0. Green, Franklin. 

Poultry. 
Maj. Jchn Caldwell, Mecklenburg, Thomas 
J. Blacknall, Granville, David Ilinton Edge- ' 
combe. 







.-. T ! 






THE CAROLINA CULTIYATOE 




D^nafeb to Mgrimlto, ifforftnlfant, miii tjjt Slttlitmir Slri 



WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher- 



T'OL. 3. 



RALEIGH, I. C, SEPTEMBER, 1857. 



NO- 7 



5C3LISHED OX THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

TEEHS. 

i Copy in advance Si 00 

8 Copies " 5 00 

:o « -" 8 00 

•3 " " 10 00 

2? " " 15 CO 

rscriptions may begin T\-ith any number; but 
a not" otherwise directed, the back numbers of 
; •■ .urrent vulume vrill be scut. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

ajaare 12 lines, one month, £1 CO 

It snbsequent insertion, 75 

. . . ^eone year, 16, CO 

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. • ncfit of Agricultural Pairs- 
fact is more apparent to the reflecting 
• ■ i than the immense benefits Agricultural 
have contributed to our material pros- 
; '.;,. ' They have contributed more to our 
■ .us growth as a nation, than all the gold 
(. ..'■' brnia can pour into our country forages. 
Th< / have awakened a spirit of inquiry in the 
■ of thousands, who have elaborated and 
: known their experience to the world — 

tl s mgh the Agricultural Press — contributing 
their experiments to the general stock of infor- 
. tic . (which at best is made up of atoms) 
garnered together, — a rich legacy of facte, from 



which the principles of Truth, shall be deduced 
by the hand of the future historian. All this 
has been done quietly. The- silent step of ag- 
ricultural progress has not been noted by the 
world — as it should have been — for the simple 
reason that it took time to nurture in man the- 
high obligation he owed to his Maker, his 
country and himself, to use and develop that 
which was intrusted to his hand, that it might 
be improved, and the true design of our Crea- 
tor carried out 

And what is an Agricultural Fair? Is it a 
place where the most superior specimens of 
agricultural products are exhibited to the vie^" 
of the visitors ? Yes. What then ? is that all 
the object, the aim, the end to be accomplished? 
If so let them go by the board. But a higher 
object is to be accomplished — has been, and 
will continue to be — the interchange of thought 
among those who have produced the articles 
on exhibition. It is in this light that Agricul- 
tural Fairs are accomplishing the grand re- 
sults which will continue to rank us as a prac- 
tical, farming and progressive people. It is 
net enough that we should see the superior 
crop of grain, &c, but we should have the man 
with us, that we may know by what process ho 
produced it, so that his codaborcrs may know 
and realise the facts which are brought before 
them in its most practical form. It is not 
enough that we see fat cattle, but we see the 
husbandman who produced them, that our less 
fortunate husbandmeu may, by inquiry &nJ 



16! 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



ebservation be arroused to the necessity of and when the horse scents the odor, he is drawn 

doin" likewise — so that the object of the Fair toward it, 

aaay be the means of perpetuating the progres- The oil of Rhodium possesses peculiar pro- 
give spirit of political and rural economy. pertie's. All animals seem to cherish a fondness 
Fairs, risditlv conducted, are great stimulants for it, and it exercises a kind of subduing influ- 



to f 'ood and thorough cultivation of the soil — 
Nothing is so well calculated to create as healthy 
a feeling, or develop so thoroughly the true 
dignity of Nature's noblemen, as this theatre, 
\rhere all may meet in the exhibition of the 
arts of peace and usefulness: where those who 
have failed to realise their fond anticipations 
from the exhibition cf their products, rejoice 
in the success of their neighbors. It is this 
fea ture which endears them to all good men 
who know the wants of our farmers, and who 
have, from the earliest stage of their existence, 
stood by them, believing they were destined to 
accomplish as much good in their sphere of 
usefulness, as Education has in hers. 

The benefits accruing from Agricultural 
Fairs are of a two fold nature, and apparent to 
all. Where the Fairs are made an object of 
attraction, you will find the greatest amount of 
tbxiftiness and prosperity prevailing in the sec- 
tions which contribute to, and take an interest 
in, their prosperity. The benefits flowing 
from them are not to be estimated in a pecuni- 
ary sense. There are benefits conferred on the 
agricultural interest through the influence of 
this institution, which command our most 
hearty admiration and respect for those public 
benefactors of our race who have nurtured and 
expanded this germ, so that agriculture should 
take once more her rank as one of the most 
honorable pursuits of man. 

T C. "W., Genesee Farmer. 



The KorsQ Charm ; 

OS THE GKEAT SECl'.ST OF TA1UKG HOKSES. 

The horse-castor is a wart, or excrescence, 
which grows on every horse's fore legs and 
generally on the hind legs. It has a peculiar 
rank, musty smell, and easily pulled off. The 
ammonical effluvia of the horse seems peculi 
arly to concentrate in this part, and its very 
strong odor has a great attraction for all an- 
imals, especially canine, and the horse him- 
self.. 

For the oil of cumin, the horse has an instinc- 
tive passion — both are original native of Arabia, 



ence over them. 

The directions given for taming horses are 
as follows— 

Procure some horse-caster, and grate it fine. 
Also get some oil of Rhodium and oil of cu- 
min, and keep the three separate in air-tight 
bottles. - 

Rub a little oil of eumin upon your hand, 
and approach the horse in the field, on the 
winward side, so that he can smell the cumin. 
The horse will let you come to him then with- 
out any trouble. 

Immediately rub your hand on the horse's 
nose, getting a little of the oil on it. You can 
then lead him anywhere. Give him a little of 
the castor on a piece of loaf sugar, apple or po- 
tato. 

Put 8 drops of oil of Rhodium into a lady's 
silver thimble. Take the thimble between the 
thumb and middle finger of your right hand, 
with the fore-finger stopping the mouth of the 
thimble, to prevent the oil from running out 
whilst you are opening the mouth of the 
horse. 

As soon as you have opened the horse's 
mouth, tip the thimble over upon his tongue. 
and he is your servant. He will follow you 
like a pet dog. 

Ride fearless and promptly, with your knees 
pressed to the side of the horse, and your toes 
turned in and heels out; then you will always 
be on the alert for a shy or sheer from the 
horse, and he can never throw you. 

Then if you want to teach him to lie down, 
stand on the right, or left side ; have a couple of 
leather straps about six feet long ; string up 
his left leg with one of them round his neck ; 
strap the other end of it over his shoulders ; 
hold it in your hand, and when you are ready, 
tell him to lie down, at the same time, gently, 
firmly and steadily pulling on the strap, touch- 
ing him lightly on the knee with a switch. — 
The horse will immediately lie down. Do this 
a few times, and you can make him lie down 
without the straps. 

He is now your pupil and friend. You can 
teach him anj^thing, only be kind to him be 
gentle. Love him. and he will love you. Feed 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Ul 



him before you do yourself. Shelter him well, 
groom him yourself, keep him clean, and at 
night always give him a good bed, at least a foot 
deep. 

In the winter season don't let your horse 
stand out a long time in the cold, without shel- 
ter or covering; for remember that the horse 
is an aboriginal native of a warm climate, and 
in many respects, his constitution is as tender 
as a man's. 



Production of Sexes at "Will. 

" Many curious investigations," says Dr. 
Gardner's recent work, ''have been instigated 
in regard to this point in the world of nature. 
It is a matter of familiar knowledge that the 
male and female characteristics of the higher 
species of the animal creation, are not produc- 
ed in the same individual, as they are in the 
great majority of the higher species of plants. 
The organs, as will be seen, from which the 
two 'are evolved, are, however, so nearly relat- 
ed to each other in intimate nature, that the 
one may be readily mistaken for the other in 
the earliest period of their formation, Physi- 
ologists nuw incline to the opinion that the fer- 
tilizing vesicle is merely a germ vesicle, in a 
somewhat more exalted state of development 
.Mr. Knight has shown that plants, like the 
oak, that bear the mala and female Eoweis on 
separate individuals, may be made, to produce 
-either at will, by regulating the supply of light 
and heat according to the end in view. If the 
heat be excessive as compared with She light, 
male flowers only appear; But if the light be 
in excess female flowers are produced. He al- 
so found that whenever the eggs of birds are 
not allowed to be fertilized until immediately 
before they are laid, and therefore their own 
intrinsic development has been carried to the 
highest possible pilch before renewed vmGca- 
iion of ihe.germ visiele is effected, as miihy aa 
six out oiWcity seveirofilte birds subsequent- 
ly hatched pioteti to be males. * * Quete- 
let ' believer th at tho relative ages of the mal ■ 
fend female parent, influence the sex of the 
offspring produced, tea very considerable ex- 
tent. In support of this theory M. Hofhek 
er has shown that when the father is cor>- 
eiderably younger thin the- ■mother,' tMrpitc^ 
portion of female to -mate dukiren he goueralVj 
as ten to nine; 'but "thtii When, os* Cftii tftjpb 



ry, the father is nine years olicr than the 
mother, the proportion of male offspring to fe- 
male is as five to four and when eighteen years 
older, as two to one. In a general way, more 
males of the human species are bom into the 
world than females. If all Europe be included 
in the estimate, the proportion of »ialc to fe- 
male births is about int.; to 100. Possibly, if 
Quetelet's views be based on truth, this pre- 
ponderance on the side of males may be due 
to the fact that in civilized communities men, 
from prudential and other motives, mostly 
marry women younger themselves. But there 
are other reasons why this preponderance ex- 
ists. Three male children are born dead to 
every two females.'' 



(- »-^^»-5s»— 



Ten Eules to bo Observed in Ma- 
king Butter- 

In making good butter there are several nice 
operations to be gone through with, which re- 
quire an eye tocleanliness, forethought, and ex- 
perience. 

1; On milking clean, fast yet gently, regular- 
ly twice a day, depends the success of the dairy- 
man. Bad milkers should not be tolerated ia a 
h»rd; bettor pay double the price for good ones, 

2. Straining is quite simple, bat it should be 
■home in miad that two pans about half full each 
'will produce a greater amount of cream than the 
same milk if in but one pan ; the reason of this 
is. the greater surface. 

2., Scalding is quite an important feature ia 
the way of making butter in ccol weather ; the 
cream rises much quicker, milk keeps sweet 
longer, the butter is of a better color, and churns 
in one-half the time. 

4. Skimming' should always be dana before 
the milk becomes loppered ; otherwise much of 
the cream turns into whey and is lost. 

o. Churning, whether by hand or otherwise, 
should occupy fifteen minutes. 

C. Washing in cold soft water is one of its 
pieserving qualities, and should be continued 
until it shows no color of the milk by the use 
of the ladle; very hard water is highly charged 
with lime, and must ia a measure impart to it 
Alkaline properties. 

7. Salting is necessarily done with the best 
kind of ground salt; the quantity varies acord- 
ing to the state it is taken from" the churn; if 



164 



uWIiVATOR. 



goft more — if hard, less; always taking taste 
for the surest guide. 

8. First working-, after about 24 hours, is for 
the purpose of giving it greater compactness. 

S. Second working takes place at the time of 
packing, and when the butter lias dissolved the 
salt, that the brine may be worked out. 

10. Packing is done with the hands or with a 
butter-mail; and when butter is put into wood- 
en vessels, they should be soaked two or three 
days in strong brine before using. After each 
packing, cover the butter with a wet cloth, and 
put a layer of salt upon it: in this way the salt 
can easily be removed at any time, by simply 
taking huM of the edges of cloth. 

Butt;r made in this way will keep any length 
of time required. — J. C. Adams, 67. Farm. 

Saying Honey by Destroying 
Drones. 

It is a certain fact demonstrated by Huber, 
and proved again and again, since his time, 
that the irnpregnttion of the queen lasts three 
years; at least, this being the case, there are 
seasons when the apiarian will be enabled to 
secure the greatest quantity of honey, by pre- 
venting his bees from swarming and at the 
same time destroying all the drones. The plan 
is simple and effectual. For the first, it is only 
necessary to contract the entrance to the hive 
to a space 5-S2 of an inch wide ; this will allow 
a worker bee to pass in and out, but will detain 
the queen in the hive. This space will also 
keep back the drones, and if it is proposed to 
destroy them, (as they certainly ought to be, 
if the hire is prevented from swarming, and as 
I .shall presently show,) then take a box, say 
six inches square, and insert a wooden tube 
\ inch in aperUre and about 11 inches long, 
so that it shall be flush with the outside of the 
box, but project inside about an inch (if the 
box is half inch stuff the above length of tube 
will just do). Place tins tube in the lower 
corner of the box, so that it shall overlay the 
entrance just enough to let a drone enter the 
tube, from the hive. The rest of the entrance 
may be contracted to the 5-32 of an inch. Now, 
place a glass on the open top of the box, cov- 
ering it all but 5-32 of an inch at one end. 
The drones will endeavor to go out with the 
workers, but cannot. They will then follow 
along till they come to the opening in the tube, 



and go through it into the box. They cannot 
go out of the box into the air, on account of 
the space being only 5-32 of an inch wide 
neither can they go back to the hive, because 
the tube projects inside, and is not accessable 
from the bottom or side of the box. If a work- 
er bee goes into the box, of course the slit will 
let him out '(or rather I should say it bein°- 
neuter). 

When a large number of drones are collected, 
they may be immersed in water, and the box 
put back. 

It is incredible the amount of honey consum- 
ed by the drones, even where there are but a 
few hundred. But in ordinary hives, where 
there are sometimes over 1,000, they consume 
probably as much as is ordinarily kid up in 
the surplus boxes. 

For gentlemen who do not wish to increase 
the number of their hives, this plan is obvious- 
ly an excellent one. 

The contracted entrance is very sugo-estive 
to these who wish " to go to town," or ." to 
church," and tre fearful of loosing a swarm. A 
very good way is to cut the slit out of sheet 
lead, and place it before the entrance. It will 
be perceived, also, that this space will entirely 
prevent the queen from going into the top box- 
es and placing brood among the honey combs. 
We give our actual experience in the matter. 

This article is writren in ha3te, but we shall 
be glad to write~again if it is not sufficiently 
clear. ^ Apis> 

Whitemarsh, Pa 

The Eye, and how to See. 

From an article in the Scientific American, 
with the above caption, we extract the fol- 
lowing : 

The difference between the use of one and 
two eyes is not generally known. One eye has 
been found sufficient fur the general purposes of 
life. There are instances on record of persoas 
having the sight of but one eye, and yet were 
ignorant for years of having a blind one. Then} 
are also a great number of persons who hnro 
lost an eye by accident, and with the remaining 
one have performed all the duties required 
of the two. Two eyes, however, are better 
than one, for the field of vision with one is only 
about 150°, while with two it is about 200°.— 
It was long supposed, by many, that we saw 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



1C5 



objects twice as luminous with two as with one 
eye; but this is a mistake, for objects are seen 
as brightly with one as with two eyes. 

The pupil of the eye increases in size to ad- 
mit as much light, when one eye is shut, as 
when both of them are open ; therefore, so fat- 
as mere brightness is concerned, the loss of one 
eye is no disadvantage. Sir David Brewster 
bas determined this by experiment. Two eyes 
enable us to see solid objects in a higher relief, 
and all distances in nature more perfectly than 
one eye. With one eye, however, we see the 
direction in which an object or point is situated 
more distinctly than with two eyes. By mono- 
cular vi-ion (one e}'e) we see the exact point 
where a near object strikes a more distant one 
inline; this We •annot.do with both eyes di- 
rected to it, for while they see a near object 
distinctly, they do not perceive two objects in 
line accurately ; hence one eye only is used in 
shooting with a rifle at a mark, because it takes 
cognizance correctly of the eight on the rifle, 
-and the mark in a line beyond the needle — fur- 
ther off. Some have supposed that practice 
Alone gives us ar. appreciation of distances with 
the eyes — one or two — and this idea of acquiring 
■a 1 ! knowledge experimentally is taught by some 
works on philosophy, hit! it h a mistake. An 
artist in this city (New York) distinguished tor 
bis skill and fine tastes, who has been deprived 
!©f the a^.' of one eye fur a number of years has 
told us that in a dim light, such as the dusk of 
•evening, he has never learned to judge well of 
tSuSlatiees ) in other respects, however, monocu- 
lar vision is move advantageous to him than 
-Otherwise in pursuing bis profession, 
• To prove that we can appreciate distances 
more -correctly with two eyes than with one, 
Hot any ps: sen endeavor to thread a tolerably 
large neeile held out at arms length, and he will 
discover how deceptive monocular vision is, re- 
garding distance. The needle's eye will appear 
.farther from him than it really is, and ho will 
eohtjatsallv ihust the thread in a lino beyond it. 

A Hot i'or the Seasons. — The simplest 
and best way of preserving woolens through 
the summer from the destruction of the moths, 
is to wrap them well up after brushing them 
and beating them in cotton or linen cloths.— 
The mem can pass neither. Two covers, well 
vriapptd airiounti ;£ua' secured from the air, 
wlh'ho. e2?v--t'itf;id. •. A- eld sheet will answer, 
ssM >s,ys ^13 s&peas'es of camphor, &c. 



The Army "Worm. 

We find the following in relation to the his- 
tory and habit of the Army Worm in the Na- 
tional Intelligencer: 

"A friend who has ms.de entomology a sub- 
ject of study, furnishes us with some of the 
results of his investigations into the character, 
habits and history of the army worm, of which 
so many complaints have arrisen in various 
parts of the country. The oat patch west of 
the Smithsonian grounds supplied him with 
specimens and an opportunity to observe much 
concerning these devouring pests. Our friend's 
first impression, and which indeed he retains, 
was that the worm in question is identical with 
the grass worm of the South. Present appear- 
ances all attest this identity, but it will require 
the complete round of transformation to be 
gone through with before it can be considered 
certain. 

"This worm destroys corn, clover, grain, and 
every kind of grass, and in the South is found 
very abundant on the grass, aod weeds be- 
tween the rows of cotton. Its caterpillar, ju h 
before changing into the chrysalis, hides under 
stones, and where the ground is broken under 
clods of dirt. Their enemies are formidable, 
the largest being the toad, which stuffs itself 
with them almost to bursting. The stomach 
of ?. toad taken in the oat patch above referred 
to, having been cut open, was filled with these 
worms, mixed with a few wings of beetles. — 
The army worm has another enemy in the 
black larva of what seems to be a nccrojjhoroug 
which preys upon the caterpillar. Besides 
these there is a small ichneumon, or at all 
events a parasitical fly, which deposits its 
eggs all over the back of the caterpillar and 
they, when matured, spin cocoons, which send 
forth a cloud of other flies to repeat the pro- 
cess. 

"Specimens of the army worm sent hither 
from Maryland were entirely destroyed by a fly 
much like the common house fly, but with a 
lighter colored scries of rings around the abdo- 
men, which is hirsute and tipped with brown 
belonging to the family of musaida. It is a 
merciful provision of nature that, as these 
worms, increase, so do the parasitica! foes which 
feed upon and destroy them. But for this the 
consequences would be terrible indeed to all 
the hones of the agriculturist." 



1C5 



THE CAEOLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Bones and Manure. 

The value of bones to the farmer says the 
American Fanner, is admitted by all ; and the 
improved condition of the Agriculture of Eng- 
land, dates from the introduction of their use, 
in connexion with the turnip culture. The 
great difficulty is in ottaining a supply, and a 
further one of preparing them for the soil. — 
Various suggestions have been made, to effect 
this latter object, which we have published 
from time to time, and now add another from 
the N. Jersey Fanner, which has the recom- 
mendation at least of simplicity : 
^''Last fall a lot of bones were thrown in a 
heap of horse manure in the barn yard, and for 
no other purpose than to get them out of sight 
To this heap the manure of the horse stable 
"was daily added. In the spring, upon carting 
out the manure, the bones were found appa 
xently the same as when thrown in — whole and 
sound ; but upon being handled, were found 
to be soft; when lifted would fall to pieces of 
their own weight; when exposed to the air 
would crumble and become as ashes, emitting 
a strong and offensive odor. This incident led 
to a trial of the same experiment last Spring 
in the s. me manner, and with the. same re- 
sult 

"We do not pretend to fix the chemical pro- 
cess by which this result is attained; we mere- 
ly know that such is the result. And if a re. 
suit so happy ■ in its effects is produced at so 
little trouble, and with such little cost, our 
farmers may well spare an odd day in gather- 
er g together the old bones lying, about their 
firms, and for the mere trouble of gathering 
them, add to their lands one of the most ferti- 
lizing materials that can be obtained. 

"Let oar leaders avail themselves of this 
suggestion, and in preparing their manure 
heap for the winter, have collected together a 
» pile of old bones, and let them be scattered 
through your heaps where you throw your 
horse manure, and you will find when the ma- 
nure is carted out in the S; ring, in place of 
old bones, a manufactured A. No. 1 Bone 
Dust." 



Preservation of Flesh, etc. — M. Robert 
has contrived a method of preserving animal 
and vegetable substances, which is easily man- 
ag:d, cheap, and admits of their external ap- 



pearance, as well as their peculiar charac- 
ters being retained. It consists in exposing 
the partly dried substances to an atmosphere 
of sulphuric acid gas, and then covering them 
with a thin film of albumen mixed with mo- 
lasses. The flesh of animals that have been 
killed by blowing air into the breast can not 
be preserved in this way. In the first instance 
the flesh is freed from, and partly dried in a 
current of air; the limbs are then hung in an 
air-tight chamber, so as not to touch, and the 
sulphurous acid introduced, The time during 
which the meat is left in contact with the gas 
depends upon the size of the pieces. Fur pie- 
ces of from four to six pounds, ten minutes 
is sufficient ; pieces of two hundred weight re- 
quire twenty or five-and-twenty minutes. They 
are then removed from the chamber, dried in 
the open air, and brushed over with the albu- 
minous varnish. Flesh thus prepared may be 
cooked in the usual way, and after being kept 
a long time, is quite as fresh and good as when 
the animal has recently been slaughtered. — 
This method of preservation is said to be 
equally applicable to game and poultry, with 
or without the feathers, fish, fruit and vegeta- 
bles. For transport,, the preserved substances 
are packed in casks, into which tallow or fat 
is poured at as low a temperature as possible. 
This prevents shaking, which is always very 
prejudicial. The preservation of flesh, etc., 
by this method has received the sanction of 
the French Minister of Public Health. 

Meadow Muck. 

The value of muck as a fertilizing agent, is 
always in the precise ratio of the vegetable 
matter it contains — all extraneous matters serv- 
ing cvnly to increase the bulk without adding 
any percentage to the fructifying energies of 
the mass, or increasing its value as a stimu- 
lant of vegetable life. When, however, it is 
added to tough, vicid and tenacious clays, the 
admixture of saud may not be considered inju- 
rious, as the mechanical action of this earth 
will tend to overcome the innate adhesiveness 
which characterizes such soils; but as an ap- 
plication for loamy lands, in which there is lit- 
tle albuminous matter, the muck will be valu- 
able in proportion to the fibrous or decompos- 
able vegetable matter it contains. : 

All muck, when taken from its bed, is pos- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



167 



■sessed of a certain dpgrce of acidity, which 
renders it necessary to mix it with lime or 
wood ashes to neutralize the acidity before ap- 
plying it to the soiL This may also be effect- 
ed by exposing it to the atmosphere, or to the 
action of frost, for a time ; or it may be sweet- 
ened by mixing it with manure in the yards 
or compost heap. 

Muck is a most valuable fertilizer, when 
properly managed, and the farmer who is so 
fortunate as to possess the means of obtaining 
it in sufficient quantity, may bring his lands 
to any decree of fertility he desires, and at 
comparatively small cost. For corn and pota- 
toes, as well as for garden vegetables, muck is 
one of the most valuable stimulants known. — 
JT. B. Farmer. 

Lightning Conductors. 

The Following suggestions in the Country 
Genilemaa y by Mr. E. J. McCarthy, relating to 
cheap lightning rods meets our approbation : 

"If one human life is saved through the 
means of this publication, those who are en- 
gaged in sale of conductors at such exhorbi- 
tant prices that but few purchase, should not 
allow themselves to complain, but feel thank- 
ful for the timely hint. If the property con- 
tained in one barn even, is saved from destruc- 
tion by this simple means, the writer will feel 
amply rewarded for his trouble. 

There, being no "dispute about the perfect 
safety of couductors to life and property, the 
only questions to be considered are, which arc 
the safest and cheapest? There is no person 
familiar with the subject whowill not say that 
soft iron rods in one continuous length, pro- 
jecting to a sufficient height above the highest 
point of a building, and terminating in a well 
or cess-pool, or in damp earth, are the best 
electrical conductors known. Now, instead of 
erecting a single rod from the center of the 
building, and running over the roof, with fancy 
points and colored insulators, such as are 
hawked about and sold at high prices, put up 
as many as you have chimneys at least, and 
one at each gable end or high projecting point 
of every out-building. To do this cheaply, 
purchase a coil of quarter-inch iron wire, and 
&; many small staples as my be required ; saw 
off as many pieces of bone of proper length 
And size, with a hole of suitable dimensions 



for the wire to pass through and with a ladder 
and the help of one man, a person of ordinary 
ingenuity can put up a dozen rods in half a 
day, at a cost of one cent afoot. Who will 
run the risk of life and property, when perfect- 
ly safe conductors can be erected for less than 
a dollar a piece, including the cost of putting 
them up? 



Sowing Cabbage seed in Septem- 
tember. 

• It has been our custom for years to call up- 
on our readers to sow cabbage seed of differ- 
ent sorts early in September with the view of 
raising plants to be set out in the early part of 
November. Our object in doing so is, to in- 
duce you to lay the ground work of a supply 
of cabbages for your family early next sum- 
mer and through Autumn, and we therefore 
repeat our advice again. 

Preparation j'or the led. — Select a spot an 
openly exposed border, or part of a similarly 
exposed bed; manure it well, dig in the ma- 
nure a spade deep, rake until you obtain a per- 
fectly fine tilth, then divide it into as many 
parts, as you have different sorts of cabbage 
seed. This done sow each kind separately 
rake the seed very lightly in, then put down, 
the earth gently with the back of your spade 
so as to bring it immediately in contact with 
the seed to quick germination ; then dust the 
bed with a mixture of 4 parts soot and 2 parts 
plaster. 

The following varieties will ensure a contin- 
uous supply of fine delicious cabbages from 
early summer next year throughout autumn,, 
viz : 

Early Imperial, Early York, Early Nonpareil, 
Early Vanak, Early Sugar Loaf, Large York, 
Flat Dutch, and Large Ox-heart. 

If the weather should not be seasonable at 
the time that you sow the seed, give the bed & 
five watering; continue this every evening un- 
til the plants come up and until rains occurs. 
Just as your plants get above ground dust them 
with a mixture of 4 parts ashes, S parts soot^ 
and 1 partjlour of sulpher, first having wa- 
tered the plants so as to make the mixture ad- 
here to the leaves. Repeat this two or three 
or four successive evenings with the following 
decoction. Put half a bushel of horse dung 
into a barrel, together with 1 quart of soot and 



108 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR, 



1 ox. of sulphur tied in a bag ; pour hot water 
thereon and when the water becomes cool fill 
up the barrel with cold water, and in 2i hours 
it will be fit for use. The barrel maybe filled 
up several time?. In sis or eight weeks the 
plants will be large enough to be set out to 
stand the winter. 



as our farmers commenced planting Indian 
corn, in hills, 10 seeds to the hill, and the hills 
four feet apart each way, and cultivated just es 
you would our common broom-corn — thinning 
down to 8 stalks in the hill, and keeping the 
' suckers pulled out. About the time the seed 
or heads commenced turning black, I had the 
fodder stripped off, the stalks cut down, seed 
taken oft" with about one foot of the stalk, and 
now commenced the operation of molasses ma- 
king in North Carolina. Each stalk was 
pressed through a crushing mill made by Mr- 
Albert Johnson, of Raleigh, in order to get the 
juice, which answered an admirable purpose. 
From my crop, which • occupied a space of 
ground 15 by 23 feet, I obtained 15 i gallons of 
juice, and did not use about 100 very small 
stalks. This juice, I boiled in two different 
iron pots — and after keeping them both to boil- 
ing heat only, for an hour, constantly skim- 
ming the foam off, I caused them to boil active- 
ly — putting to each five gallons of juice a com- 
mon tablespoon ful of slacked lime.' After six 

Apology. -We h t hours boilin - I obtained three and a haIf S al * 

8 s a sufficient apology for the appearance of ! !° ns ofescellent s y™P> a specimen of which, I 






ff'F! f! f ,s?AIYV! I1FI fF!F!f!1AD 
RALEIGH, SEPTEMBER, 1857. 



three numbers together at so late a date, that 
the operations in our office have been greatly 
embarrassed by sickness among the hands and 
the absence of the Proprietor. "Better late 
than never," however, and we now send out 
to subscribers a large, and, we hope, profita- 
ble body of reading upon the greatest inter- 
est of the State. 

Chinese Molasses. 

"We are very much obliged to our friend for 
(he following note and the accompanying spe- 
cimen. The experiments now making so gen- 
erally with the new article of Sugar Cane are 
deeply interesting, and every such contribution 
from careful observers is entitled to the read- 
er's earnest attention. These experiments 
have been eminently successful in this region. 
We hope they will be repeated, until it is fully 
demonstrated that the cultivation of the Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane is a profitable branch of agri- 
cultural industry. 

Raleigh, September, 1857. 
W. D. Cooke, E-;o. : — The Chinese Sugar 
Cane seed which you had the kindness to give 
me early in the spring past, I planted as soon 



herewith send. The specimen is not as bright 
as it would have been, had I used a brass ket- 
tle — however, I consider it superior to any 
sugar-house molasses. 

Very Respectfully, 

W. WHITAKER, Jr. 

The Season. — The season is now so far ad- 
vanced that we may speak with confidence 6^ 
the general yield of the crops in the United 
States, which we rejoice to say, has been on 
the whole excellent and abundant. The im- 
proved quality of the wheat has been the sub- 
ject of frequent remark in many places, and 
the corn crop will exceed in quantity those of 
many past years. The probability is that a 
general decline of prices will take place, asd 
farmers should be prepared for the cha-ge. 



Tue Fair.— We again call the attention of 
our readers to the corning Fair, and urge upon 
them the duty of sustaining the credit of the 
State by large contributions to the exhibition. 
Remember that six thousand dollars will be 
distributed in premiums. 

A man without desire and without want, is 
without invention and without reason. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



133 



Exchanges. — "We have on hand late num- 
bers of several valued exchanges, for which the 
publishers have our thanks, viz : The Eclectic, 
Godey, Arthur, Peterson, and other leading 
Magazines of the day. Time will not allow of 
a more specific notice. 



No better time than now for turnii 

stubble ground. 



dei 



er5C2-^ 'T^zr--V--Ji, TTCBMBKSi"K?CJaT: 



Table of Contents. 

JULY NO. 

Covering Manures, 142 

Deterioration of the Whoat Crop, 144 

Guano, 341 

How to Raise Turkeys, 135 

Items in Agriculture, 134 

Multum in Parvo, 13S 

Mysteries of a Junk of Coal, 143 
On the advantages of stirring the soil in 

dry weather, 142 

Premium Essay on the Farm Horse, 129 

The management of Manures, 136 

AUGUST NO. 

American Wines, 145 

Artificial propagation of Fish, 155 

Ants — their senses and habits, 155 

Astonishing feat of a house Spider, 150 

Influence of Horticulture, 152 

Judges to award premiums, " 150 

Planting a Lawn, 150 

Regubtions of the Fifth Annual Fair, 157 

To dessect the Atmosphere, 154 

SEPTEMBER NO. 

A hint for the Season, 165 

Apology, 163 

"Benefit of Agricultural Fairs, 161 

Butter making, 163 

Bones and Manure, 166 

Chinese Molasses, 163 

Exchanges, 163 

Lightning Conductors, 167 

Meadow Muck, 166 

Production of sexes at Will, 163 

Preservation of Flesh, 166 

Saving Honey by destroying Drones, 164 

Sowing Cabbage seed ia September, 157 

The Fair, 16S 

The Season, 16S 

The Horse charm 162 

The Eye and how to see. 164 

The Army Worm, r 165 



Jpbrviiscnicnts. 



FALL TRADE, 1857. 

TOLN X. GORDON, GROCER AND COMMIS- 
SION MERCHANT, AND DEALER TN ME- 
TALS, 14th Street, near the Exchange Hotel, Rich- 
mond, Va., ofiersfor sale — 
Orleans and Coffee Sugars, Yarimrs grades, 
Loaf, Crushed, Granulated and Powdered Sugars. 
Laguira, Rio nnd Old Government Java Coffee. 
Orleans and West India Molasses. 
Pure Cider Yin gar. 

Sperm, Adamantine and Tallow Candles. 
Soaps, Fancy and Brown. 
Sule Leather, good and damaged. 
All sizes Fiat, Round, Square Swedes, "] 
American Hammered, LlPOX 

English Refined, 
English and Am rican rolled, 
English and American blistered Steel. 
German, Cast and Shear Steel. 
Broad Plough Iron, to )'2 inch. 
American, English and Russia Sheet Iron. 
Oval, halt Oval and half round Iron. 
Nail Rods, American and Swedes. 
Band, Scroll and Hoop Iron. 
Horse Shoes, assorted. 
Horse and Mule Shoe Iron. 
Tin Plate, Pig and Bar Tin. 
Sheet Zinc, Spelter, and Spelter Solder. 
Sheathing, Brazier's and Boh Copper. 
•McCormick's and Palmer Mould Boards. 

J5p~ Particular attention giveu to the sale of 
Wheat, Flour and Country Produce generally. 



4,000 Acres of Land for Sale- 

THIS Land lies in Chesterfield District, S-C , im- 
mediately en the Pee Dee rivrr, and the Clieraw 
and Darlington Railroad, and by the latter part of the 
present year, will be within a few hour* ride ol the ci- 
ty ot Charleston. There are about 1,3.0 acres ot the 
land cleared, which - 

PRODUCES FINELY 
without manure of any kind. The balance is dense- 
ly covered with a heavy growth ot White Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Dogwood, Hickory, Cotton. Walnut, Fopiar, 
&c, with a 

CAXE BRAKE 
extending near over the entire Tract. Abrut 200 
acres of the Tract lie in the Sand Hills, which for 
Health and Fine Springs of water, is 

PROBABLY UNSURPASSED 
by any of this State. The Tract will be uivided to 
suit purchasers. For particulars address 

E. B. C. CASH, 

Cheraw, S. C. 
June 1357. 



"Learn of the 'Mole to plough." — Pojse. 
\TTYCHE'S CULTIVATING PLOW, , PATENT- 
\ V ED Sth of January, 185l3>— called the Mole; 
Pli iw ; with vertical cutters nearthe edge ofa horizon- 
tal share, fir dividing the furrow slice, and a curved 
cutter ou the rear of the share for turning the whole 
in towards the plow, or as far on the opposite side of 
the share as may be desired. Adapted to siding, list- 
ing, breaking turfy or bard land, subsoiliug. and 
many other purposes. Is light, cheap, and strong; 
and supposed to be the most pei feet pulrerizerinnse. 

For license to sell,- with directions for manufactur- 
ing, address. ' Vv". E. WYC.HE, 
Brookville, Granville Co., N. C. 

June 16, 1S56. 5 — tt. 



170 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



NORTH CAROLINA I STIIUTION 

TOR THE VE\i~ AND lU'MB AND THE BLIND, 

RALEIGH, N.C.— SES6LON OF l§57-53. 

Board of Directors. 
WILLIAM H. MeKEE, 31. D., President. 



S. IT. YOC.VC;, 

Jyo. C Palmes, 
W-. W. Vas.s 



A. M. Lewis, 
Q. Bcseee. 
D. G. Fowls. 



Officers of the Institution. 

WM. D. COOKE, A. M., Principal. 

JAMES A. WADDELL, M. D., Vice-Principal. 

Teachers in the D. db D. Department. 
Geo. E. Ketceam, I Chas. M. Geow. 



Teachers in the Blind Departtn n f. 

J. A. Waddell, M. D. I Mrs. S. C. Waddell, 

Miss M. E. Cooke. 

JUs. L.E. Grow, Matron-. \ Mrs. E. Little, HoustVr. 
S. Little, Steward. 

The next session of this Institution will commence 
on the first Monday of September. Any intelligent 
and healthy white resident of the State, between the 
ages of 5 and 20, whether Deaf and Dumb or Blind, 
'may, if the means of education are wanting, be ad- 
mitted to the school free of charge. The terms f.^r 
others may be learned from the Principal. Such pu- 
pils as are capable of decided improvement, are not 
only instructed in the ordinary branches of a com- 
mon education, but receive such accomplishments as 
may best fit them for success in life. Music, draw- 
ing, needle-work, bead-work, and suitable handi- 
craft arts will form a considerable part of the course 
through which they pass. Careful attention will be 
paid t.y their religious, moral, and physical improve- 
ment, and every effort will be made, not only to ren- 
der them c . ifortable, but to promote their highest 
welfare. Pupils should by all means enter early in 
September. Fvjt any information in icgardto the 
Institution, address, 

WILLIAM P. COOKE, Principal, 

Raleigh, N. C. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY 

T THE ANNEAL MEETING OF THE North 

Carolina Mutual Insurance Company, held on 

following persons were elected Di- 



A 



the 9th inst 



rectors and Officers for the ensuing rear : 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY. 
T. II. Selbv, President. 
H. D. Turner, Mce President. 
H. S. Smith, See' y and Treas, 
John H. Bryan, Attorney. 
T. H. Selbv, vx officio. ) 

John II. Williams, } Executive Committee. 
C. W. D. HutchinsJ 

ThisComp my has been in successful operation for 
more than 7 rears, and continues to take risks upon 
all cla« i :' roperty in the State, (except Steam 
Mills and Turpentine Distilleries,) upon favorable 
ten is. Its Policies now cover property amounting 
to 34,500,' I, a large portion of which is iu Country 
risks; and its present capita] is nearly Seven Hun- 
dr^i Thousand Dollars, in bonds properly secured. 

The average cost of Insurance upon the plan of this 
Company has been less than one third of one per 
cent, per annum, on all grades of property embraced 
in its operj ,: ns. 

All communications in. reference to insurance 
should be addressed to the Secretary, post paid. 
H. S." SMITH, Sec'?. 



PREMIUM THRESHING MACHINES. 

Toe jVorth Carolina State Fair, held at Raleigh 
awarded the First Premiun. for our celebrated 
Threshing Machine. 

THIS Machine has been fully tested in this State 
and Virginia, and approved by all who have used it 
on account of its simplicity of construction, utility, and 
durability. We have no hesitation in saying they are 
the best Threshers now iu use. They ari: economical 
in cost, simple in construction, and* less liable to get 
out of working order. We also make a Hub Eorst 
Power, which is adapted to either four or six horses. 
This Power is all that a planter can desire to do the 
power-work on a plantation: it is very simple in its 
construction, celebrated for its strength, and not 
easily got out of repair; and, from the same quantity 
of power, can do more work than any other now in 
use. 

It is unnecessary for us to particularize further as 
to the advantages of our Thresher and Power, but 
respectfully solicit the attention of all, to call and ex- 
amine for themselves at our manufactory, where they 
can be seen in full operation ; and any recommenda- 
tion that may be wanted will be given^ from planters, 
and others of this city, who have used them for the 
last four years. 

All orders promptly attended to. 

Repairing done at short notice, on application, at 
our manufactory, on Washington St., opposite Jar- 
ratt's Hotel, Petersburg, "V a. 

J. W. DAYIDSON & ERO. 

Ap., 1557— 3m 

ISN'T IT SO! 

,l USE ARTHUR'S Celebrated 
Self-Sealing Cans and Jars, and 
'you will have fresh fruit all the 

FRESH FRUIT "year at Summer prices. 

| Full directions forp'utting up all 
[kinds of Fruit and Tomatoes, ac- 
company these cans and jars 
\ They are made of Tin, Glass, 
Queens' Ware, and Fire and Acid 
IN Y INTER proof Stone Ware. The sizes are 
from pints to gallons. These cans 
land jars are entirely open at the 
|tops, and nest, to secure economy 
tin transportation. 
' For sale by Storekeepers 
throughout the United States. 
| Descriptive circulars sent ou ap- 
plication. JSf° Orders from the 
trade solicited. 

i Be sure to ask for "Arthur's.' 
THAN [It nas stood the test of two seasons, 

having been used by hundreds of 
ithousands of families, hotel and 
boarding-house keepers 
t We are now making them for 
: the million. 

SW ETMEATS. ARTHUR, BURNAM, oc 
GILROY, 
'Manufacturers under the Patent, 
N. E. cor. Tenth and George Sts., 
PHILADELPHIA. 

A CHANCE FOR THE MILLION. 

r TMIE subscribers are desirous of securing an Agent, 
JL either male or female, in every town and county 
of the Union, to eDgage in a light and pleasant busi- 
ness, by which they can make, with ordinary energy, 
from $5 to VlO per day. Every information will be 
given by addressing with stamp, to pay return letter 
S. A. DEWEY k CO., 
Ap., 1857— 8w Box 151, Philadelphia, Pa. 



BETTE1 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



171 



H. D. TURNER, 

•GENERAL BOOK AGENT, 

JV>. 1 Fayetterrilh Street , Raleigh, X. €., 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COURT REPORTS OF NO. CA., 
• Sag for sale, in quantities orl>y retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising Greek, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Books; School 
Books ; B! a n k 
Books; Juve- 
nile and 

Toy 
B oo k s ; 
Miscellaneous 
Works; with all the 
Nero Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a large assortment of Station- 
ary and Fancy Articles. 

CCHOOL BOOKS'.'— All the different kinds o. 
O Primers, Spelling Books, Reading Books, Gram- 
mars, Arithmetics, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &.C.; also Works on Astronomy, Alge- 
bra, Chemistry, Philosophy, Mathematics, Surveying, 
Geometry, Botany, Book-keeping, Rhetoric, Mensu- 
ration, Trigonometry, Geology, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery, Farming, Gardening, Medicine. Theology, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, &c, &c. He has always on 
hand the Standard English Law Reporter and Digests, 
and every Treatise on Particular subjects ; together 
with the various State Reports and Digests, and a 
general assortment of Law Books of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS.— Ledgers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, Cash, and Letter Books, Receipt and Bill 
Books, Memorandum, Bank and Pass Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing Books. 

RELIGIOUS BOOKS.— Family, Pocket, and 

School Bibles, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
Books, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.— Piano Music, Music 

Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND FANCY ARTICLES.— 

Consisting of Foolscap and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Post and Drawiug Paper, Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tracing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Quills, Wafers, Sealingwax, Pocket Books, Albums ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red Inks ; Prints. Gold and Silver ever-pointed Pen- 
cils, Seals, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Scrap-Books, Visiting Cards, Card Case3, Gold and 
Silver Paner, Inkstands, Slate and Slate Pencils, Lead 
Pencils, Bristol and Ivory Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Battledores, Rules, India Rubber, Carmine Saucers, 
Newman's, Reeves's, and American Water Col- 
ors, &c. 

N. B.— BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
forms, with neatness and dispatch. 



ICr GARDEN-SEEDS.— To bo had at the North 
Carolina Bookstore, Garden-Seeds, warranted fresh 
and good, crop of 1855, selected from the most ap- 
proved Seedsmen and Gardeners in the- Northern 
Country. 

February, 1857. tf 



U 



TWENTY-FIVE WITNESSES ; 

OH, THE 

Forger Convicted- . 

JOIIX S. DYE 13 TriK AUTHOR, 

Who has had 10 years experience as a Banker 
and Pnblisher, and Author of J wie/i of Leebvret 
at tht Broadway TabernacL when, for 13 .vucecs- 
siee nights, over 

J3T 50,000 PEOPLE j£Q 
greeted him with Rounds of Applause, while ho 
exhibited thft manner in v hich Counterfeiter* ex- 
ecute iheir Fran is, and the Surest and Shortest 
Means of Detecting ihe«n! T ; B a ■■.'. .V t. En- 
graeer* all#i</ that ht it theynat- H Jtohje of Pa- 
per Money Ih inn 

GREATEST DISCOVERY of The Present 
Century for 

Detecting Counterfeit Bank Notes. 

Describing every Genuine Bill in existence, and 
exhibiting at a large glacce every Counterfeit in 
Circulation. Arranged so admirably, that Ref- 
erence is easy and Detection instantaneous. 

£C5" No Index to exumine ! Fo pages to hunt 
up! But so simplified and arranged, that the 
Merchant, Baker and Business Man can, see all 
at a Glance. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN. 
Thus each may read the same in his own Na- 
tive Tongue. 

MOST PERFECT BANK NOTE LIST 
PUBLISHED, also a List of All the PHvatt 
Bankers in America. A complete summary of 
the Finance of Euiope and America will be pub- 
lished in eadh edition, together with ail the impor- 
tant News of the Day. Also 

A SERIES OF TALES 
from an old Manuscript found in the East. It fur 
nishes the most complete History of 

ORIENTAL LIFE 
describing the most perplexing positions in which 
the Ladies and Gentlemen of that Country havo 
been so otten iound. These Stories will continue 
throughout the whole year, and will prove tha 
most entertaining everofiered to the Public. 

&T~ Furnished weekly to Subscribers only, at 
$1 a year. All letters must be addressed to 
JOHN S. DYE, Bkokek, 

Publisher and Froprietor, 
TO Wall Street, New York. 



FARMER'S HALL 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

The subscriber is general acrent for the sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Farming utensils, Field 
seeds, Fertilizers, &c. &e. Almost ail the articles 
brought to the late Fair are kept on sale and are 
offered at manufacturers prices with no cost ot trans- 
portation, as they were brought free by the Railroad. 

There is also a new fire proof Ware House on the 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are stored- 
The following sre some of the articles brought to the 
late Fair: Horse Powers, Wheat Fans, Corn Drills, 
Field Rollers, Com and Cob Crushers. Harrows, Cul- 
tivators, and Plows ot' even- size and description. 
JAMES M. TOWLJES. 



Book Bill din" 1 
JOIIX II. M'ARTERET & SOX 

RAREIGH, X. C. 

ARE still carrying on theBOUK BINDING busi- 
ness in all its branches at the old stand ove? 
"Turner's N. C. Bookstore." 



\ 



172 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



B I T T E 



Wyc-ic's Cultivating Plow. 

PATENTED 26TH FEBRUARY, 1856. (THE i 
Bluded Plow,) awarded §20 premium at the last 
>". C- Scat- Fair; with cutting blades in the place of j 
a nioldboaivl; cuts, divides and turns over the soil ; j 
depositing the liner parts in the furrow, and turning | 
over the turf, clods, i&c, on the surface. Is cheap, 
lijht, and lasting, and easy to both driver and team. 
Admirably adapted to almost any purpose for which 
the plow is used. 
Fur license to sell, withfartherinformation, address 
W. E.WYCHE. 
Brook ville, Granville Co. N. C. 
June IS, 1S55. 5 — tf. 

J. II. Go jch. Oxford, X. C, solicits orders for the 
above plows. 

D0CIOH EOOELAITD'S 

CELEBRATED 

6 E R M A I 

PREPARED BY 

Be, C. M. JACKSON, Philad'a, Pa. 

" WILL EFFECTUALLY CURE 

LITER COMPT, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or JS'ervous Debility, Disease oj the 
Sidneys, and all diseases arising from a Disordered 
Licer or Stomach. 
S-Jch 
as Constipa- 
tion, Inward Piles, 
Fulness or Blood to the 
Head, Acidity of the stsmach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Disgust for food. 
Fullness or Weight in the Stomach, Sour Eruc- 
tations- Sinking or fluttering at the pit oi the sto- 
mach, S>vurt nii, j of the Head, Hurried and diffi- 
cult Breathing, Fl tteringatthe Heart, Choaking 
or suffocating sensations when in a lying pos- 
♦ mre. Dimness of vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight. Fever and Dull Pain in the 
" Head, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
I ellownessof the skin and eyes, 
Pain in the Side, Back, Chest, 
Limbs, ecc , Sudden flush- 
es ot Heat, Burning in 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil, 
and great de- 
pression of 
Spirits, 
The proprietor in calling the attention of the pub- 
lic to this p'eparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in. its virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for which it is recommended. 

It is ii9 new untried article but one that has stood 
the ; ."-t of a len year.-' trial before the American peo- 
ple, a id its reputation and sale is unrivaled by any si- 
r preparations extant. The testimony in its fa- 
vor given by the most prominent and well known j 
Pbysn ans and individuals in all parts of the coun- 
try is immense, and a careful perusal of the Almanac I 
published annually by the proprietor, and to be had 
gratis of any of hi; agents, cannot but satisfy the most 
skeptical thut this remedy is really deserving the great 
eelcbrity it has obtained. 

Principal Office and Manufactory No. % Arch St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM N. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING EFFECTS FROM THE GER- 
MAN BITTERo. 
.Certificate of Dr. W. SMITH, of Pine Dill, D!c7l- 
mo„d Co.,X. C, March 4, 1851. 
Dr. C. M. Jackson, Philadelphia. — Dear Sir, — I 
have been a subject of Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for the last five years. Such was my condition for 12 
months that the physicians and all svho saw me said 
I must die. While in this condition, I was carried to 
the watenngpiaces in Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, but was not benefitted by any water to 
which I was taken. While on my way home, I stop- 
ped a week at Rutheriordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina to try the effect of some Chalybeate water 
in that place. About the lastol the week, I went in- 
to a diug store to get some medicine lor my child and 
myself. There were several of the village physici- 
ans in the store, and one of them seemed to take some 
interes;in my ease., and after asking me some ques- 
tions, said he hart been a dyspeptic, and had been 
greatly benefitted by the use of " Dr. Hoofland's Ger- 
man Bitters," prepared by you, and he insisted that 1 
should try the Bitters He also called the next day 
at my room, and insisted so much that I would try 
them, that I asked him to get me one bottle. He did 
it, and 1 commenced taking it as directed, and I do 
say I was more benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine I had ever taken. 

Alter reaching home, one of my neighbors came to 
me for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic,) 
and I gave him nearly all the Bitters I had left; which 
effected much good in his case. He has often called 
on me for more of the same kind of medicine, saying 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he had 
taker, but I have not been able to get any more for 
him or myself since ; will you, therefore, please ship 
me a dozen or more as soon as possible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. SMITH, M. D. 

GREAT CURE OF PILES. 

Certificate of W.J. ATWOOD, Huntuville, YadHn 

Co., A". C, Ao'j. 1, 1S53. 

Dr. C. SI. Jacks< n — Dear Sir, — Allow me to ex- 
press to you my sincere thanks for your discovery oi 
a medicine, which, to say the least of it, has effected 
a cure that all other medicines that I have taken have 
entirely failed to do. "Hoofland's German Bitters," 
have cured rne of the most stubborn and aggravated 
case of the Piles that, perhaps, ever fell to the lot ot 
man. My case is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all my frinds and relations, as I had tried every- 
thing recommended, and nothing did me any good 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, for 
the benefit of the afflicted, as you may think proper. 
Trulv yours, 

Vvm.T. ATWOOD. 

These Bitters are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great advantage ov^r every mineral preparation, as 
they neverprostrate, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem. 

Price 75c. per bottte. Sold by Druggists and Store- 
keepers in every town and villase in the United 
States and Canadas. and by 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

Nov ember 1856. Raleigh. 

WAR.RENT0N FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES 
WARRENTON, In. C. 

THE 30th session of this school will commence on 
the 3d of January next, prepared to give thorough 
instructruction iu all the branches of female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
time ol entrance. 

Terms per Session : 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in rooms, $60 00 
English tuition, 12 50 

Music on Piano, Guitar, Melodcon, with use 

of instrument, each 23 Ot 

Oil Painting, 15 00 

further information, will p'easo 
GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 



Persons wishing 
ly to 
ecember, 1355. 



apply to 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



173 



GRENOBLE HOSK. 

THIS superior hose, iuanufac'ured trom the fincsl 
of HEMP, is adamed and especially recom- 
mended for the use of Fire Engines, Mills, Manufac- 
tories, Ship?, Steamboats, Railroads, Hotels, Garden 
uses, &,c. Its advantages over other Hose are it* 
ex'reme lightness and cheapness. It will stand as 
much pressure as Leather Hose, and has proved to bo 
as durable ; and all the care it needs alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air. 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
inches in diameter, in lengths from 100 to 2 "0 feet, 
by CHARLES LENZMANN, 

51- Cedar st., New York. 
Sole Agent for the United States. 

Certificates of Us superior qualities trom the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navy Yards; from Ai- 
red Carson, Esq., Chief Engineer of the New York 
Fire Department; James Smith, Esq, New York, 
and L. Button, Esq., Waterford, Fire Engine Buihl- 
fers, and from some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &.C., can be examined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb 13 — 6m 

LYON'S KATHAIRON 
Ha? now become the standard preparation 
for the HATR. Its immense sale, nearly 

I^KOOO, 000^ 
BOTTLES. 

Per year, attests its excellence and great 
superiority ever all other articles of the kind. 
Th? ladies universally tronounce the 
KATHAIRON 
To be. by far, the finest and most agreeable 
article th ay ever used. It kestoues the Hair 
after it has fallen on J.; invigorates and jeeau- 
ti-ies it, giving to it r. rich glossy appearance, 
and imparts a delightful perfume, Sold by all 
dealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 

So Cents f/ef 'Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNKOOPor CO., Phoprietoks, 

63 tKEBTV STI-iF.'ET, NEW YORK. 

■ Man uiaciurerSj also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
aitd'Sn great variety. Cm. 

SAABS' SARSAPARILIiA, 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 
FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

ASD F031 THE CUBE OF 

S.rifvlr, Rheumatism, Stillborn Ulcers, Dys- 
pepsia, Sah RJttum, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases. Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Liter Cvrnpldint, Bronchitis, 
Consumption, Female 
Complaints, 
Loss of Appetite, General Debility, tf-c. 

TO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
of the b uoaane and philanthropise of all ages.— 
Before the practice of medicine became a science, the 
sick were. publicly exposed in the open air, and every 
passar-by named tr-. j remedy he considered most so.it- 
able for M» complaint. Wc possess »: the present, 
day. through the a^-r.c -, ofihe press, a more reliable 
rn*.T*Pf M'^.rktfkiforina-tiou to our suffering fel- 
}>¥& creature's." Th-awi siffiictrd with Scrofula, Cuta- 
afjottS OfErerpiire Rtaeaae-s, will find in the columns 
©i aim o35- e v en r 'i;e',v.';]v.per tuid periodical published 
Cer tilk-atJ? v.i-.i CeSfifEuHfals from those who hare 



been speedilj cured of these dreadful comp! lints by 
the purifying and powerfully r generative qualities 
of Sands' Sarsaparilla. 

A STOXISHLYG CURE 

PaTEKSOX, X. V. 

Messrs. A. B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen:— Having 
witnessed the mi st beneficial effects from the use of 
yourSAflSAPARiLLA, it gives rae pleasure to send 
you the following statement in regard to ray son-, 'n 
the Spring, lie took a severe cold, a id after ci^ht 
weeks of severe suffering the disease settled in his 
left leg and foot, which swelled to the utmost. The 
swcllingwas lanced by his physician, and disharged 
most profusely. After that, ao less than eleven Ul- 
cers formed oil the leg and fui i at one time. We had 
five different physicians, b :t tioou relieved him niui : .' 
and the last winter found him so eniaci ited and low 
that he was unable to leave his bid, suliering the 
most excruciating pain. During this Urne the bona 
had becomo so much affected, that piece after p:ec« 
came out, of which he has now more than twenty- 
five preserved in a bottle, varying trom one half to 
one and a half inches in length. We had given np 
all hopes of his recovery, but at this time we were 
induced to try your SAR3APARILLA, and with its 
use his health ana-appetite began immediately to im- 
prove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
dozen bottles effected a perfect cure. 

. With gratitude, I remain trnlv yours, 
DARIUS BALLARD. 

We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ballard 
cheerfully subscribe to the facts of the above state- 
ment. 

H. & R. 3. Hyatt, 
Geo. T. Dka.n, 
A. M. Tkoweebridoe, 
C. Eastwood. 

Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A. I!. 
D. SANDS, Druggists and Chemists, 10u Fulton S t, 
corner cf William, New York. 

Sold also by Druggists generally. 

Price 51 per bottle ; six bottles for $3. 1 ly 



A YE ITS PILLS 

FOR ALL T H £ PURPOSES F A 

FAMILY PHYSIC- 

There has long existed a public demand for an ef- 
fective purgative Pill which could be relied on as sure 
and perfectly safe in its operation. This has been 
prepared to meet that demand, and an extensive trial 
of its virtues has conclusively shown with wh.n suc- 
cess it accomplishes the purposes designed. It is easy 
to make a physical Pill, but not so easy to make the 
best of all Piltt—nae which should h'tve none of tha 
objections, but all the advantages of every other. Thi« 
has been attempted her?, and with what success we 
would respectfully submit to the public decision It 
has been unfortunate for the patient hitherto that al- 
most every purgative medicine is acrimonious and ir- 
ritating to tlu bowels. Tins is no:. .Many of them 
produce so much griping pain and revulsion in the 
system as to more than counterbalance the good to 
he derived from them. These PiiU produce no irrita- 
tion or pam.un'ess it arrises fr<au previousexisting ob- 
s' in Mon or derangement in the bowels- Being pure- 
ly vegetable-, no harm can arise from their use in any 
quantity ; but it is better thai any medicine should be 
taken judiciously. Minute directions for their use in 
the several diseases to which they are applicable are 
given op the box. Among the complaints which 
have been speedily cured by them we may mention 
Liver Couipiamt, in its various forms of Jaundice, In- 
digestion) Laogor and Loss of Appetite, Lisilessness. 
Irritability, Billions Headache, Bilious Fever, Fever 
and Ague, Pr.in in the side aud Lotr.s, for in truth all 



374 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



these are but the consequence of diseased action of 
the liver. A? an aperient, thev afford prompt and 
sure relii fin G stiveness, Piles. Colic, Dysentery, Hu- 
mors, Scrofula and Scurvey, Colds, with soreness of 
ihe body, Ulcers and impurity of the blood ; in short 
any and every ease where a purgative is required. 

They have also produced some singularly success- 
ful cure- in Rheumatism, Gout, Dropsey, Gravel, Ery- 
sipelas, Palpitation of the Heart, Fains in the Back, 
Stomach and Side. They should be freely taken in 
the Spring of the year. to purify the blood and prepare 
the system lor the change of seasons. An occasional 
dose "stimulates the stomach into healthy action, and 
rescoresthe a] petite and vigor- They purify the blood 
and by their stimulant action on the circulatory sys- 
tem, renovate the strength of the body, and restore the 
wasted or diseased energies of the whole organist. 
Hence an occasional dose is advantageous even though 
no serious derangement exists ; but unnecessary dos- 
ing should never be carried too tar, as every purgative 
medicine reduces the strength, when taken to excess. 
Tbe thousand cases in which a physic is required can- 
not be enumerated here, but they suggest themselves 
to the reason of every body ; arid it is confidently be- 
lie, cd t'nis pill will answer a better purpose than any 
thing which has hitherto been available to mankind. 
When their virtues are once known the public will no 
longer doubt v. hat remedy to employ when in need of 
a cathartic medicine. 

Being sujtar wrapped they are pleasant to take, and 
being purely vegetable, do harm can arise from their 
use in any q lautity. 

For minute directions, see th<* wrapper on the ojx. 

PREPARED BY 

DR. JAMES G, AYER. 
Practical and An-ifyuical Chemist, Lowell Mass.— 
Price 25 cts. per box. Fh^ bexjo forti. . 

: ;AYER r S 

i.Y PECTORAL- 

. ■eon the ?..sr-d cuke op 
COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESS, 
BROXCIirnS, V-TNJOPIlvJ-CQt-GH. CROUP, 
ASTH M A AND OU^SU M P T ION. 

This rem ;-.y Irs won for ifse'r such notoriety for its 
cures of every sanely of Pulmonary disease, that it 
is entirely uarrccessary to recount the evidences of its 
virtues it* a.ny community where it has been empicyed 
So wide is the field of it? o=efainess, r:nd so numerous 
the cases A its c ares, diat slnum? etery section of the 
eouctrv Abounds h. p-ersons publicly known, who 
have been iestcred from a'atming and even desperate 
dis?s ■ : ■ i .- 1 : ;- : by its i>so. When once tried its 
s .;. • trity »■ er >. my c i-,et irtedh ine of its kind is loo 
j, ■ ■ ■, : ojs-5iva'.'i>!s, end where its virtws 
*;c i sfvfi . She |>u>I>lic i > ■■■:■ t; •; hesiui e what antidote 
it.-.-;/ j fi>i the d -'. ssing and dangerous ailectiona 
Cm'.v- pii !■•! ary organs which are incident to our 
••In t; •:-. And uot wily in formidable attacks upon 
':':■.' iuiigs,bui for the milder varieties of Colds, Coughs 
Boars eDess etc., ami for children it is the pleasantest 
"and safest medicine that can be obtained. 

As it ha.- long beer; in constant use throughout this 
section, we need nov do m'vf s than rsaure the people 
its qua sty is Kept -1 iaiit*'/sr has been 

and that . ; . - ,_\ i . . . ' - - :' iijr- ■- 

P.F.,T'c.tt:d t .ijJ.\V:'.l : ..-.. ' \4 Btf^Si/p&d, Raleigh, 
N.C.. J .:>,<-, l.?&t i-j. 



he 



GREEN SAND IIAEL OF NEW- JERSEY, 
rplIE SEW- JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
JL is now prepared to receive orders for this impor- 
tant Manure. For all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Marl is more than a substitute. Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annual Report to the Legislature 
ol New Jersey, says : 

" The value of these Marls is best seen in the rich 
and highly cultivated district which has been im- 
proved (almost made) by their use. But it may be 
interesting to examine the causes of their great value 
in agriculture, and to compare them with other fertil- 
izers. For example: The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as live per cent of the whole weight of 
the Marl ; a bushel, when dry, weighs eighty pounds ; 
aud in the proportion mentioued, wou!d contain four 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel of unleashed wood ashes'." 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found iu the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

Price, delivered on beard vessels at the wharves of 
the Company at Portland Heights, Raritain Bay, New- 
Jersey, Seven, Cents -per Bushel. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sent/re« of 
postage. Orders for other fertilizers will receive 
nrompt attention Address either of the undersigned. 
CHAS. SEARS, Pres. 
Riceville Post-Oifice, N. J. 
Geo W. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar st., N. Y. 

Tappat Tow.vsexd Treas., 
r S2 Nassau St., N.Y. 9— ly. 

N. B. — Those wishing Marl lor Spring use should 
order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
Orders will be filled in rotation. - 



-^ORTH CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE 1NSUE- 
]j\ fince Company, Raleigh, N. C. 'i his Company 
insures the lives of individuals for one year, a term of 
years, or for life, on the mutual principle, the as- 
sa.redfor life participating in all tbe profits' of the 
Company. For policies granted for the whole teim 
ot 1 ie, when the premium therefor amounts to ft. 30, 
a note may be given for one half the amount of the 
premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
anty. 

The prompt manner in- which ail losses have been 
paid by this Company, together with low rates of 
premium, present great inducements to such as are 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to £tc 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within 90 days after satisfactory 
proof is presented. • 

DIRECTORS. 



Charles E. Jounso.v, 
W.m. D. Haywood, 
Jo.N'ii G.Williams, 
11 \V. Hi-sted, 
V,"y. H. McKee, 
Charles B. Root, 



Wil. W. Holpex, 
Wm. D. Cooke, 
R. H. Battle, 

Wm. II . Jo-VES, 

P F. Pescud' 
Seatox Gales. 



F F I C E R S . 
Df.. Charles E. Johxsox, President, 
William 1). IIatwood-, Vice President, 
Ricn>.nn II. Battle, Secretary, 
William H. Jokes, Treasurer, 
H. W. Hosted, AUorn.eii. 
Charles E. Jonssox, M. £>. ) Mm 



Charles JS. Jonsso-v, M. i.». Media 
William II. McKee, M. IJ. \Board 
Ricu'd. B. Haywood, li. D.. ) Consul 



It alien. 



Executive Com- 
mittee. 



u. H. Battle, i 

W. W. HOLDKX, 

Charles B. Root, } 
Communications sboii- a be addressed, (post paid to) 
K. H. BATTLE, Secretary. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



17; 



PIANOS, MELODEONS, AND MUSIC. 



' 



PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



NITED STATES. 

in plain rosewood 
car. come in cum- 
s, nor the extremely l&ic prices at which they 



HORACE WATERS, 

No. 333 Broadway, New York. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK PIANOS AND MELO- 

DEONS. 

THE LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE VI 
Pianos from five different Manufacturers, of evtry variety of style— from those 
cases, for $200, to those of the most elegant finish, for 810 0. ->o House m the Union 
petition for the number, varieiy, and celebrity of its inst! 
ore sold. 

HORACE WATERS' MODERN IMPROVED PIANOS. 
with or without iron frames, have, in their new scale and improved action, a power and compass of tone 
equallling the grand, with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Press and first music mas- 
ters have justly pronounced them equal il'not superior to any other make. They are guaranteed to stand 
the action of ever'/ climate, 

HORACE WATERS' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable qual- 
ity—sole agent tor the sale of S. D. & H. W. Smith's celebrated .Melodeons — can also furnish Melodeons of 
uil other makers. Prices from $15 to §125; for two sets of reeds, §150 ; two banks of keys, 8200; Organ 
peJ'i! bass meledeons,275 and 8300. 

MUSIC -One ot the largest and best catalogues of Music now published ; sold a! gTeatly reduced prices. 
Music sent t'> wherever ordered, post paid. Personal attention paid to all orders received by Mail. Se- 
'civnd hand Pianos taken in exchange for new. Catalogues sent by mail. 'Great inducements offered to 
agents to soil the above. A liberal discount toddlers, teachers, seminar.es and clergymen. 

blach In.<trumu :t guaranteed to give satisfaction, or purchase money refunded. SECOND HAND PI- 
ANOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly in store ; prices from 3a to $140. 



TE3 rmONIALS F2.0M PR0EESS0SS, AKD OPINIONS 0E THE PPvESS. 



Says '"Tiie Christian Intelligencer' "'The Horace 
Waters Piano?, for elegance of construction, superior 
depth and sweetness ot lone, were pronounced by 
competent ju-l_' 'is at the urystal Palace to be in all 
respects masterpieces of Mechanical skill. Having 
inspected a large number of the Horace Waters' Pi- 
anos, we can speak of their merits, from personal 
knowledge as being of the very best quality " 

Nothing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in any department than the Piano-Forte manu- 
factured by Horace Waters, of this city. — Church- 
man. 

The following is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "The finest among the many pianos at the 
Crystal Palace are those placed there by Honce Wa- 
ters, whose instruments are always popular." 

The following we take from the "Christian Advo- 
cate" Memphis fenn. : "The Horace Waters' Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
terial. From all we can Jearn of this establishment — 
said to be the largest in the United States— we have 
no doubt that buyers can do as well, perhaps better, 
at this time than any other house in the Union." 

"Mr. Waters has been long established and is favo- 
rably known. We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
usually charged tor articles in his line." — Jacksonian 
X. J. 

"Your instruments are a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos, and on honor to the skillful muiu- 
facturer. There is no doubt but they wid be appre- 
ciated by the public and ill admirers of true merit. — 
Oscar Contestant. 



"I take great pleasure in pronouncing them instru- 
ments of a superior quality both in tone and touch. 
August GocHiU." 

\ For power of tone, depth of bass, and brilliancy of 
treble, together with accuracy of touch, they are equal 
to any mske I am acquaihted with, and 1 cordially re- 
commend them to those wishing to purchase. — V. (.'. 
Taylor. 

"Our friends will find at Mr. Waters' store the very 
best assortment of iiiumc and of pianos to be iound in 
the United States, and we urge our southern and 
western friends to give him a call whenever they go 
to New York." — Graham's Magazine. 

"We consider them worthy oi' special attention, 
From thi resonant and exceedingly musical tone which 
Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining."— A". 1\ Mu- 
sical World and Times. 

There is one which, for beauty offinish and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of tone, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the kind we have ever seen. It is 
from the establishment of Horace Waters. Beinsr 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the action of the climate., and of standing 
a Jong time in tune. — Savannah Georgian, Savannah, 
Ga. 

Says the "Evening Mirror," "They (the Horace 
Waters' Pianos) are very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comparison 
with any other manufacturer in the country, as re- 
gards their outward elegance, and quality of (one and 
power. 



rilE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



:'' no: 

' REi ITaFOK DELIVERY. 



- WJM» . » Bgeea at i -.**»;«£> 



r pHIS ■ ?eand luciful MAP of North Carolina is now ready for deli very. ' 3 one of the 1 
- 1 - eugrv.veJ . ups :hat has ever bean published; f any State in the Union, and 15 sold at the I - »-i<* 
Eight D il rs. ' l " 

- v "-'. : il hi toll except by .nfceription,. Agents will be found in mos} of the counties of the state 
ersous during n copy of the Map can send their names directly to "Wra.D. Cooke, Kaleigh,.\. C.' 

AGE N T S AY A N T E D . 

A number of counties in the Stare are ye: unengaged. Persons wishing to canvass f or the Map will 
furnished with the terms, &c, iron applicati : . the undersigned. 

Agents are also minted for 3 .uth Carolina . -. 1 Virginia. The Map includes Virginia as far north 
Richmond, and South Carolina as far south as -he junctiou of the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 

TO EDITORS. 

Editd.-.s in this State, who, having advertised the .Map for six months, are entitled to a copy will plea 
eoinmunicate the fact to the undersigned, that their copies may be forwarded by first opporti-mtr 

W. D. COOKE, 

Raleigli, N. C. 



Report ci Professors Emmons and Mitchell, to the North Carolina State 1~, So<-, c 

C00EE ; S HEW HA? 01? NOBTH CAROLINA- 

I ha ,-e h : 3 frequent opportunities of testing the correctness of Mr. Cooke's new Map of North Car ; i u -- 
&ad par;s of the adjoining States. This Map is worthy of special notice: 1st, from the fact that it embrace 
tir.se parts A \ irgmia, South Carolina and Tennessee which are of immediate interest to the citizen.? of thii 




themselves. 

In addition tothe foregoing it may be justly said that Mr. Cooke has taken unwearied pains to correct the 

reography of the different counties, and to insert the prevalent names of places, those for instance which 

h ive come into u - ,• since uew lines ot travel have been established. It is in fact a New Map, and the only mar. 

can bi relied upon for accuracy in its details. It moreover merits commendation fur the artistical skill 

displayed in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct. 

EBENEZER EMMONS, Stare Geologist. 




, „jpcriL.. 

United fa ( lasthurvey, and by Col. Gwynn, bavin;/; the management of the Survey of. a railroad car- 

n . ri 3 Bhj Bulge into the vuiiey of the French Broad, should not be passed in silence Onlvtht'por- 
■ resenting the eastern part of the State has been submitted to my inspection, but to this 1 
presu . i twill be made to correspond. " E.MITCHELL 



V . i "N. '_'., October 21, 1S56. 

■jsssstssess 






JOES' N. GOKSO:-:, ^TT ANTED, by a young lady residing at the 

Grocer and roimnKMnn Mfrrlistif. run] fi^Lr ' * , ^ onn - :i situation as Tsncher, at the South, 

l.WOII UirUiaUI QIlQ UCuI,, m either a family or public school. She isquaiitiea 

ID .t!eialS, to teach the common and higher English branches, 

lilhSircet near the E-xcJianae Ifot •■ Music, and Drawing. Credentials given if required. 

' ,''. r „" vr ,.. J ' U{ m a family, she would prefer one of religious prin- 

u io-, KICtlMOND, VA. Iciplca. Address the Editorqf the "Carolina Calti- 

-'%. 18j «- I.-w ■ j valor." fob. 18-tf 



*7. y. ~#')p**»ucs 




Inmtrit to %mtltare, Itottroltare, antt %t J&rjjatrir Irff . 

WILLIAM D. COOKE, Editor, and Publisher 



VOL. 3. 



RALEIGH, N. C, OCTOBER, 1857- 



NO. 8 



PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 

TEEMS. 

I Copy in advance $1 00 

6 Copies " 



00 
8 00 
10 00 

15 00 



Subscriptions may begin with any number; but 
wien not otherwise directed, the back numbers of 
fiie current volume will be sent. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

Oca square 12 lines, one month, %\ 00 

Eeach snbsequent insertion, 75 

% page one year, 16, 00 

% „ " 30, 00 

0u9 page u • 50, 00 

jjL €, £M$ Jfair. 



Premiums Awarded 

At the Fifth Annual Fair of the N. G. State 
Agricultural Society, Held Oct. 20, 21, 22' 
2S, 1857. 

Tlioroughlred Horses. 
Best Stallion over 4 rears old, Ruffin 

and Albright, Graham, $ 25 00 

2d " Stallion over 4 years old Josiah 

Turner, Hillsboro, 15 00 

Best Filly over 2, and under 4 years 

old, James Turner Hillsboro. 10 00 
Quick Draught and Saddle Horses. 
Best Stallion over 4 years old, Dr. 
R. K. Speed, and J. M. Hin- 
ton, Pasquotank. ' 25 00 



2d Best Stallion over 4 years old,. W. 

Emery, Wake, $10 00 

Best Stallion over 2 and under 4 
years old, T. F. Bailey Gran- 
vide, 15 00 

2d " Stallion over 2 and under 4 

years old Wra. March, Davie, 8 00 
Best Stallion over 1 and under 2 

years old, G. T. Cooke, Wake. 10 00 
Best B rood mare over 4 years old, Dr. 

Wm. J. Green, Wake. 20 00 

2d " Broodmare over 4 years old, 

W. D. Jones, Wake,. 10 00 

Best Broodmare, with foal at her 

foot, L. T. Clayton, Wake, 20 00 
Best Filly over 2 and under 4 years 

old, Albert Rankin, Guilford, 10 00 
2d " Filly over 2 and under 4 years 

old Wm R. Albright, Graham, 5 Ou 
Best Saddle Horse, Jno. Hayes, Gran- 
ville, 15 00 
2d " Saddle Horse, T. F. William- 
son, Caswell, 10 00 
Best pair of Matched Carriage Horses, 

R. S. Tucker, Wake, 20 00 

2d " pair of Matched Carriage Hor- 
ses, J, V. Perkins, Pitt. 10 00 
Best pair of Matched Carriage Hor- 
ses raised in the State, M. D. 
C. Bumpass, Person, 20 00 
3d " do. raised in the State, S.O'Bry- 

ant, Person,. 10 00 



178 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



£15 00 

10 00 

15 00 
10 00 



Best Single Harness Horse, Jno. H. 
Neal, Beaufort, 
2d " Single Harness Horse O. S. 
Baldwin, Wilmington, 
Best Single Harness Horse raised in 
the State, T. J. Utley Wake, 
2d " do. do. Jno. Wiggins " 

The Committee on Quick Draught and Sad- 
dle Horses call attention to the Poney of W. P. 
Broadnax, of R'ickingham, and recommend 
him for a Discretionary Premium for speed, 
fine action, and as a well broke horse. 

They also call attention to a very fine 3 year 
old Gelding Colt exhibited by Dr Wm. Green 
of Wake, to which they could award no Pre- 
mium, as none of that class was named in the 
premium list. 

Heavy Draught Horses. 
Best Stallion over 4 years old, J. S. 

Holt, Alamance, $25 00 

2d "■ Stallion over 4 years old, Jef- 
ferson Monk, Orange, 
BestjStallion over 1 and under 2 years 

old, Wm. Smith, Orange, 
Best Gelding, H. A. Wright, Caswell, 

Jacks, Jennetts and Mules. 
Best Jack raised in the State, Wm. 
Hamlen, Orange. 
2d Best pair of Mules, over 3 years old, 
Wm. D. Jones, Wake. 
Cattle — North Devons. 
Best Bull 4 years old, Dr. W. R. Holt, 
Davidson, 
" Bull calf 2 years old, Dr. W. R. 

Holt, Davidson, 
" Cow 4 years old, Walter 

Gwynn, Wake, 
ei Heifer 2 years old/ Dr. Wm R, 
Holt, Davidson, ' 
Cattle. — Durhams, Hereford's, Ayreshires, 

Holstiem and Alderneys. 
Best Durham Bull calf over 2 and 
under 3 years old, C rouse and 
Irvine, Lyn< hburg Va. 
" Durham <:ilf under 1 year old, 
Crouse and Irvine Lynchburg 
Va. 
" Cow over 3 y^ears old do. do., 
2d " " do. do. do. do. 
" Heifer over 2 and under 3 years 

old, do. do. do. 
" Heifer over 1 and under 5 years 

old, J. M. Crenshaw, Wake, 10 00 



10 00 

5 00 
5 00 



15 



10 00 



25 00 



00 



10 00 



10 00 



15 no 



5 00 
10 00 

5 00 

10 00 



Best 



2d 



Best 



2d 



10 00 



5 00 



Best 



2,1 



Best 



Best 



Best 



2d 



Best 



Best 



Cattle — Grades and Natives. 
Grade Bull, over 4 years old, S. 
. H. Dunn, Granville. $25 00 

Grade Bull Calf under 1 year 

old, Kemp P. Battle,' Wake, 5 00 
Grade Cow, over 3 years old, 

Kemp P. Battle, Wake, 10 00 

Grade Cow over 3 years old, 
Crouse and Irvine, Lynchburg, 
Virginia, 
Native Cow 3 years old, Crouse 
and Irvine, Lynchburg, Va. 
Milch Cows. 
Milch Cow, giving 28 quarts of 
Milk, Crouse and Irvine, 
Lynchburg, Va. 
Milch Cow giving 24 quarts of 
Milk, Crouse and Irvine, 
Lynchburg, Va. 

Working Oxen. 
Yoke of Oxen, Joel Powers, 
Wake. 
Yoke of Oxen, Frederick Good- 
win, Wake. 

Fat Cattle. 
Fat Cow, Crouse and Irvine, 
Lynchburg, Va. 5 00 

Sheep. 
South Down Buck, Dr. Wm. R. 
Holt, Davidson, 15 00 

'Swine — Large Breed. 
Boar over 2 years old, Dr. F. J. 
Haywood, Wakv, 10 00 

Sow over 2 years old, Sylves- 
ter Smith, Wake, 5 00 
Breeding Sow with 7 Pigs, Ev- 
erard Hall, Wake, 10 00 
Breeding Sow with 7 Pigs, 
Sylvester Smith, Wake, 5 00 
Lot of Pigs under 10 months 
old, Sylvester Smith, Wake, 9 00 
Nobone Barrow 13 months 
old, M. Cuthrell, Davie, 5 00 

Swine, — Small Breed. 
Suffolk Boar Everard Hall, 
Wake. 10 00 

Swine. — Grades and Natives. 
Native Boar over 2 years old, 
Rufus H. Jones, Wake, 10 00 

Native Boar over 1 and under 2 
years old, R. Fleming, Wake, 5 00 
Native Sow over 2 years old, 
J. Moss, Wake. 5 00 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



m 



Best Grade Breeding Sow with- 6 








I 


pigs, J. J. Ferrell, "Wake, 


$10 


00 




' 1L 


C. Ligon of Wake exhibited a 


Grade 


Best 


Boar 


under one year old, which in 


deemed 




worthy of notice, though not falling under 


the 




clstsei 


fication for a premium, 
Poultry. 






Best 


Best Trio of Shanghais, Mrs.- E. Nix- 










on, Wake, 


o 
o 


.■i!) 




" 


Trio of Brahma, Pootras, Mis, 






ii 




E. Nixon, Wake, 


3 


00 




*-* 


Trio of Seabright Bantams, Jno 






Best 




P. Haywood, Wake. 


3 


00 




a 


Trio of Game Cocks, J. Moss. 






'■ 




Wake, 


3 


00 




ll 


Pair of Domestic Turkeys, It. 










Fleming, "Wake, 


3 


00 


" 


(1 


Pair of Wild Geese, T. H. Sel- 










by, Wake, 


3 


00 




u 


Pair of Muscovy Ducks, Syl- 










vester Smith, Wake, 


3 


00 


2d " 


"■ 


Pair of common Ducks, Jno. 










Hutching, Wake, 


3 


00 




"■ 


Pair of Guinea Fowls, Mrs, E. 






Best 




Hall, Wake, 


3 


00 




Best and Largest col'cetion, owned 






2d " 




by the exhibitor, Mrs. E. Nix- 






u 




on, "Wake, 


q 


00 






Agricultural Productions. 






" 


Be 


si Variety of Bread corn, W. D. 










Jones, Wake, 


o 


00 


(1 


" 


Variety of Stock Corn, Jno, 










Hutchins, "Wake, 


o 


00 


.'( 


tf 


Variety ofWheat, W. D. Jones 










Waktj, 


3 


00 


is 


.. 


Variety of Oats, Jno, Hutchins 










Wake, 


3 


00 


2d <* 


.'(; 


Variety of Rye, J. P. Mabry, 










Davidson, 


o 


00 


tt 


u 


Variety of Field Peas, Jno. 










Hutchins, Wake, 


3 


00 


" 


*' 


Sweet Potatoes, Dr. Thomas 










Banks, Wake, 


3 


00 




" 


Variety of Irish Potatoes, Jno. 






i, 




Hutchins, Wake, 


3 


00 




" 


Two Stalks of Cotton, W. D. 






CI 




Jones, Wake, 


3 


00 




(1 


And Greatest Variety of the 


# 








abcve, raised on one Farm, W. 






(( 




D. Jones, Wake, 


10 


00 




*• 


Specimen of Cotton in seed, N. 






it 




Price, Wake, 


5 


00 


(1 


/: 


Specimen of Syrup from Chi- 









$io oo 



3 00 



10 


00 


o 


00 


10 


'00 


10 


00 



nese Sugar Cane, R. H. Smith, 
Halifax 

Specimen of Vinegar, from Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane, Mrs. Geo. 
Mendenhall Guilford, 
Tobacco. 

Lot of Manufactured Chewing 
Tobacco, Y. ard E. P. Jones, 
Caswell, 

do. do. Smoking, do. do. 
Salt Provisions. 

Half Dozen Hams, N. Price, 
Wake, 

Barrel of Herrings, W. IJ. Put- 
ney, Wake, 

Dairy. 

Sample of Fresh Butter, Miss 
Jane E. Caldwell, Burke and 
Mrs W. B. Williams Warren, 
to be divided. 

Sample of Fresh Butter, Mrs. 
Louisa A. Holt, Davidson. 
Pood Condiments Sc, 
Barrel Wheat Flour, J. S. Holt. 
Alamance. 

" H.D. Lott 

Specimen of Corn Meal, Eve- 
rardHall, Wake,, 

Specimen of Rye Flour, H. D. 
Lott, 

Specimen of Buckwheat Flour, 
Josiah Turner, Orange. 

Specimen of Starch, Needham 
Price, Wake, 

Wheat Bread, Mrs. Dr. R. S. 
Mason, Wake, 
Wheat Bread, Mitch el and Simp- 
son, Wake, 

Specimen Strained Honey, Mrs. 
Jno P. Mabry, Davidson, 

Specimen Honey in the Comb, 
S. Smith, Wake. 

Quince Jelly, J. P. Mabry, Da- 
vidson, 

Apple Jelly, Mrs. L. A. Holt, 
Davidson. 

Preserved Quinces, J, P. Mabrv 
Davidson, 

Green Pickles, Mrs. R. Tucker 
AVake, 

Tomato Catsup, Mrs L. A. 
Cooke, Wake. 

Brandy Peaches, Mrs. R. Tuck- 
er, Wake, 

Dried Apples, Mrs. R. Tucker, 



Wake 



10 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


uo 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


*3 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


3 00 


3 


00 






180 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Mrs. Ruffin Tucker exhibited half a bushel 
of Filberts grown by her, which were very 
fine. 

There were some very delicious grapes, the 
Klsingburg and Nobilla, exhibited by A. C. 
Hege of Davidson, and a Jar of Scuppernong 
grapes, by Mrs. Jno. D. Beatty of Bladen, The 
lOlsingburg, is a new variety with us, and is a 
very superior grape, 

There was also a very fine specimen of Sweet, 
water Grapes, of the second crop, exhibited by 
Mrs. E. Hall of Wake. 

Native Wines, &c. 
Best Dry Catawba, D. M. Lewis, 

Franklin, $ 5 00 

2d " do. do, do. do do. 2 00 

" Sparkling, do. do. do. 5 00 

Best Specimen of Rosin Oil, Alex. 

Miller, New Berne. 3 00 

An excellent article of Wine made from 
Blackberries, was exhibited by Mrs. It. H. 
Smith of Halifax, Mrs. S. Atkinson of Wake, 
and Mrs. L. A. Holt of Davidson, for which 
there was no premium offered, but the Com- 
mittee recommend a premium to each of the 
exhibitors. 

An article of Nash Apple Brandy, 48 years 
old, was exhibited by Jno. Tisdal of Nash, for 
which there was no premium offered. It was 
decidedly good, A bottle of Blackberry Vine- 
gar which was made for a beverage, exhibited 
by Mrs L. A. Holt, of Davidson, was considered 
by the Committee entitled to a premium, for 
which there was none offered. 
Fruit and Ir.uit Trees, Adopted to the South. 
Best and greatest Variety of Ap- 
ples, S. Westbrooks and 
Co. Guilford. $ 10 00 

" and greatest Variety of 
Grapes, A. C. Hege, David- 
son, 10 00 
" and Largest Variety of Ap- 
ple Trees, S. Westbrooks 
and Co. Guilford, 10 00 
" and Largest Variety of Peach 
Trees, S. Westbrooks and 
Co., Guilford, 10 00 
" and Largest Variety of Straw- 
berry Vines, S. Westbrooks 
and Co., Guilford, 2 00 
" and Largest Variety of Ras- 
berry Vines, S. Westbrooks, 
and Co., Guilford. 2 00 



Vegetables 
Best Stalks of Celery, Mrs. R. 

Tucker, Wake. $2 00 

" Cabbages Everard Hall, Wake. 2 00 
" Egg Plants do. do. 2 00 

" Squashes, J. C. Palmer, do. 2 00 
" Onions, W. D. Jones do. 2 00 

" Sugar Beets, Mrs. R. Wil- 
liams, Wake, 2 00 
" Mangel Wurtzel Beets, H. 

Mordecai, Wake. 2 00 

'' Carrots Rev. Dr. R. S. Ma- 
son, Wake, 2 00 
" Turnips, Jno Hutcbins Wake, 2 00 
" Pumpkins, E. H. Overton, 

Granville, 2 00 

The Committee report that Dr. D. A. Mont- 
gomery of Alamance, had on exhibition, three 
heads of Cabbage of Superior quality, but un- 
der the rule requiring not less than six, they 
could not award him a premium. 

Plows and Harrows. 

Best Two Horse Plow, N. Boyden 

and Son, Rowan 5 00 

2d" Two horse Plow, J. H.Thomp- 
son, Davidson, 4 00 

" Two horse Plow Manufactu- 
red in the State, W. B. Wil- 
liams, Warren, 5 00 

" Single horse plow, N. Boy- 
den, and Son, Rowan, 5 00 
2d " Single Horse Plow, W. B. 

Williams, Warren, 3 00 

" Subsoil Plow, W. B. Wil- 
liams, Warren, 5 00 
2d " Subsoil Plow, N. Boyden and 

Son. Rowan 4 00 

" Harrow, W. B. Williams, 

Warren, 5 00 

2d " Harrow, J. P. Mabry David- 
son, 2 0O 

" Horse Corn Planter, Jones, 

and Hooker, Orange, 5 00 

" Smooth Iron Roller, James M.. 

Towles Wake, 5 00 

" Cultivator for general Purposes, 

N. Boyden and Son, Rowan, 5 00 
2d " Cultivator for general Purposes, 

W. B. Williams, Warren, 2 00 

" Corn Cultivator, W. B. Wil- 
liams Warren, 2 00 

" Cotton Scraper, N. Price Wake, 5 00 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



181 



Threshing Machines, Fanning Mills, &c. 
Best Threshing Machine, R. Sinclair, 

and Co. Baltimore, Md. $15 00 

Fanning Mill J. Montgomery, 
and Brother, Baltimore, Md. 10 00 
*3d " Fanning Mill, R. Sinclair and 

Co. Baltimore, Md. 5 00 

Improved Corn Fan, J. Mont- 
gomery and Brother, Balti- 
more, Md. 5 00 
Hay, Stalk and Straw Cutter, 
J. H. Thompson, Davidson, 10 00 
Hay and Straw Cutter, R. Sin- 
clair, and Co. Baltimore Md. 10 00 
Hay and Straw Cutter Manu- 
factured in the State, Clapp 
Huffman and Co. Guilford, 10 00 
Hand Power Corn Sheller, R. 
Sinclair and Co. Baltimore, 
Md. 10 00 
Reapers and Mowers. 
Best Reaping Machine, C. Hussey, 

Baltimore, Md. 20 00 

2d " Reaping Machine, Jones and 

Hooker, Orange, 10 00 

" Sweep iiorse Power, Jones 

and Hooker, Orange, 20 00 

2d Sweep Horse Power, J. H. 

Gooch, Granville, 10 00 

" Stump Puller, N. Price, 

Wake, 20 00 

2d " Stump Puller, VV. McKccver, 

Wake, 10 00 

Hay and Cotton Press, &c. 
Best Horse Rake, J. M. Tovvles, 

Wake, 5 00 

" Washing Machine, Alex. Dick- 
son, Orange 5 00 
•id " do. do, do. do. 2 00 
Carriages, Wagons <&n. 
Best open Buggy. B. J. Perkinson, 

Wake, 15 00 

2d '* Open Buggy, Overman and 

Wilson, Mecklenburg, 10 00 

" Six horse Farm Wagon, N. 

Price, Wake, 15 00 

" Two horse Farm Wagon, 

Henry Horton, Wake, 8 00 

" Horse Cart, W. J. Fort, Wake, 8 00 
2d " do. do. do. 4 00 

" Buggy Pole and Shafts com- 
bined, V. N. Mitchell, Ca- 
barrus, 5 00 



Machinery. 
Best Steam Engine, 8 horse power, 

Silas Burns, Wake, $50 00 

" Portable Grist Mill, W, D. 

Cooke, Wake, 15 00 

" Smutt Machine, Alex. Dickson, 

Orange, 10 00 

Watsons $12 Sewing Machine, 

Jno. H. Davis, Halifax, 15 00 

Machine for Paring Horses' 
Hoofs, V. N. Mitchell Ca- 
barrus, 5 00 
Morticing Machine, L. P. Clif- 
ford, 5 00 
Farm and Domestic Tools. 
Best Churn, J. M. Towles Wake, 3 00 
" Sausage Cutter, do. do. 3 00 
" Grain Cradle do, do. 8 00 
" and Largest collection of Ag- 
ricultural Implements, W. 
B. Williams, Warren. 25 00 
" and largest do. Manufactured 
in the State, N. Boyden and 
Son, Rowan. 25 00 
Cabinet Work. 
Best Bedstead, made in N. C, R. 

W. Henry, Wayne, 5 00 

" Rocking Chair, W. P. Shultz, 

Forsythe, 3 00 

" Centre Table,. J. Day, Casvrell 3 00 
" Book Case and Secretary W. 

F. Shultz, Forsythe, '. f 00 

Window Sash and Blinds, 
Door and Palings, Murdock, 
and Cairns, Rowan, 10 00 

Shoes, Hats, &c. 
Best half dozen Brogans, Chas. M. 

Lines Davidson 3 00 

Henry Porter of Wake, exhibited a case of 

very handsome Ladies, and Gentlemen's Shoes 

and Gaiters of Northorn Manufacture, and one 

pair of excellent Brogans of his own make. 

F. R. Bloom, of Forsythe, exhibited a pair Of 
Gum-bottom 'Shoes, which were very good 
but were entered too late for competition, 
Sundries. 
Best Lot of Earthern Ware, F. C. 

Schaafner, Forsythe, 3 00 

" Side of Harness Leather, A. F. 

Moses, Wake, 2 00 

" Kip Skin, do. do, 5 00 

The Magic Ventilator, or self- 
Fanning Rocking Chair in- 



182 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



2d 



2.1 



vented by David Kahnweiler, 
Wilmington, a Diploma and 
Volcanic Repeating Fire Arms, 
manufactured by the New 
Haven Arms Co. Exhibited 
by W. C. Stanton, New Ha- 
ven, a Diploma and Silver Cup 
Fine specimens of Water Buck- 
ets Manufactured in N. C, 
G. H. Makepeace, Faye> teville, 
A pair of Needlework Slippers, 

Peter Plum, Wake, 
Model of a Locomotive, made 
by Sam, a negro boy 1 1 years 
old R. & G. R. R. 

Mill Fairies. 
Best Piece of Woolen Jeans, 1 8 
yards, Mrs. Charles Horton, 
Wake 
" Piece of Linsey for Negroes, 
23 yards, W. H. and R. S, 
Tucker, Agts., Wake, 
" Piece of Flannel 30 yards, do. 
" Piece of Osnaburgs 31 yards. 

E. M. Holt, Alamance, 

" Piece of Woolen Carpeting 2-1 
yards, Mrs. McCorkle, Rowan, 

" Piece of Sheeting 31 yards, E. 
M. H Alamance, 

" Bed Ticking, 31 yards do. do. 

" Cotton Jeans 32 yards do. do. 

" Pair of Blankets, Mrs. Q. Bus- 
bee, for Mrs. Patterson, Wake. 

" Bale of Cotton Yarns, John- 
ston Little River Manufactu- 
ring Co., 

" % Hair Mattress Wm. Watson 
Wake. 

•' Shuck and Cotton, do. do. do. 

Household Fairies 
Best Cotton Patchwork Quilt, Mrs. 
McCorkle, Rowan. 

" Cotton Patchwork Quilt, Airs. 
Johnson, Alamance, 

" T; : ed work Quilt, Mrs, M. A. 
Jordan, Person, 

" Raise. 1 , work Quilt, Mrs, Ruffln 
Tucker, Wake. 

',',. Knit Counterpane Mrs. Ruffin 
Williams, Wake. 

" Knit Counterpane, Mrs James 

F. Taylor, Wake, 



10 



Best Pair of Yarn Hose, Mrs. A. L. W. 
Wake. 
" Foot Mat, Mrs S. P. Pescud, do. 
" Piece of Linen Mrs. Chas. Horton, 
Wake. 
Crochet and liaised Worsted Work. 
Best Crochet Collar in Spool Cotton, 
Miss. Maria E. Cooke, Wake. 
M " Crochet Collar in Spool Cotton, 
Miss. A. M. Herman, Rowan, 
" Specimen Crochet Lace in Spool 
Cotton, Miss Maria E. Cooke, 
Wake, 
2d " Specimen Crochet Lace in Spool 
Cotton, Mrs. C. M. Grow. Wake. 
" Crochet work in Silk with Beads, 
Mrs. S. C. Wadded, Wake, 
2d " Crochet work in Silk with Brads, 

Miss Laura. Wake, 

" Set of Table Mats, in Tidy Cotton, 
Miss Cooper, Granville. 
2d " Set of Table Mats, in Tidy Cotton, 
Misses Hattie and Lulie Cooke, 
Wake, 
" Tidy in tidy Cotton, Mrs. A. L. W. 
Wake 
2d " Tidy in Tidy Cotton, Miss. A. M. 
Stewart, Harnett. 
' ; Table Cover, raised worsted work, 
Miss M. E. Mabry, Davidson, 
2d " Table Cover, raised worsted work, 
Mrs. E. N. Mills, Granville. 
' ; Hearth Rug, raised worsted, Mrs. 

II. B. Bobbi , Wake, 
" Chair Cover, raised worsted, Miss 
Sophia Foltz, Fm-sythe. 
2d " Chair Cover, raised worsted, Mrs, 
Kemp P. Battle, Wake. 
" Ottoman Cover raised worsted, Miss 
M. E. Mabry, Davidson, 
2d " Ottoman Cover, raised worsted, Mi -s 
N. E. Powell Wayne. 
Knitting and Netting, 
Best Specimen of Knitting in Wool, 
Miss M. L. Hill Wake, 
2d '• Specimen of Knitting in Wool, 

Mrs, A. L. W. Wake. 
3d ' L Specimen of Knitting in Wool, 
Mrs. Partridcre, Wake. 
" Specimen of Knitting in Silk with 

Beads. Miss Laura Wake. 

Fancy Work, and Needle, Work. 
Best Ornamental She'd work, Mrs. S. P. 
Pescnd, Wake, 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



183 



Best Specimen Wax Flowers, Mrs Gar- 
rett, Guilford, $ 5 
" Specimen Feather Work, Mrs. H. B. 

Bobbit, Wake, 5 

" Specimen Hair work, W. F. Shultz, 

Forsythe, 5 

2d " Specimen of Hair work, Mrs. C. P. 

Pennington, Wake. 2 

" Leather work Frame, Mrs. L. A. 

Cooke, Wak ■. 5 

'' Collar, Needle work, Mrs. G. M. 

Lea, Alamance, 6 

2d " Collar Needle work, Mrs. S. B. 

Pescud, Wake, 3 

" Undersleves, Miss E. Haddock, 

Caswell, 4 

" Handkerchief, Misses A. and E. 

Kron, Stanly, 6 

2d " Handkerchief, Miss Patty Young, 

Franklin, 3 

" Child's Dress, Mrs. R. G. Lindsay, 

Guilfovil, 

2d " Child's Dress, Mrs. Brine Gwynn, 

Wake, 8 

" Lady's Underdress, Miss A. B., 

Wake, 6 

" Lady's Underskirt, Mrs. J. V. 

Cawthorn, Warren, 6 

2d " Lady's Underskirt, MisS Rebecca 

Evans, g 

" Gentlemen's Shirt, Mrs. E. B. B., 

Wake, 6 

2d " Gentleman's Shirt Mrs. E. B. Har- 
ris Cabarrus, 4 
" Boys Shirt, Mrs M. P. R., Wake, (i 
2d " Boys Shirt, Mrs. J. V. Cawthorn, 

Warren, 3 

" Specimen of Plain S'ewinsr, Mrs. 

Alsa Tucker, Wakf, 4 

2d " Specimen of Plain Se i g, Mrs F. 

R. Bloom, Fovsythe, 2 

Arts, 

Best Specimens of Am'voty es J. P. 

Havens', V 5 

" Specimens of Photographs J. P. 

Havei R; ' ake. . n 

Improvement m Vmbrqtyp"e, 0. P. 6 e- 

land, Wake. 5 

Besf Oil "Tattle Sec;;;'." V 

Meinung, Fo sythe. I f) 

2d" Oil Paintirg, "TtieSjp ►rtsmW" Miss 

Frainham Graft-viM-, 



Best Pencil Drawing, "Heads" Miss R. 

Smith, N. Hanover 5 

2d " Pencil Drawing, "Landscape," Miss 

Blanche Fentress, Wake, 3 

" Pastel Drawing, "Burning Volcano" 

F. W. Lienbach, Forsythe, 5 

2d " a e Drawing, "Landscapes" Miss 

Blanche Fentress, Wake, 3 

" Architectural Drawings A. B. Hen- 

dren, Rowan • 5 

" Monumental "Drafting, W. G. Milli- 

gai . New Hanover. 3 

The Society are indebted to Mrs Marling of 
Raleigh, for several pictures of herlate husband, 
both in Oil and Water Colar, but in giving pre- 
miums, consider themselves restricted to living 
competitors. 

Euibroideiii. 
Best Mantie Embroidered in Silk, Mrs. 

Ruffin Williams, W ake. 6 

2d " Mantle Embroider*.- 1 , in Silk Mrs. J. 

V. Cawthorn Warren 3 

" Vest, (Moire Antique) Bmbrtflderr 

ed in Silk Mrs. Motz, tln'ooln; 9 

2d" Vest, (Morino) Eim Silk 

Motz, Lincoln. 3 

" Child's Dress, Emb A ■. ■- in Silk, 

Miss Emi y Ho ■ ..■.■. 9 

2d " Childs Dies-, Eni Silk, 

Mrs. J. V. C i . 3 

" Sack or Spei eer ii truly 

Howerton, ( > 6 

" Sa<'k or Spehcei in' 

WIISO!!, W 

" Boy's Ja.:ke , i 
Wake. 
Disc etio r 

2 V'M'S E V 

C66ke, \i 



M -. F. I. 



T. 



Specinn 
Co e 

S 



w 



w 



10 



184 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



1 Doll's Dress, made by Mary Burt 

and N. Dupre, blind Pupils. 2 

1 Glass top Table Miss D. M. Hap- 

poldt, Rowan, 4 

Map of North Carolina, Wm. D. 

Cooke, Wake. 6 

1 Thread Lace Collar, Miss S. A. 

Partridge, Wake. 6 

Carved Cameos, Dr. Chas. Small- 
wood, Woodville 6 
Specimen of Jewelry Manufactured 
by Chas. J. Stees Raleigh, a Di- 
ploma and 

A diploma is awarded to Stirn & Rholfing of 
Baltimore, Md., for a very fine Piano exhibited 
by them. 

A diploma is awarded to P. J. Mahan for 
Langstroth's Bee Hive, which is considered a 
very superior hive. 

Mr. T. R. Fentress of Raleigh, exhibited a 
«how case filled with beautiful specimens of 
vestings, &c. 

Mr. Chas. H. Thompson, Jeweller, Raleigh, 
exhibited a Pitcher, Waiter and two Goblets, 
all solid silver, elaborately carved. 

Mr. John C. Palmer, Jeweller, Raleigh, ex- 
hibited a case of beautiful Jewelry, of gold and 
silver. 

Messrs. Williams & Haywood, Druggists, 
Raleigh, exhibited a case of very fine perfume- 
ry, &c, &c. 

W. D. COOKE, 
Secretary of the Ex. Com. 
— m-— ♦• i —i 

Work for Rainy Days. 

A distinguished divine in New England once 
preached a sermon on the moral uses of rainy 
days. The heavens have been preaching so 
much in the same strain, the past three or 
foui months, that the topic will at least be 
seasonable. They have come in season, and 
out of season, so that the farmers who had not 
had forecast to provide for them, have had oc- 
eason for complain of lost time. 

The farmer, of necessity, pursues the most 
'ofhis labors under the open skies ; and unless 
he can supply his boys and men wi h employ- 
ment under cover, rainy days must be lost. — 
Some, indeed, work men and cattle through all 
weather, but the practice is inhuman and impo- 
litic. Both teams and men are often disabled 
where the practice is persevered in. — Rainy 



days, if rightly improved upon the farm, aside 
from their agency in watering the earth, wBJ 
be reckoned among the farmer's richest bless- 
ings. They bring to the manager of the farm 
a little breathing ?pell, when he may contem- 
plate the progress already made in his work, 
and lay his plans for the future. At this sea- 
son, when everything is pressing, they are par- 
ticularly important. Of a dozen things that 
need to be done, it requires a little time to se- 
lect the piece of work that will suffer by de- 
lay. 

But the boys must have something to do on 
rainy days. Fishing should not be the inva- 
riable recreation. If the farmer has a tooH- 
shop, and a work-bench, both boys and men 
will be furnished with profitable employment 
when it rains. A few tools are quite common 
upon the premises of a Yankee farm, and the 
number might be profitably enlarged. The 
influence of the frequent use of the saw, the 
hammer, ihe bit, and the plane, in making & 
boy happy, is incalculable. One sees the con- 
trast when the ignorant European laborer is 
put down upon an American farm. He knows 
that kind of labor to which he has been train- 
ed, and is extremely awkward at everything 
else. The boy of the American farmer, if he 
has a work-shop to grow up in, can adapt 
himself to any kind of mechanical labor with 
the utmost ease. His arms and fingers are 
supple, and he becomes an adept in all that he 
undertakes. 

This kind of physical education, which makes 
a boy ingenious in planting, and skillful in the 
execution of his plans, is worth far more than 
any pecuniary fortune. It makes a man com- 
paratively independent, in whatever circum- 
stances he may be placed. Put him down in 
the wilderness, and with an axe, saw, and au- 
ger, he will construct him a comfortable house 
in a few days, to shelter his family from the 
storm. If he seeks his fortune in the city he 
will be ready for any business that turns up ; 
and if the best mode of conducting it is not 
already adopted, he will quite likely discover 
it. 

Every farmer, then, who has boys growing 
up around him, should have a snug work-shop 
well lighted, and in winter, well warmed with 
a stove. The building need not be a seperate 
one. A room in the crib, carriage-house, or 
barn may be fitted up at small cost for this pur- 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



185 



pose. Some farmers turn their kitchen into a 
work shop, and here, on the rainy days, man- 
ufacture their yokes, ox-whips and whifletrees. 
But this is a heathenish practice that no good 
housewife ought to tolerate, and we are quite 
sure no considerate husband will counten mce 
it. Woman has her rights, and those which 
we are particularly disposed to vindicate are 
her rights to rule in the house. The work- 
shop should be by itself, and order should reign 
throughout. There should be a tool chest fur 
the smaller and nicer articles — the bit stock, 
and the sets of augers and bits for holes of all 
sizes, from one inch downward to the smallest 
gimblet hole, for the planes, the fine saw, the 
screwdriver, the tack hammer, the screws and 
tacks, the chisels, the rule, the spirit level, and 
the measuring' tape. 

The larger tools, the axe, saw, and augers, 
which are more frequently used, should have 
places to hang or stand, so that they may be 
found in the dark if necessary. Neatness and 
system in the care of tools and other articles, 
are learned only in youth. They areinvalua 
ble habits, and often lead to success in life. — 
Upon one side of the room should be a work 
bench, on which boards ten or twelve feet lo"g 
may be planed. It should be furnished with a 
vice or wooden screw in which all small articles 
may be held fast for the purpose of using the 
plane or the shaving knife. 

With such a room fitted up and furnished 
with fifteen or twenty dollars worth of tools, 
the boys will never be at a loss for amusement 
and the men will never lack employment on 
rainy days. It would pay for itself every year 
aside from itsinfluence in training the boys to 
skilful Jabor and industrious habits. If the 
tooth or bow of a rake is broken John can eas- 
ily mend it. If the hoe handle breaks, he has 
a piece of ash, well seasoned, that will make 
another. If the cart ladder gives out, he knows 
how to put in a new slat. There will be hun- 
dreds of items of expense saved every year bv 
a work shop. With this adjunct of the farm, 
rainy days will be greater blessings to the far- 
mer's sons than to his acres. — New York 
Times. 



The almost unprecedented hard times, and 
the fact that old hoary winter is upon us in his 
usually severe manner, it is the privilege of a 1 
who are blessed with an ahund ince to relieve 
necessities of the poor and needy. 



Ipkrtkmettk 



FALL TRADE, 1857. 

JOHN N. GORDON, GROCER AND COMMIS- 
SION MERCHANT, AND DEALER IN ME- 
TALS, 14th Street, near the Exchange Hotel, Rich- 
mond, Va., offersfor sale — 
Orleans and Coffee Sugars, various grades, 
Loaf, Crushed, Granulated and Powdered Sugars. 
Laguira, Rio and Old Government Java Coffee. 
Orleans and West India Molasses. 
Pure Cider Vinegar. 

Sperm, Adamantine and Tallow Candles. 
Soaps, Fancy and Brown 
Sole Leather, good and damaged. 
All sizes Flat, Round, Square Swedes, 1 
American Hammered, inmw 

English Refined, [ 1Bua ' 

English and American rolled, J 

English and American blistered Steel. 
German, Cast and Shear Steel. 
Broad Plough Iron, 6 to 12 inch. 
American, English and Russia Sheet Iron. 
Oval, half Oval and half round Iron. 
Nail Rods, American and Swedes. 
Band, Scroll and Hoop Iron. 
Horse Shoes, assorted. 
Horse and Mule Shoe Iron. 
Tin Plate, Pig and Bar Tin. 
Sheet Zinc, Spelter, and Spelter Solder. 
Sheathing, Brazier's and Bolt. Copper. 
McCormick's and Palmer Mould Boards. 

J5?F" Particular attention given to the sale of 
Wheat, Flour and Country Produce generally. 



4,000 Acres of Land for Sale- 

THIS Land lies in Chesterfield District, S.C., im- 
mediately on the Pee Dee riv«r, and the Cheraw 
and Darlington Railroad, and by the latter part of the 
present year, will be within a few hours ride oi the ci- 
ty of Charleston. There are about 1,300 acres of the 
land cleared, which 

PRODUCE FINELY 
without manure of any kind. The balance is dense- 
ly covered with a heavy growth of White Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Dogwood. Hickory, Cotton. Walnut, Poplar, 
<fec., with a 

CANE BRAKE 
extending near over the entire Tract. About 20} 
acres of the Tract lie in the Sand Hills, which for 
Health and Fine Snrings of water, is 

PROBABLY UNSURPASSED 
by any of this State. The Tract will be uivided to 
su urchasers. For patibalars address 

E. B C GAS'S, 

Cheraw, S. C. 
June 1857. 



" Learn of the Mole to plough." — Pope 

WJ CHE'S CULTIVATING PLOW, (PATENT- 
ED Sth of January, 1856)— called the Mole 5 
Plow; with vertical cutters near the edge ofa horizon- 
tal share, for dividing the furrow slice, and a curved 
cutter on the rear of the share for turning the whole 
in towards the plow, or as far on the opposite side of 
the share as may be desired Adapted to siding, list- 
ing, breaking turfy or hard land, subsoiling, and 
many ot&er purposes. Islight, cheap, and .strong; 
andsuppose.d to be the most perfect pulverizer in use. 
For lic-nsf j to sell, with directions for manufactur- 
ing, address. W. E. WYCHE, 

rirookville, Granville Co., N. C. 
June 16, 18*6. 5— tt. 



ns 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



NORTH CA OLINAliSTI UTION 

FOR THE PEAF AND DUMB AND T.iK BLEST, 

RALEIGH, N. C— SESSION OF 1857-'5S. 

Board of Diretor*. 
WILLIAM H. McKEE, M. D., President. 



?. II. Young, 
.1 vi . C. Pai,j:e2, 
W. W. Vass, 



A. M. Lewis, 
Q. Busbee. 
D. G. Fowle. 



Offiiix of th Institution'. 

WM. D. COOKE, A M , Principal. 

JAMES A. WADDElL, M. D., Vice-Principal. 

Ted-Mrs in the J>. <$> JD. Department. 
Ceo. E. Keix-ham, Cbas. M. Grow, 



Teucherdiii ilte Blind, Department. 

J. A. Waddell, M D. 'Jus. S &. Waddell, 

Miss M. ■ Cooke. 



M s. E. Littlf, HnuseFr. 



Mrs. L.E. Grow, patron. 

S LlTTLK, 

The i ext s< ssion of this hi.t tutiun will commence 
on i'u: tirst M nday of September. Any intelligent 
and healthy whi e resident of the Stale, between the 
age.-- I - an > whether Deaf and Dumb or Bluad, 
inav, : (!i • in; ians nf education are wanting, be ad 
milt d so he school fie 
others may i, ■ >■■ I 
piL as are eatable of d 



only listritc e 
mo ' e luc.oio . 
may best li) th 
ing needle- 1 ' 
c af arts will 
tin i .li wh eh 
paid to theii r 
me a . and eve 
der them comfort ibL 
welfire. Pup ! slip 
September. For ra 
Institution, addri 
WILLI 



bu 



'.iTo 



charge. The terms for 
e Principal Such pu- 
le ■ ie 1 improvement, ai'e not 
or 1 n r\ branches of a corn- 
et p >u h accomplishments as 
snete sin life .Music, draw- 

I w ik, and suitable handi- 
rj sidei able part of the cours.f 
us. Careful attention will be 

oioral, and physical unprove- 
w Hbe made, not only to ren 
but to promote their highest 
1 by all means enter early in 

inform Uio n in tegard to the 



PREMIUM THRESHING MACHINES. 

The North Carolina State Fair, he'd at Raleigh 
awarded, the First Premium for our celebrated 
Threshing Machine. » 

THIS Machine has been fully tested in this Sfat e 
and Virginia, and approved by all who have used it 
on account of its simplicity of construction, utdity, and 
durability. We have no hesitation in saying they are 
the best Threshers now in use. They are economical 
incest, simple in construction, and less liable to get 
out of working order. We also make a Hub Purse 
Power, which is adapted to either four or six horses. 
This Power is all that a planter can desire to do the 
power-work on a plantation: it is very simple in its 
construction, celebrated for its strength, and not 
easily got out of repair; and, from the same quantity 
of power, can do more work than any other now in 
use. 

It is unnecessary for us to particularize further as 
to the advantages of our Thresher and Power, but 
respectfully solicit the attention of all, to pall and ex- 
amine for themselves at our manufactory, where they 
can be seen in full operation ; and any recommenda- 
tion that may be wanted will be given, from planters, 
and others of this city, who have used them for the 
last four years. 

All orders promptly attended to. 

Repairing done, at short notice, on application, at 
our manufactory, on Washington St., opposite Jar- 
ratt's Hotel, Petersburg, Va. 

'J. W. DAVIDSON & BRO. 

Ap., S.'o— Sin 



ISN'T IT SO ! 



ivl > '0 >K 



Pruicip il, 
ifeijjh, '> I 



DRTH I AR0L1NA 
MQTTPJ, INSURANT COMPANY 

AT THE ANNUAL' MEETING OF i TIE N.,nt, 
. Crolina Ajitu ..i Insurance Company, held on 
the i)th iust, the ibl,lowing N persons were' elected Di 
reco is and < lice fin the ensuing year : 

OFFK i.RSOF THE COMPANY'. 





r. ii. s i i 




i, 












H. D. Turner 


, Vice 


Pr 


■ da 










H. S. Sm t ii 




Ml 


Tr I 










John FL vi 


i, .1 


i 


HJ- 








T. H. 


Selby,ea; ffii 


!-- 












Job 


R. Vv 


r,w 


■re Committee. 






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i 












Th 


sComp 


- ! een 


n 


sue'ees 


Sful ope 


a! 


onfoi 


more 


than i ye 1 1 s, 


id 


ml 


n,e- t 


o take n 


*ks 


upon 


all el 


isses of ] pi 


•i • u 


tl 


o Sta 


e, , c.\c-e| 


IS. i 


Mills 


and T r i n 


n D 


sti 


leries 


i upon 


V 


.rable 


terms. Its . ol 


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IV 


r pro 


per y a 


0' 


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to 


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l-or 





I wh 


ch is 


C 


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risks 


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ea' 


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dred 


Fbto i a m F> i : 


rs, l 


bo 


id. pr 


perl se 


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ed 


T 


3 1 1 e ag s 


ol.S 


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m.th • pla 




fth 


Company ha ' 


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third of 


on 


pe 


cent. 


er aunu , n 


ail gi 


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S oi p 


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in its 


opi rations. 














.'■ 


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to th. 


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ii S 


SMITH 







USE ARTHUR'S Celebrated 
Self-Sealing Cans and Jars, and 
yon will haye fresh fruit all the 
FRUIT year at Summer prices. 

Full directions for putting up all 
kinds of Fruit and Tomatoes, ac- 
company these cans and jars 

They are made of Tin, Glass, 
Queens' Ware, and Fire and Acid 
proof Stone Ware. The sizes ari- 
from pints to gallons. These cans 
and jars are entirely open at the 
tops, and nest, to secure economy 
in transportation. 

For sale by Storekeepers 
throughout the United States. 

Descriptive circulars sent on ap- 
plication. \rt?" Orders from the 
trade solicited. 

Be sure to ask for "Arthur's.' 
It has stood the test of two seasons, 
having been used by hundreds of 
thousands of families, hotel and 
boarding-house keepers 

We are now making them for 
the million 

ARTHUR, BURNAM, & 
GILROY, 
Manufacturers under the Patent, 
N. E. cor. Tenth and George Sts., 
PHILADELPHIA. 

A CHANCE FOE THE ILLION. 

THE subscribers are desirous of securing an Agent, 
either •mate: or female., in every town and county 
of the Union, to encage in a light and pleasant busi- 
ness, by which they can make, with ordinary energy, 
from $5 to §10 per day. Every information will be 
oiven by addressing with stamp, to pay return letter 
S. A. DEWEY & CO., 
Ap., 18,37— Sw Box 151, Philadelphia, Pa. 



FRESH 



IN WINTER 



BETTER 



THAN 



SW ETMEATS 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



187 



H. D. TURNER, 
GENERAL BOOK AGEIT, 

JSTo. 1 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, K C, 

PUBLISHER OF THE 

SUPREME COURT REPORTS OF NO. CA., 

Mas for sale, in quantities orb'y retail, an 
extensive assortment of Books and 
Stationary, Comprising QreeTc, 
Latin, French, Spanish and 
English Boohs; School 
Boohs ; Bl a n h 
Boohs ; Juve- 
nile and 

Toy 
B oo h s ; 
Miscellaneous 
Worhs; with all the 
New Publications as 
they issue from the Press: al- 
so a large assortment of Station- 
ary and Fancy Articles. 

SCHOOL BOOKS.-AU the different kinds o. 
Primers, Spelling Books, Reading Books, Gram- 
mars, Arithmetics, Geographies, Atlases, Histories, 
Dictionaries, &c; also Works on Asironomy, Alge- 
bra, Chemistry, Philosophy, Mathematics, Surveying, 
Geometry, Botany, Book-keeping, Rhetoric, Mensu- 
ration, Trigonometry, Geolosy, Mineralogy, Cook- 
ery, Farming, Gardening, Medicine, Theology, Pen- 
manship, Architecture, &c, &c. He has always on 
hand the Standard English Law Reporter and Digests, 
and every Tieatise on Particular subjects; togarher 
with the various State Reports and Digests, and a 
general assortment of Law Books of every descrip- 
tion. 

BLANK BOOKS— Ledgers, Journals, Day Books, 
Invoice, Cash, and Letter Books, Receiot and Bill 
Books, Memorandum, Bank and Pass Books, Cipher- 
ing and Writing Books. 

RELIGIOUS BOOKS.-Family, Pocket, and 
School Bibles, Testaments, Hymn Books, Prayer 
Books, and various religious works, by approved au- 
thors. 

SACRED MUSIC BOOKS.-Piano Music, Music 
Paper, and Musical Instruments. 

STATIONERY AND FANCY ARTICLES.— 
Consisting of Foolscap and Letter Paper, Note, Folio 
Post and Drawing Paper. Morocco, Tissue, Pith, 
Tracing and Marble Paper; Knives, Steel Pens, 
Quill's, Wafers, Sealingwax, Pocket Bonks, Albums ; 
Ink Powder, India, Indelible, Japan, Black, Blue, and 
Red Inks ; Prints, Gold and Silver ever-|»>inted Pen- 
cils, Seals, Wafer Stamps, Sand and Sand Boxes ; 
Scrap-Books, Visitiag Cards, Card Cases, Gold and 
Silver Paper, Inkstands, 31a. e and Slate Pencils, Lead 
Pencils, Bristol and Ivo y Boards, Chess Men, Maps, 
Battledores, Rules, India Rubber, Carmine Sauc-re, 
Newman's, Reevis's. and American Water Col- 
ors, &c. 

N. B.— BOOKBINDING done, in all its various 
forms, with neatness and dispatch. 



^GARDEN-SEEDS.— To be had at the North 
Carolina Bookstore. Garden-Seeds, warranted fresh 
and good, crop of 185"), selected from the m st ap- 
proved Seedsmen and Gardeners in the Northern 
Country. 

February, 1857. tf 



N 



TWENTY-FIVE WITNESSES ; 

OK, THE 

Ecrge Convicted- 

JOHN" S. DYE IS THE AUTHOR, 

Who has had 10 years experience as a Banker 
and Publisher, and Author of .1 series of LeckireB 
at the Broadway Tuber nude when, for 18 succes- 
siee nights, over 

"EST 50,i..OO PEOPLE «feq 
greeted him with Rounds of Applause while he 
exhibited the manner in which Counterfeiters ex- 
ecute i heir Frauds, and the Surest and Shortest 
Means of Detecting them ! The Brink Nt t En- 
gravers all my that lie is tJ/e greatest Jirctife of /'a-, 
'per Money living 

GREATEST DISCOVERY oi The Present 
Century for 

Delecting Counterfeit Bank Kotes. 

Describing every Genuine Bill in exisience, and 
exhibiting at a large glance every Counterfeit in 
Circulation. Arranged so admirably, that Ref- ■ 
erenee is easy and Detection Instantaneous. 

JKT No „ndex to exutnine ! Fo pages to hunt 
up! But so simplified and arranged, thftt the 
Merchant, Baker and Business Man can see all 
at a Glance. 

ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN 
Thus each may read the same in his own Na- 
tive Tongue. 

MOST PERFECT BANK NOTE LIST 
PUBLISHED, also a Lis; ttf Alt tbe*PH}aU 
Bankers in America. A complete summary of 
the Finance of Europe and America will be pub- 
lished in eadh edition, togeshei with all thejnipot 
tant News of the Day. Also 

A SERIES OP TALES 
from an old Manuscript found in the East. It fur 
nishes the most complete History of 

ORIENTAL LIFE 
describing the most perplexing positions in which' 
the Ladies and Gentlemen or that Country have, 
been sj otten iound. These. Stories will continue 



throughout the whole y>-ar, 

most entertaining everoflere, 

{CT" Furnished weekly to 

£ 1 a year. All letter? must 1 

JOHN S. DY 

Publish"! 

70 Wall I 



ana will 
1 I. the P 



prove the 
iblic 
s only, at 

•d to 



and fropn 
treet, New 



?tor, 
Yor 



FABMR'^S MILL 

RALEIGH, N C 

The subscriber is general agent for the sale of Ag- 
ricultural Implements and Farming utensils, I iel'd 
seeds, Fertilizers, &c. &e. Almost ail the ar icles 
brought to the late Fair are kept on sale am afa 
offered at manufacturers price;- with Bo cos of tra ris- 
portatio'n, as they were brought Free by the Railo ad. 

There is also a new lire proof; Ware House on 'he 
lot, in which all articles on consignment are st. red. 
The following arc some of the articles brought o the 
late Fair: Horse, Powers, Who t Fans, Corp. Drills, 
Field Rollers Crn arid Cob Crushers. Harrows, Cul- 
tivators, and Plows of everv size rind description. 
J * ).iES M. TO WLKS._ 

Bdo\ Bi id 
JOHN H. DH'ARTKRET & SON 

RARUIGH. N C. 

ARE still cabyW or) the BOOK BINDING busi- 
ness in all its brmehes at the old stand o'er 
"Turner's N. C. Bookstore " 



188 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



Wyche's Cultivating Plow. 

PATENTED 26TH FEBRUARY, 1856. (THE 
Bladed Plow,) awarded $20 premium at the last 
N. C. State Fair 5 with cutting blades in the place of 
a moldboard ; cuts, divides and turns over the soil; 
depositing the finer parts in the furrow, and turning 
over the turf, clods, &c, on the surface. Is cheap, 
light, and lasting, and e;isj r to both driver and team. 
Admirably adapted to almost any purpose for which 
the plow is used. 
For license to sell, with further information, address 
W.E. WYCHE. 
Brookville, Granville Co. N. C. 
June 1(5, 1856. 5— tf. 

J. H. G-ooch, Oxford, N. C, solicits orders for the 
above plows. 

DOCTOR HOOFIAND'S 

CELEBRATED 

GERMAN BUTE S. 

PREPARED BY 

Dr. C. M. JACKSON, Philad'a, Pa. 

WILL EFFECTUALLY CURE 

LIVER COMP'T, DYSPEPSIA, JAUNDICE, 

Chronic or Nervous Debility, Disease of the 
Sidneys, and all diseases arising from a Disordered 
Liver or Stomach. 
Such 
as Constipa- 
tion, Inward Piles, 
Fulness or Blood to the 
Head, Acidity of the stomach, 
Nausea, Heartburn, Disgust for food, 
Fullness or Weight in the Stomach, Sour Eruc- 
tations, Sinking or Fluttering at the pit ot the sto- 
mach, Swimming of the Head, Hurried and diffi- 
cult Breathing, Fl itteringatthe Heart, Choaking 
or suffocating sensations when in a lying pos- 
ture. Dimness of vision, Dots or webs before 
the sight, Fever and Dull Pain in the 
Head, Deficiency of Perspiration, 
Velio wness ot the skin and eyes, 
Pain in the Side, Back, Chest, 
• Limbs, &c , Sudden flush- 
es oi Heat, Burning in 
the Flesh, Constant 
imaginings of evil,- 
and great de- 
pression of 
Spirits, 
The proprietor in calling the attention of the pub- 
lic to this preparation, does so with a feeling of the 
utmost confidence in its virtues and adaptation to the 
diseases for which it is recommended. 

It is no new untried article but one that has stood 
the test of a ten years' trial before the American peo- 
ple, and its reputation and sale is unrivaled by any si- 
milar preparations extant. The testimony in its fa- 
vor given by the most prominent and well known 
Physicians and individuals in all parts of the coun- 
try is immense, and a careful perusal of the Almanac 
published annually by the proprietor, and to be had 
gratis ot any of his agents, cannot but satisfy the most 
skeptical that this remedy is really deserving the great 
celebrity it has obtained. 

Principal Office and Manufactory No. 96 Arch St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

TESTIMONY FROM N. CAROLINA. 

ASTONISHING EFFECTS FROM THE GER- 
MAN BITTERs. 
Certificate of Dr. W. SMITH, of Pine Bill, Rich- 
mond Co., N. C, March 4, 1854. 

Dr. C. M. Jackson, Philadelphia.— Dear Sir,— I 
havt been a subject of Dyspepsia in its worst form, 



for the last five years. Such was my condition for 12 
months that the physicians and all who saw me said 
I must die. While in this condition, I was carried to 
the watering places in Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, but was not benefitted by any water to 
which I was taken. While on my way home, I stop- 
ped a week at Rutherlordton, a small village in N. 
Carolina to try the effect of some Chalybeate water 
in that place. About the last of the week, I went in- 
to a drug store to get some medicine for my child and 
myself. There were several of the village physici- 
ans in the store, and one of thern seemed to take some 
interes: in my case, and after asking me some ques- 
tions, said he had been a dyspeptic, and had been 
greatly benefitted by the use of " Dr. Hoofiand's Ger- 
man Bitters," prepared by you, and he insisted that 1 
should try the Bitters He also called the next day 
atmy room, and insisted so much that I would try 
them, that I asked him lo get me one bottle. He did 
it, and 1 commenced taking it as directed, and I do 
say I was moie benefitted by it than all the water and 
medicine I had ever taken. 

After reaching home, one of my neighbors came t© 
me for a prescription and medicine, (he a dyspeptic,) 
and I gave him nearly all the Bitters 1 had left; which 
effected much good in his case. He has often called 
on me for more of the same kind of medicine, saying 
he was more benefitted by it than any other he had 
taker , but I have not been able to get any more for 
him or myself since ; will you, therefore, please ship 
me a dozen or more as soon as possible. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. SMITH, M. D. 

GREAT CURE OF PILES. 

Certificate of W.J. ATWOOD, Huntsville, Yadkin 
Co.,N. C., Nov. 1,1853. 

Dr. C. M. Jacks* n— Dear Sir, — Allow me to ex- 
press to you my sincere thanks for your discovery oi 
a medicine, which, to say the least of it, has effected 
a cure that all other medicines that I have taken have 
entirely failed to do "Hoofiand's German Bitters," 
have cured me of the most stubborn and aggravated 
case of the Piles that, perhaps, ever fell to the lot ot 
man. My case is not a stranger to this community, 
as I am well known in this and the surrounding coun- 
ties, and can truly say that my recovery has astonish- 
ed all myfrinds and relations, as I had tried every- 
thing recommended, and nothing did me any good 
until I was prevailed upon to try the bitters. You are 
at liberty to make any use of this communication, for 
the benefit ofthe afflicted, as you may think proper. 
Truly yours, 

W m. T. ATWOOD. 

These Bitters are entirely vegetable, possessing 
great advantage ovpr every mineral preparation, as- - 
they never prostrate, but always strengthen the sys- 
tem. 

Price 75c. per bottte. Sold by Druggists and Store- 
keepers in every town and village in the United 
States and Canadas, and by 

WILLIAMS & HAYWOOD, 

November 1856. Raleigh . 

WARRENTON FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

WARRENTON, N. C. 

THE 30th session of this school will commence or., 
the 3d of January next, prepared to give thorough 
instructructiun in all the branches o 1 female educa- 
tion. Pupils received at any time. All charges from 
time oi entrance. 

Terms per Session : 
Board, washing, lights and fuel in rooms, £60 0© 
English tuition, 12 5G 

Music on Piano, Guitar, Melodeon, with use 

of instrument, each . 23 00 

Oil Painting, 15 00 

Persons wishing further information, will pleas* 
apply to GRAVES, WILCOX & CO. 

December, 1855. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



189 



GRENOBLE HOSE. 

THIS superior hose, manufactured trom the fines) 
of HEMP, is adapted and especially recom- 
mended for the use of Fire Engines, Mills, Manufac- 
tories, Ships, Steamboats, Railroads, Hotels, Garden 
uses, &c. Its advantages over other Hose are its 
extreme lightness and cheapness. It will stand as 
much pressure as Leather Hose, and has proved to be 
as durable ; and all the care it needs alter use is to 
thoroughly dry it in the open air. 

For sale, and orders received in sizes from 1 to 7 
iaches in diameter, in lengths from 100 to 200 feet, 
by CHARLES LENZMANN, 

54 Cedar st., New York. 
Sole Agent for the United States. 

Certificates of its superior qualities from the Wash- 
ington and Brooklyn U. S. Navy Yards; from Ai- 
red Carson, Esq., Chief Engineer of the New York 
Fire Department ; James Smith, Esq , New York, 
and L. Button, Esq., Waterford, Fire Engine Build- 
ters, and from some of the most prominent mills and 
manufactories at Lowell, &c, can be examined at the 
office of the advertiser. feb 18— 6m 

LYON'S KATHAIRON 

Has now become the standard preparation 
for the HAIR. Its immense sale, nearly 
1^1,000,000 
BOTTLES 

Per year, attests its excellence and great 
superiority over all other articles of the kind. 
fhe ladies universally pronounce the 
KATHAIRON 
To be, by far, the finest and most agreeable 
irticle they ever used. It restores the Hair 
ifter it has fallen out ; invigorates and beau- 
^cfies it, giving to it a rich glossy appearance, 
i.ad imparts a delightful perfume, Sold by all 
lealers throughout the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba and South America, for 

25 Cents per Bottle. 
HEATH, WYNKOOP&CO., Proprietors, 

63 liberty street, new vork. 
Manufacturers, also, of Perfumery of all kinds, 
and in great variety. 6m. 



(SANDS' SARSAPARL A 

IN QUART BOTTLES, 
FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD, 

AND FOR THE CURE OF 

Scrofula, Rheumatism, Stubborn Ulcers, Dys 
pepsia, Salt Rheum, Fever Sores, Ery- 
sipelas, Pimples, Broils, Mercurial 
Diseases, Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Liver Complaint, Bronchitis, 
Consumption, Female 
Complaints, 
Loss of Appetite, General Debility, (Sec 

rO RELIEVE SUFFERING has been the object 
of the humane and philanthropb ico fill ages. — 
5efore the practice of medicine became a science, the 
isk were publicly exposed in the open air, and every 
asser-by named the remedy he considered moat suit- 
ble for the complaint. Wc possess at the present, 
ay, through the agency of the press, a more reliable 
lode of conveying information to our suffering fel- 
>w creatures. Those afflicted with Scrofula, Cuta- 
eous or Eruptive Diseases, will find in the columns 
t almost every newspaper and periodical published 
■ -tificates and testimonials from those who have 



been speedily cured of these dreadful complaints by 
the purifying and powerfully regenerative qualities 
of Sands' Sarsaparilla. 

A S TOmSHlNG CUR E. 

Paterson, N. Y. 
Messrs. A. B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen : — Ha ving 
witnessed the most beneficial effects from the use of 
your SARSAPARILLA, it gives me pleasure to send 
you the following statement in regard to my son. In 
the Spring, he took a severe cold, and after eight 
weeks of severe suffering the disease settled in his 
left leg and foot, which swelled to the utmost. The 
swellingwas lauoed by his physician, and disharged 
most profusely. After that, no less than eleven Ul- 
cers formed on the leg and foot at one time. We had 
five difierent physicians, but none relieved him much; 
and the last winter found him so emaciated and low 
that he was unable to leave his bed, suffering the 
most excruciating pain. During this time the bon « 
had become >o much affected, that piece after piece 
came out, of which he has now more than twenty- 
five preserved in a bottle, varying trom one half to 
one and a half inches in length. We had given np 
all hopes of his recovery, but at this time we were 
induced to try your SARSAPARILLA, and with its 
use his health and appetite began immediately to im- 
prove, and so rapid was the change that less than a 
aozeu bottles effected a perfect cure. 

With gratitude, I remain truly yours, 
DARIUS BALLARD, 
We, the undersigced, neighbors of Mr. Ballard 
cheerfully subscribe to the facts of the above state- 
ment. 

H. & R. S. Hyatt, 
Geo. T. Dean, 
A. M. Trowerbiudoe, 
C. Eastwood. 
Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A.B. 
D. SANDS, Druggists and Chemists, 100 Fulton St, 
corner of William, New York. 
Sold also by Druggists generally. 
Price $1 per bottle ; six bottles" for $5. 1 ly 



A YER'S PILLS 

FOR ALL THiS PURPOSES OF A 

FAMILY PHYSIC- 

There has long existed a public demand for an ef- 
fective purgative Pill which could be relied on as sure 
and perfectly safe in its operation. This has been 
prepared to meet that demand, and an extensive triai 
of its virtues has conclusively shown with what suc- 
cess it accomplishes the purposes designed. It is easy 
to make a physical Pill, but not so easy to make the 
best of all PiUs — one which should'have none of the 
objections, but all the advantages of every other. This 
has been attempted here, and with what success we 
would respectfully submit to the public decision. It 
has been unfortunate for the patient hitherto that al- 
most every purgative medicine is acrimonious and ir- 
ritating to the bowels. This is not. Many of them 
produce so much griping pain and revulsion in the 
system as to more than counterbalance the good to 
he derived from them. These Pills produce no irrita- 
tion or pain, unless it arrises from previous existing ob- 
struction or derangement in the bowels. Being pure- 
ly vegetable, no harm can arise from their use in any 
quantity ; but it is better that any medicine shonld be 
taken judiciously. Minute directions for their use in 
the several diseases to which they are applicable are 
given on the box. Among the complaints which 
nave been speedily cured by them we may mention 
Liver Complaint, in its various forms of Jaundice, In- 
digestion, Langor and Loss of Appetite, Listlessness, 
Irritability, Billious Headache, Bilious Fever, Fever 
and Ague, Pain in the aide and Loins, for in truth al 



190 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



these are but the consequence of diseased action ol 
the liver. As an aperient, they afford prompt and 
sure relief in Costiveness, Piles. Colic, Dysentery, Hu- 
mors, Scrofula and Scurvey, Colds, with soreness of 
the body, Ulcers and impurity of the blood ; in short 
any ana every case where a purgative is required. 

They have also produced some singularly success- 
ful cures in Rheumatism, Gout, Dropsey, Gravel, Ery- 
sipelas, Palpitation of the Heart, Pains in the Back, 
Stomach and Side. They should be freely taken in 
the Spring; of the year, to purity the blood and prepare 
the system ior the change of seasons. An occasional 
dose stimulates the stomach into healthy action, and 
restores the appetite and vigor. They purify the blood 
and by their stimulant action on the circulatory sys- 
tem, renovate the strength of the body, and restore the 
wasted or diseased energies of the whole organist. 
Hence an occasioual dose is advantageous even though 
no serious derangement exists ;' but unnecessary dos- 
ing should never be carried too far, as every purgative 
medicine reduces the strength, when taken to excess. 
The thousand cases in which a physic is required can- 
not be enumerated here, but they suggest themselves 
to the reason of every body ; and it is confidently be- 
lie.ed this pill will answer a better purpose than any 
thing which has hitherto been available to mankind. 
When their virtues are once known the public will no 
longer doubt what teniedy to cmpioy when in need ol 
a cathartic medicine. 

Being sugar wrapped they are pleasant to take, and 
being purely vegetable, no harm cats arise from their 
use in any quantity. 

For minute directions, see the wrapper on the box. 

PREPARED BY 

DR. JAMES C. AYER, 

Practical and Analytical Chemist, Lowell, Mass.— 

Price 25 cts. per box. Five boxes for SI. 



AYEB'S 

CHERRY PECTORAL- 

FuR THE RAPID CURE OF 

COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESS, 

BRONCHITIS, WHOOPING-COUGH, CROUP, 

ASTH M A A N D GO 3* S U M P T I N. 

This remedy has won for itsell such notoriety for its 
cures of every variety of Pulmonary disease, that it 
is entirely unnecessary to recount the evidences of its 
virtues in any community where it has been employed 
So wide is the field*of its usefulness, and so numerous 
the eases of its cures, that almost every section of the 
country abounds in persons publicly known, who 
have been restored from alarming and even desperate 
diseases of the lungs by its use. When once tried its 
supe iority over every other medicine of its kind is too 
apparent to pscape observation, and where its virtues 
are known, the public.no longer hesitate what antidote 
to employ for the distressing and dangerous affections 
of the pulmonary organs which are incident to our 
climate. And not only in formidable attacks upon 
the lungs, but for the milder varieties of Colds, Coughs 
Hoarseness &c, and for children it is the pleasantest 
and safest medicine that can be obtained. 

As it has long been in constant use throughout this 
section, we need not do more than assure the people 
i ts quality is kept up to the best that it ever has been 
and that the genuine article is sold by — 

P. F. Pescud and Williams & Haywood, Raleigh, 
N. C, June, 1857. 4— y. 



GREEK SAND MARL OF NEW-JERSEY, 

rpHE NEW-JERSEY FERTILIZER COMPANY 
JL is now prepared to receive orders for this impor- 
tant Manure. For all lands upon which ashes are 
beneficial, the Marl is more than a substitute. Pro- 
fessor Cook, in his Annual Report to the Legislature 
ol New Jersey, says : 

" The value of these Marls is best seen in the rich 
and highly cultivated district which has been im- 
proved (almost made) by their use. But it may be 
interesting to examine the causes of their great value 
in agriculture, and to compare them with other fertil- 
izers. For example: The potash alone may be taken, 
at an average as live per cent of the whole weight of 
the Marl ; a bushel, when dry, weighs eighty pounds; 
and in the proportion mentioned, would contain four 
pounds of potash. This is nearly as much as there 
is in a bushel of unleaclied wood ashes" 

And again : " It is probable that the great value of 
the Marl is to be found in the fact that it contains near- 
ly all the substances necessary to make up the ash 
of our common cultivated plants.'' 

I' rice, delivered on board vessels at the wharves < if 
the Company at Portland Heights, Raritain Bay, New- 
Jersey, /Seven Cents per Bushel. 

For further particulars, see Circular, sei&t free of 
postage. Orders for other fertilizers will receive 
prompt attention Address either of the undersigned. 
CHAS. SEARS, Pres. 
Riceville Post-Office, N. J. 
GeoW. Atwood, Sec, 
16 Cedar st., N.Y. 

TAprAY Townsend Treas., 
82 Nassau st., N.Y. 9— }y. 

N. B. — Those wishing Marl (or Spring use should 
i order it immediately, to secure its early shipment. 
j Orders will be filled in rotation. 

NORTH CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE 1NSUE- 
ance Company, Raleigh, N. C. This Coinpar.y 
; insures the lives of individuals for one year, aterm < f 
| years, or for life, on the mutual principli, the ;..s- 
i suredfor life participating in all the profits of tie 
j Company. For policies granted for the whole term 
I of life, when the premium therefor amounts to $30, 
I a note may be given for oDe half the amount of the 
i premium bearing interest at 6 per cent, without guar- 
1 anty. 

The prompt manner in which all losses have been 
paid by this Company, together with low rates < f 
premium, present great inducements to sucb as are 
disposed to insure. 

Slaves are insured for a term of from one to fixe 
years, for two-thirds their value. 

All losses are paid within 90 days after satisfactory 
proof is presented. 

DIRECTORS. 

Wll. W. HoLDEN, 



Chari.es E. Johnson, 
Wit. D Haywood, 
Jonh G.Williams, 
II W. Rusted, 
Wm. H. McKee, 
Charles B. Root, 



Wm. D. Cooke, 
R. H. Battle, 
Wm. H. Jones, 
P F. Pescud' 
Seaton Gales. 



OFFICERS. 

Dr. Charles E. Johnson, President, 

William D. Haywood, Vice President, 

Richard H. Battle, Secretary, 

William H. Jones, Treasurer, 

H. W. Hust'ed, Attorney. 
Charles E. Johnson, M. D. ) Medical 
William H. McKee, M. D. > Board of 
Rich'd. B. Haywood, M. D. ) Consultation. 

R. H. Battle, ) v ■ ,. „ 

W. W. Holden, \ -Ew«**HW Com- 

Charles B. Root, J mittee - 

Communications should be addressed, (post paid to) 
R. H. BATTLE, Secretary. 



THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



191 



PIANOS, MELODEONS, AND MUSIC. 




PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 



HORACE ¥ATERS ; 

No. 333 Broadway, New Yohk. 

AGENT FOR THE SALE OF THE BEST BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

BEONS. 



PIANOS AND MELO- 



THE LARGEST ASSORTMENT OF MUSIC MERCHANDISE IN THE UNITED STATES. 
Pianos from five different Manufacturers, of every variety of styh — from those in plain rosewood 
cases, ibr $200,^0 those of the most elegant finish, lor $1000. No House m the Union can come in com- 
petition for the number, varieiy, and celebrity of its instruments, nor the &< ti-emi ly low prices at which they 
are snld. 

HORACE WATERS' MODERN IMPROVE'.) PIANOS. 
with or without iron frames, have, in their new scale and improved action, a power and compass of tone 
equalHing the grand, 1 with the beauty and durability of the square piano. The Press and first music mat- 
ters have justly pronounced them equal itnot superior t 6 a:ij other make- Tiey are guaranteed to stand 
the action "f evert/ climate. 

HORACE WATERS' MELODEONS (tuned the equal temperament,) superior in each desirable qua! 
itv— s<>!e agent for the sale of S. O. & H. W. Smith's c*elebrated Melodeons — can also furnish Melodeons o" 
ail other makers. Pnces from $45 to $125 ; for twosets of.reedsj$lod ; two banks of keys, $?00 ; Or^an 
pedal bass me)edeons,275 and $300. 

MUSIC— One ot the largest r.nd best catalogues bf Music new published ; sold at greatly reduced prices. 
Music sent to wherever ordered, post paid. Personal attention paid to- all orders received by Mail. Se- 
condhand Pianos taken in exchange 'or new. Catalogues st nt by mail. Great inducements" offered to 
agent -.tn seli the above. A liberal discount to deiiers, teachers, seminaries and clergymen. 

Each Instrument guaranteed to srive satisfaction, or purchase monev refunded. SECOND HAND PI- 
AXOS AT GREAT BARGAINS constantly in store ; prices from 30 to $140. 



TESTIMONIALS FRQTff PROFESSORS, AND OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 



Says 'The Christian Intellige .cer" "'The Horace 
Waters Pianos, for elegance of construction, superior 
depth am! sweetness of tune, were pronounced by 
competent judges at the crystal Palace to be in all 
respects masterpieces of Mechanical skill. Having 
inspected a large number of the Horace Waters' Pi- 
anos, we can speak of their merits, from personal 
knowledge as being of the very best quality." 

Nothing at the State Fair displayed greater excel- 
lence in any department than the Piano- Forte manu- 
factured by Horace Waters, of this city. — Ci<Mrck- 
man. 

The following is taken from the "Christian Inqui- 
rer" : "The finest among the many pianos at the 
Crystal Palace are those placed there by Horace Wa- 
ters, whose instruments are always popular." 

The following we take from the "Christian Advo- 
cate" MemphisT'enii. : "The Horace Waters" Pianos 
are built of the best and most thoroughly seasoned ma- 
terial. From all we can learn of this establishment- 
said to be the largest in the United States— we have 
no doubt that buyers can do as well, perhaps better, 
at this time than any other house in the Union." 

"Mr. Waters has been long established and is favo- 
rably known. We speak from experience, when we 
assure our readers that his prices are below those 
usually charged for articles in his line."— Jacksonian 
N. J. 

"Your instruments arc a sensible improvement upon 
American Pianos, and on honor to the skillful manu- 
facturer. There is no doubt but they will be appre- 
ciated by the public and all admirers of true merit. — 
Oicar Conveltant. 



I "I take L^reat pleasure in pronouncing them ins'.ru- 
| rnents ol a superior quality both in tone and touch. 
A \gtiM (locMe.'l 

For power of tone depth of bass, and brilliancy of 

j treble, together with accuracy of touch, they are equal 

to any make lam acquainted with, and Icordially re- 

I commend them to those wishing to purchase. — V. C. 

[ Taylor. 

"Our friends will find at Mr. Waters' store the ve$y 
best assortment of music and of pianos to be found in 
i the United States, and we urge our southern and 
i western friends to give. him a call whenever they go 
i to New York." — Grah&mts Magazine. 

"We consider them worthy of special attention, 
from the resonant and exceedingly musical tone which 
i Mr. Waters has succeeded in attaining." — N. Y.Mu- 
\sieal Worll uirl Times. 

There is one which, for beauty of fmish and rich- 
ness and brilliancy of to:v, equals, if it does not ex- 
cel, anything of the'kmd we have ever seen. It is 
from the establishment of Horace Waters. Being 
constructed of the best and most thoroughly seasoned 
material, and upon improved principles, it is capable 
of resisting the actionof the climate, and of standing 
a long time in tune. — Savannah Georgian, Savannah' 
Ga. 

Says the "Evening Mirror," "They (the H ra^e 
Waters' Pianos) are very superior instruments and 
the maker may confidently challenge comparison 
with any other "manufacturer in the country, as re- 
girds their outward elegance, and quality of tone and 
power: 






192 THE CAROLINA CULTIVATOR. 



COOKE'S HEW MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

NOW READY FOR DELIVERY. 



EifcgzKgsCTggig.rEsr-rjKj* ■*■ jy.ajCTsrauwCTmgFgnsia^ ' iw m "wnM l 



rpHlS Large and Beautiful MAP of North Carolina is now ready for delivery. It is one of the bes 
J- engraved maps that has ever been published of any State in the Union, and is sold at the low-price o 
Eight Dollars. 

No Maps will be sold except by subscription. Agents will be found in most of the counties of the State, o 
ersons desiring a copy of the Map can send their names directly to "Wm. D. Cooke, Raleigh, N. C." 

AGENTS WANTED. 

A number of counties in the State are yet unengaged. Persons wishing to canvass for the Map will be 
furnished with the terms, &c, upon application to the undersigned. 

Agents are also wanted for South Carolina and Virginia. The Map includes Virginia as far no rth a 
Richmond, and South Carolina as far south as the junction of the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 

TO EDITORS. 

Editors in this State, who, having advertised the Map for six months, are entitled to a copy will please 
tommunieato the fact to the undersign ed, that their copies may be forwarded by first opportunity. 

W. D. COOKE, 

Raleigh, JV. G. 



Report of Professors Emmons and Mitchell, to the North Carolina State Ag. Soc, on 

COOKE'S NEW MAP OE NORTH CAROLINA 

I have had frequent opportunities of testing the correctness of Mr Cooke's new Map of North Carolina, 
and parts of the adjoining States. This Map is worthy of special notice : 1st, from the fact that it embrace? 
those parts of Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee which are of immediate interest to the citizens of thi» 
State. 2d, that the eastern part of the State is compiled from data obtained through the determinations of 
the Coast Survey. 3d, it contains an entirely new feature in its profile extending along the line of the Rail- 
road survey from Goldsboro' to Asheville, which exhibits the -heights of mauy interesting points, as weli 
through the central and western parts of the State lyiug east' pt the mountains as amongst the Mountains 
tliemscl ves. 

In addition lothe foregoing it may he justly said that Mr. Cooke has taken unwearied pains to correct the 
geography of the different counties, and to insert the prevalent names of places, those for instance which 
have come into use since new lines of (ravel have been established. It is in fact a New Map, and the only map 
which can be relied upon for accuracy in its details. It moreover merits commendation for the ai tistical skill 
diisnlaved in its execution, its typography being beautiful and distinct. 

f J ■ EBENEZER EMMONS, State Geologist. 

In the encomium passed by Prof. Emmons, upon Mr. Cooke's new Map, I fully concur. The particular;* 
mentioned by him are of first rate importance and interest. Most of the maps of the State, heretofore pub- 
lished, have furnished few, if any; indications of the position of any point within our own limits, with regard 
to the States, north, south, or west of us. This evil has now a remedy. In noticing the map, the very ef- 
ficient and important aid, in its construction,, so fully afforded by Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendent of the 
United States Coast Survey, and by Col. Gwynn, having the management of the Survey of a railroad, car- 
ried over the Blue Ridge into the valley of the French Broad, should not be passed in silence Only the por- 
tion of the map representing the eastern part of the State has been submitted to my inspectiioD, but to this I 
presume, the rest will be made to correspond. E. MITCHELL. 

University of N. C, October 21, 1856. 



JOHN N. GORDON, .T*7 ANTED, by a young lady residing at th<- 

Grocer and Commission Merchant and Dealer Wl^^^^^^^^tk 

ID Metals, to teach the common and higher English branches, 

imStreet, nearfhe EzcMnge H.tel, M a&JJSajSi 
RICHMOND, VA. ciples. Address the Editor of the " Carolina Culti- 

May, 1858. 8.— U Uator." feb.|18— tf.